- Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis: clinical characteristics, etiologic associations, treatments, and outcomes in a series of 28 patients at Mayo Clinic, 1996-2013. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Dermatol 2017 Jan 13
- CONCLUSIONS: A previous history of drug reactions and clindamycin causation were more common in the present cohort than in prior reports. A small subset of patients experienced new-onset non-AGEP skin eruptions within a few months of the resolution of AGEP.
- Antibiotics in Endodontics: a review. [Review]
- IEInt Endod J 2016 Dec 22
- The overuse of antibiotics and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains is a global concern. This concern is also of importance in terms of the oral microbiota and the use of antibioti...
The overuse of antibiotics and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains is a global concern. This concern is also of importance in terms of the oral microbiota and the use of antibiotics to deal with oral and dental infections. The aim of this paper was to review the current literature on the indications and use of antibiotics and to make recommendations for their prescription in endodontic patients. Odontogenic infections, including endodontic infections, are polymicrobial, and in most cases, the prescription of antibiotics is empirical. This has led to the increasing use of broad-spectrum antibiotics even in cases where antibiotics are not indicated, such as symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, necrotic pulps and localized acute apical abscesses. In case of discrete and localized swelling, the primary aim is to achieve drainage without additional antibiotics. Adjunctive antibiotic treatment may be necessary in the prevention of the spread of infection, in acute apical abscesses with systemic involvement and in progressive and persistent infections. Medically compromised patients are more susceptible to complication arising from odontogenic infections and antimicrobials have a more specific role in their treatment. Therefore, antibiotics should be considered in patients having systemic diseases with compromised immunity or in patients with a localized congenital or acquired altered defence capacity, such as patients with infective endocarditis, prosthetic cardiac valves or recent prosthetic joint replacement. Penicillin VK, possibly combined with metronidazole to cover anaerobic strains, is still effective in most cases. However, amoxicillin (alone or together with clavulanic acid) is recommended because of better absorption and lower risk of side effects. In case of confirmed penicillin allergy, lincosamides such as clindamycin are the drug of choice.
- Reactivation of Latent Toxoplasmosis Following Dexamethasone Implant Injection. [Journal Article]
- OSOphthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2016 Nov 01; 47(11):1050-1052
- A 74-year-old man presented with right eye pain, swelling, photophobia, and vision loss 1 month following placement of an intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex; Allergan, Irvine, CA) for intrao...
A 74-year-old man presented with right eye pain, swelling, photophobia, and vision loss 1 month following placement of an intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex; Allergan, Irvine, CA) for intraocular inflammation refractory to topical therapy. Clinical examination showed visual acuity of 20/400, anterior chamber cell, vitritis, retinal vasculitis, and extensive retinitis. A vitreous biopsy was performed followed by intravitreal injections of vancomycin, ceftazidime, ganciclovir, and clindamycin. Polymerase chain-reaction testing was positive for Toxoplasma gondii. After a course of systemic therapy, intraocular inflammation subsided but visual acuity remained poor. This is the first case to the authors' knowledge of reactivation of T. gondii following intravitreal implantation of dexamethasone. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:1050-1052.].
- In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Propionibacterium acnes isolated from patients with acne vulgaris. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Infect Dev Ctries 2016 Oct 31; 10(10):1140-1145
- CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study focusing on P. acnes resistance from India.
- Trends in antibiotic use and microbial diagnostics in periodontal treatment: comparing surveys of German dentists in a ten-year period. [Journal Article]
- COClin Oral Investig 2016; 20(8):2203-2210
- CONCLUSIONS: Positive trends regarding position-paper-conform prescribing habits including the scheduling of systemic antibiotics and increasing use of local antimicrobials and microbial tests were observed. However, deficits and malpractice still exist in German practices. Unexpected is the widespread and increasing use of clindamycin. Continuing educational campaigns and strictly expressed real guidelines are needed.Indication and choice of antibiotic agents in causal periodontal therapy among German dentists have changed between 2003 and 2013 toward a more position-paper-based concept, but inappropriate prescriptions of second choice antibiotics still remain conspicuous.
- Oral clindamycin and rifampicin combination therapy for hidradenitis suppurativa: a prospective study and 1-year follow-up. [Journal Article]
- CEClin Exp Dermatol 2016; 41(8):852-857
- CONCLUSIONS: Oral clindamycin with oral rifampicin for 12 weeks is an effective and tolerable regimen for HS.
- Adjuvant alternative treatment with chemical peeling and subsequent iontophoresis for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, erosion with inflamed red papules and non-inflamed atrophic scars in acne vulgaris. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dermatol 2016 Oct 15
- The standard management of acne vulgaris in Japan includes a combination of topical treatment with benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and BPO/clindamycin (CLDM), topical adapalene and systemic antimicrobials. Ho...
The standard management of acne vulgaris in Japan includes a combination of topical treatment with benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and BPO/clindamycin (CLDM), topical adapalene and systemic antimicrobials. However, the treatment of therapy-resistant complications such as postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), erosions with inflamed red papules and atrophic scars has not been established. We performed chemical peeling with glycolic acid and iontophoresis with ascorbyl 2-phosphate 6-palmitate and DL-α-tocopherol phosphate for the treatment of PIH, erosions with inflamed red papules and non-inflamed atrophic scars in 31 patients with acne vulgaris (mild to severe severity), and evaluated the efficacy and safety of these interventions. In most of cases, there was remarkable improvement in PIH and erosions with inflamed red papules after treatment. There was also some improvement in non-inflamed atrophic scars without erythema. Mild redness and irritation was observed in four cases as adverse reactions. Early initial treatment of PIH and erosions with red papules by chemical peeling and iontophoresis is an effective and safe method to prevent the formation of atrophic scars in patients with acne vulgaris.
- A Systemic Review on Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS): A Rare and Critical Disease of Neonates. [Journal Article]
- OMOpen Microbiol J 2016; 10:150-9
- The symptoms of Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) include blistering of skin on superficial layers due to the exfoliative toxins released from Staphylococcus aureus. After the acute exfolia...
The symptoms of Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) include blistering of skin on superficial layers due to the exfoliative toxins released from Staphylococcus aureus. After the acute exfoliation of skin surface, erythematous cellulitis occurs. The SSSS may be confined to few blisters localized to the infection site and spread to severe exfoliation affecting complete body. The specific antibodies to exotoxins and increased clearence of exotoxins decrease the frequency of SSSS in adults. Immediate medication with parenteral anti-staphylococcal antibiotics is mandatory. Mostly, SSSS are resistant to penicillin. Penicillinase resistant synthetic penicillins such as Nafcillin or Oxacillin are prescribed as emergency treatment medicine. If Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is suspected), antibiotics with MRSA coverage (e.g., Vancomycin or Linezolid) are indicated. Clindamycin is considered as drug of choice to stop the production of exotoxin from bacteria ribosome. The use of Ringer solution to to balance the fluid loss, followed by maintainence therapy with an objective to maintain the fluid loss from exfoliation of skin, application of Cotrimoxazole on topical surface are greatlly considered to treat the SSSS. The drugs that reduce renal function are avoided. Through this article, an attempt has been made to focus the source, etiology, mechanism, outbreaks, mechanism, clinical manisfestation, treatment and other detail of SSSS.
- Impact of cold atmospheric pressure argon plasma on antibiotic sensitivity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in vitro. [Journal Article]
- GHGMS Hyg Infect Control 2016; 11:Doc17
- CONCLUSIONS: Because CAP can influence the antibiotic susceptibility of S. aureus, before conducting combined treatment with local plasma application on wounds and systemic antibiotics, their interaction must be analysed in vitro to exclude unwanted combination effects.
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- ECIL guidelines for treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in non-HIV-infected haematology patients. [Review]
- JAJ Antimicrob Chemother 2016; 71(9):2405-13
- The initiation of systemic antimicrobial treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is triggered by clinical signs and symptoms, typical radiological and occasionally laboratory findings in ...
The initiation of systemic antimicrobial treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is triggered by clinical signs and symptoms, typical radiological and occasionally laboratory findings in patients at risk of this infection. Diagnostic proof by bronchoalveolar lavage should not delay the start of treatment. Most patients with haematological malignancies present with a severe PCP; therefore, antimicrobial therapy should be started intravenously. High-dose trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is the treatment of choice. In patients with documented intolerance to this regimen, the preferred alternative is the combination of primaquine plus clindamycin. Treatment success should be first evaluated after 1 week, and in case of clinical non-response, pulmonary CT scan and bronchoalveolar lavage should be repeated to look for secondary or co-infections. Treatment duration typically is 3 weeks and secondary anti-PCP prophylaxis is indicated in all patients thereafter. In patients with critical respiratory failure, non-invasive ventilation is not significantly superior to intubation and mechanical ventilation. The administration of glucocorticoids must be decided on a case-by-case basis.