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- Predictors of nonroutine discharge among patients undergoing surgery for grade I spondylolisthesis: insights from the Quality Outcomes Database. [Journal Article]J Neurosurg Spine 2019; :1-10JN
- CONCLUSIONS: In this multisite study of a defined cohort of patients undergoing surgery for grade I spondylolisthesis, factors associated with higher odds of nonroutine discharge included older age, higher body mass index, presence of depression, and occurrence of any complication.
- Tolerability and efficacy of lacosamide and controlled-release carbamazepine monotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy and concomitant psychiatric conditions: Post hoc analysis of a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial. [Journal Article]Epilepsy Res 2019; 159:106220ER
- Psychiatric comorbidities are common in patients with epilepsy. A double-blind noninferiority monotherapy trial (SP0993; NCT01243177) enrolled newly diagnosed patients (≥16 years) with focal or generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Patients were randomized 1:1 to lacosamide or carbamazepine controlled-release (carbamazepine-CR). Here, we report data from an exploratory post hoc analysis of patients …
Psychiatric comorbidities are common in patients with epilepsy. A double-blind noninferiority monotherapy trial (SP0993; NCT01243177) enrolled newly diagnosed patients (≥16 years) with focal or generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Patients were randomized 1:1 to lacosamide or carbamazepine controlled-release (carbamazepine-CR). Here, we report data from an exploratory post hoc analysis of patients who reported ongoing psychiatric conditions (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities System Organ Class). Of 886 treated patients in the trial, 126 (14.2%; 64 on lacosamide; 62 on carbamazepine-CR) reported at least one ongoing psychiatric condition at screening, most commonly depression (38.1%), insomnia (27.8%), and anxiety (26.2%). In this subgroup, 32/64 (50.0%) patients on lacosamide and 22/62 (35.5%) on carbamazepine-CR completed the trial. The most common reasons for discontinuation in patients on lacosamide and carbamazepine-CR were adverse events (10.9%, 24.2%) and lack of efficacy (18.8%, 11.3%). Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were reported in 52 (81.3%) of patients on lacosamide and 56 (90.3%) of patients on carbamazepine-CR, most commonly (≥10% patients in either treatment group; lacosamide, carbamazepine-CR) dizziness (12.5%, 16.1%), headache (12.5%, 14.5%), nasopharyngitis (12.5%, 9.7%), fatigue (7.8%, 14.5%), nausea (7.8%, 11.3%), somnolence (1.6%, 12.9%), and gamma-glutamyltransferase increase (1.6%, 12.9%). Overall, 15 (23.4%) lacosamide-treated and 10 (16.1%) carbamazepine-CR treated patients reported psychiatric TEAEs, most commonly (≥3 patients in either treatment group; lacosamide, carbamazepine-CR) depression (4.7%, 0) and anxiety (3.1%, 6.5%). There were no reports of psychotic disorder, epileptic psychosis, acute psychosis, or serious psychiatric TEAEs. Stratified Kaplan-Meier estimates for 6- and 12-month seizure freedom at the last evaluated dose were similar with lacosamide and carbamazepine-CR (6 months 81.0%, 75.6%; 12 months 62.5%, 66.6%). A higher proportion of patients on lacosamide than carbamazepine-CR completed 6 (67.2%, 45.2%) and 12 months (50.0%, 37.1%) of treatment at the last evaluated dose without a seizure. This exploratory post hoc analysis indicated that lacosamide monotherapy was efficacious and generally well tolerated in patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy and concomitant psychiatric conditions. In this subpopulation, lacosamide showed similar efficacy and numerically better effectiveness than carbamazepine-CR.
- Heavy metal exposure, oxidative stress and semen quality: Exploring associations and mediation effects in reproductive-aged men. [Journal Article]Chemosphere 2019; 244:125498C
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that higher urinary arsenic, cadmium and lead levels were associated with increased oxidative stress markers, which also related with altered semen quality. 8-isoPGF2α and 8-OHdG might be the possible mediators of the associations between urinary heavy metals and total motility, progressive motility or the proportion of normal sperm morphology.
- Effects of location, climate, soil conditions and plant species on levels of potentially toxic elements in Chinese Prickly Ash pericarps from the main cultivation regions in China. [Journal Article]Chemosphere 2019; 244:125501C
- The presence of potentially toxic mineral elements is often reported in soil, fruits and vegetables. The concentrations of these are influenced by location, climate and soil conditions, and plant species. This study reports levels of aluminium (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and nickel (Ni) in the soils where Chinese Prickly Ash - Zanthoxylum bungeanum (ZB) and Z. arma…
The presence of potentially toxic mineral elements is often reported in soil, fruits and vegetables. The concentrations of these are influenced by location, climate and soil conditions, and plant species. This study reports levels of aluminium (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and nickel (Ni) in the soils where Chinese Prickly Ash - Zanthoxylum bungeanum (ZB) and Z. armatum (ZA) are grown. Soil and pericarp samples were taken from 72 ZB and ZA plantations in 12 provinces. The soil pollution index (PI) was generally low for As (0.04-0.35), Pb (0.01-0.74) and Ni (0.15-1.06). The PI was higher for Cd (0.06-6.99) and was assessed at three categorical levels: 'low' (in 26% of soils), 'moderate' (in 67% of soils) and high (in 7% of soils). The majority (94%) of soils were slightly polluted with Cd with the integrated pollution index in the range 0.17-2.02. More than 60% of pericarp samples posed a high non-cancer health risk based on the hazard index, while 43% of pericarp samples posed a considerable cancer risk based on the incremental lifetime cancer risk. The mean temperature and the mean relative humidity contributed most significantly (28% and 10%, respectively) to variation in the concentrations of potentially toxic elements in the pericarps. This study provides a comprehensive report on the concentrations of potentially toxic elements in the soils and associated pericarps, and the effects of location, climate, and soil on the levels of potentially toxic elements in the soil and pericarps, including the effects of tree species.
- Unmet needs influence health-related quality of life in people with multiple sclerosis. [Journal Article]Mult Scler Relat Disord 2019; 38:101877MS
- CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated that a higher number of both health and social care-related unmet needs predicted lower HRQoL. The health profile of the sample identified all domains of the EQ-5D-3L as being important in determining HRQoL. Data confirms that unmet needs alone are significantly related to reduced HRQoL, although the multifactorial and complex nature of MS makes it a challenge to identify the combination of aspects that fully predict variability in quality of life.
- Environmental risk factors for multiple sclerosis in Japanese people. [Journal Article]Mult Scler Relat Disord 2019; 38:101872MS
- CONCLUSIONS: Smoking and earlier age of menarche are positively associated and sunlight exposure in early childhood is negatively associated with MS in Japanese people as shown in Caucasians. Intake of steamed short-grain white rice, a staple food in Japan, is newly found to be negatively associated with MS in Japanese people. Although the causality is unclear because the participants were prevalent cases, these environmental factors may be involved in the rising prevalence of MS in Japanese females.
- Associations of plasma metal concentrations with the decline in kidney function: A longitudinal study of Chinese adults. [Journal Article]Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019; 189:110006EE
- Metals are widespread pollutants in the environment which have been reported to be associated with kidney dysfunction in many existing epidemiological studies. However, most of the studies are cross-sectional design and mainly focus on several toxic metals including arsenic, lead and cadmium. Therefore, we conducted this prospective study within the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort to evaluate the associat…
Metals are widespread pollutants in the environment which have been reported to be associated with kidney dysfunction in many existing epidemiological studies. However, most of the studies are cross-sectional design and mainly focus on several toxic metals including arsenic, lead and cadmium. Therefore, we conducted this prospective study within the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort to evaluate the associations of plasma multiple metals with the decline in kidney function among Chinese middle-aged and elderly. In total, 1434 participants free of chronic diseases at baseline were included in analysis. We measured baseline plasma concentrations of 23 metals and calculated estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation based on serum creatinine, age, sex and ethnicity. Bonferroni correction was used for multiple testing to reduce the probability of a type I error. Principal component analysis was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of multiple metal co-exposure. Most of the plasma metal concentrations were within the literature reported reference values, whereas the concentration of lead and nickel exceeded the guideline value. We found that plasma concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, barium, lead, molybdenum, rubidium, strontium, vanadium and zinc were significantly associated with the decline in kidney function measured by annual eGFR decline, rapid renal function decline (defined as an annual decline in eGFR ≥ 5 mL/min/1.73 m2) or incident eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, with the adjusted beta coefficients (95% CI) for annual eGFR decline 0.50 (0.30, 0.69), 0.98 (0.74, 1.23), 0.56 (0.32, 0.79), 0.21 (0.03, 0.39), 0.35 (0.16, 0.54), 0.94 (0.71, 1.17), 0.37 (0.15, 0.60), 0.78 (0.54, 1.02), and 0.74 (0.57, 0.91), respectively. The metals exposures were linked with increased risks of impaired kidney function. Associations of principal components representing these metals with the decline in kidney function were significant and suggest a possible additional health risk by co-exposure. Participants engaged in manufacturing had higher plasma levels of several metals compared with those who had been involved in management- or administration-related work. Our findings suggest that exposure to multiple metals contribute to the decline in kidney function among the middle-aged and elderly. Co-exposure to multiple metals may have synergetic effect on the kidney function. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and clarify the potential mechanisms.
- Low iron stores in preconception nulliparous women; a two-center cross-sectional study in peri-urban Ghana. [Journal Article]Nutrition 2019; 71:110604N
- CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of depleted iron stores in nulliparous women is a severe public health problem that requires attention.
- High-volume culture and quantitative real-rime PCR for the detection of Aspergillus in sputum. [Journal Article]Clin Microbiol Infect 2019CM
- CONCLUSIONS: Detection of Aspergillus spp. in sputum is greatly enhanced by HVC. HVC allows for detection of azole-resistant isolates that would have been missed by conventional culture. This method can be performed in any microbiology laboratory without the need for additional equipment.
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- Meniscus Repair Does not Result in an Inferior Short-term Outcome Compared with Meniscus Resection. An Analysis of 5,378 Patients with Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. [Journal Article]Arthroscopy 2019A
- CONCLUSIONS: Patients undergoing isolated ACLR and ACLR with additional MM and/or LM resection or repair obtain equivalent results for any of the KOOS subscales at 1- and 2-year postoperative follow-ups. Differences between the groups are only detectable preoperatively, with patients undergoing ACLR + MM + LM repair showing the lowest scores for the Symptoms, Pain, ADL and Sport/Rec KOOS subscales.