- Hepatocyte Growth Factor Facilitates Esophageal Mucosal Repair and Inhibits the Submucosal Fibrosis in a Rat Model of Esophageal Ulcer. [Journal Article]
- DDigestion 2018 Sep 18; :1-12
- CONCLUSIONS: HGF facilitates the repair of esophageal mucosal injury and may also ameliorate the esophageal fibrosis, possibly through enhanced re-epithelization.
- How to Define Acute Liver Failure Patients with Pre-Existing Liver Disease without Signs of Cirrhosis. [Journal Article]
- DDDig Dis 2018 Sep 18; :1-8
- CONCLUSIONS: AOCLF is still commonly misdiagnosed as ALF. While clinical outcome does not significantly differ between ALF and AOCLF, risk factors for adverse outcome may significantly differ between these entities.
- Inhalation treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with curcumin large porous microparticles. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Pharm 2018 Sep 15
- Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive interstitial lung disease with high mortality and poor prognosis. Curcumin shows anti-inflammatory effect by suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokine...
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive interstitial lung disease with high mortality and poor prognosis. Curcumin shows anti-inflammatory effect by suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibiting NF-κB mediated inflammation. Here, we developed inhalable curcumin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid (PLGA) large porous microparticles (LPMPs) for the treatment of IPF. Curcumin LPMPs were rough and loose particles with many pores on the surfaces and channels in the inner spaces. The mean geometric diameter of them was larger than 10 µm while the aerodynamic diameter was only 3.12 µm due to their porous structures. They showed a fine particle fraction (FPF) less than 4.46 μm of 13.41%, 71% cumulative release after 9 h, and more importantly, they avoided uptake by alveolar macrophages. Therefore, most of released curcumin had opportunities to enter lung tissues. Rat pulmonary fibrosis models were established via once intratracheal administration of bleomycin. Curcumin powders and curcumin LPMPs were administered on Days 2, 7, 14, and 21. Curcumin LPMPs remarkably attenuated lung injuries, decreased hydroxyproline contents, reduced the synthesis of collagen I, and inhibited the expressions of TNF-α, TGF-β1, NF-κB p65 and MMP9. Moreover, curcumin LPMPs showed higher antifibrotic activity than curcumin powders. Curcumin LPMPs are a promising inhalable medication for the treatment of IPF.
- TGFβ, smooth muscle cells and coronary artery disease: a review. [Review]
- CSCell Signal 2018 Sep 15
- Excessive vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, migration and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis are key events in the development of intimal hyperplasia, a pathophysiological response t...
Excessive vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, migration and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis are key events in the development of intimal hyperplasia, a pathophysiological response to acute or chronic sources of vascular damage that can lead to occlusive narrowing of the vessel lumen. Atherosclerosis, the primary cause of coronary artery disease, is characterised by chronic vascular inflammation and dyslipidemia, while revascularisation surgeries such as coronary stenting and bypass grafting represent acute forms of vascular injury. Gene knockouts of transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ), its receptors and downstream signalling proteins have demonstrated the importance of this pleiotropic cytokine during vasculogenesis and in the maintenance of vascular homeostasis. Dysregulated TGFβ signalling is a hallmark of many vascular diseases, and has been associated with the induction of pathological vascular cell phenotypes, fibrosis and ECM remodelling. Here we present an overview of TGFβ signalling in SMCs, highlighting the ways in which this multifaceted cytokine regulates SMC behaviour and phenotype in cardiovascular diseases driven by intimal hyperplasia.
- GPR30 Attenuates Myocardial Fibrosis in Diabetic Ovariectomized Female Rats: Role of iNOS Signaling. [Journal Article]
- DCDNA Cell Biol 2018 Sep 18
- Premenopausal women have a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease. Estrogen deficiency augments cardiac inflammation and oxidative stress and, thereby, aggravates myocardial fibrosis (MF) and diasto...
Premenopausal women have a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease. Estrogen deficiency augments cardiac inflammation and oxidative stress and, thereby, aggravates myocardial fibrosis (MF) and diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive female rats. However, estrogen replacement therapy has no effect on myocardial infarction and cardiac fibrosis in postmenopausal women. Further clinical studies showed that high blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes is an important cause of MF, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. To experimentally address this issue, diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by injecting streptozotocin and administering a high-fat diet in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. High degrees of fibrosis and apoptosis were detected in the cardiac tissue of these rats, together with increased expression of iNOS. Further treatment with the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30) agonist G1 decreased iNOS expression and the apoptosis rate in cardiac tissue significantly and inhibited cardiac fibroblast (CF) proliferation. Similar trends were observed in cultured CFs treated with high concentrations of fat and glucose. In addition, treatment with the iNOS-specific inhibitor W1400 attenuated iNOS and vimentin expression, which is associated with a marked reduction in MF. These results suggest that GPR30 activation inhibits MF in diabetic OVX female rats by suppressing cardiac iNOS activity and consequently NO levels. Thus, GPR30 activation may provide novel cardioprotection strategies for postmenopausal women, especially those with DM.
- Host phosphatidic acid phosphatase lipin1 is rate limiting for functional hepatitis C virus replicase complex formation. [Journal Article]
- PPPLoS Pathog 2018 Sep 18; 14(9):e1007284
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection constitutes a significant health burden worldwide, because it is a major etiologic agent of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV replic...
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection constitutes a significant health burden worldwide, because it is a major etiologic agent of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV replication cycle is closely tied to lipid metabolism and infection by this virus causes profound changes in host lipid homeostasis. We focused our attention on a phosphatidate phosphate (PAP) enzyme family (the lipin family), which mediate the conversion of phosphatidate to diacylglycerol in the cytoplasm, playing a key role in triglyceride biosynthesis and in phospholipid homeostasis. Lipins may also translocate to the nucleus to act as transcriptional regulators of genes involved in lipid metabolism. The best-characterized member of this family is lipin1, which cooperates with lipin2 to maintain glycerophospholipid homeostasis in the liver. Lipin1-deficient cell lines were generated by RNAi to study the role of this protein in different steps of HCV replication cycle. Using surrogate models that recapitulate different aspects of HCV infection, we concluded that lipin1 is rate limiting for the generation of functional replicase complexes, in a step downstream primary translation that leads to early HCV RNA replication. Infection studies in lipin1-deficient cells overexpressing wild type or phosphatase-defective lipin1 proteins suggest that lipin1 phosphatase activity is required to support HCV infection. Finally, ultrastructural and biochemical analyses in replication-independent models suggest that lipin1 may facilitate the generation of the membranous compartment that contains functional HCV replicase complexes.
- Prevalence of hepatic steatosis as assessed by controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) in subjects with metabolic risk factors in primary care. A population-based study. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(9):e0200656
- CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of subjects with metabolic risk factors seen in primary care have severe steatosis. FLI could be used as a surrogate of CAP. Increased LS was found in a significant proportion of subjects with risk factors but not in control subjects.
- Jagged1/Notch2 controls kidney fibrosis via Tfam-mediated metabolic reprogramming. [Journal Article]
- PBPLoS Biol 2018 Sep 18; 16(9):e2005233
- While Notch signaling has been proposed to play a key role in fibrosis, the direct molecular pathways targeted by Notch signaling and the precise ligand and receptor pair that are responsible for kid...
While Notch signaling has been proposed to play a key role in fibrosis, the direct molecular pathways targeted by Notch signaling and the precise ligand and receptor pair that are responsible for kidney disease remain poorly defined. In this study, we found that JAG1 and NOTCH2 showed the strongest correlation with the degree of interstitial fibrosis in a genome-wide expression analysis of a large cohort of human kidney samples. Transcript analysis of mouse kidney disease models, including folic-acid (FA)-induced nephropathy, unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), or apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1)-associated kidney disease, indicated that Jag1 and Notch2 levels were higher in all analyzed kidney fibrosis models. Mice with tubule-specific deletion of Jag1 or Notch2 (Kspcre/Jag1flox/flox and Kspcre/Notch2flox/flox) had no kidney-specific alterations at baseline but showed protection from FA-induced kidney fibrosis. Tubule-specific genetic deletion of Notch1 and global knockout of Notch3 had no effect on fibrosis. In vitro chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments and genome-wide expression studies identified the mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) as a direct Notch target. Re-expression of Tfam in tubule cells prevented Notch-induced metabolic and profibrotic reprogramming. Tubule-specific deletion of Tfam resulted in fibrosis. In summary, Jag1 and Notch2 play a key role in kidney fibrosis development by regulating Tfam expression and metabolic reprogramming.
- Biomarkers as predictors of sudden cardiac death in coronary artery disease patients with preserved left ventricular function (ARTEMIS study). [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(9):e0203363
- CONCLUSIONS: Elevated sST2 and hs-TnT predict the occurrence of SCD among patients with CAD and preserved left ventricular function. The association between sST2, hs-TnT and SCD may be explained by an ongoing myocardial apoptosis followed by fibrosis leading to vulnerability to malignant arrhythmias.
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- βIV-spectrin regulates STAT3 targeting to tune cardiac response to pressure overload. [Journal Article]
- JCIJ Clin Invest 2018 Sep 18
- Heart failure (HF) remains a major source of morbidity and mortality in the U.S. The multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) has emerged as a critical regulator of cardiac hypert...
Heart failure (HF) remains a major source of morbidity and mortality in the U.S. The multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) has emerged as a critical regulator of cardiac hypertrophy and failure, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Previous studies have established that the cytoskeletal protein βIV-spectrin coordinates local CaMKII signaling. Here we sought to determine the role of a spectrin/CaMKII complex in maladaptive remodeling in HF. Chronic pressure overload (6 weeks transaortic constriction, TAC) induced a decrease in cardiac function in WT mice but not in animals expressing truncated βIV-spectrin lacking spectrin/CaMKII interaction (qv3J). Underlying observed differences in function was an unexpected differential regulation of STAT3-related genes in qv3J TAC hearts. In vitro experiments demonstrate that βIV-spectrin serves as a target for CaMKII phosphorylation, which regulates its stability. Cardiac-specific βIV-spectrin knockout (βIV-cKO) mice show STAT3 dysregulation, fibrosis and decreased cardiac function at baseline similar to WT TAC. STAT3 inhibition restored normal cardiac structure and function in βIV-cKO and WT TAC hearts. Our studies identify a novel spectrin-based complex essential for regulation of the cardiac response to chronic pressure overload. We anticipate that strategies targeting the new spectrin-based "statosome" will be effective at suppressing maladaptive remodeling in response to chronic stress.