- The Role of Pneumococcal Virulence Factors in Ocular Infectious Diseases. [Review]
- IPInterdiscip Perspect Infect Dis 2018; 2018:2525173
- Streptococcus pneumoniae is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic pathogen that can cause severe infections such as pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia, and middle ear infections. It is also one of ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic pathogen that can cause severe infections such as pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia, and middle ear infections. It is also one of the top pathogens contributing to bacterial keratitis and conjunctivitis. Though two pneumococcal vaccines exist for the prevention of nonocular diseases, they do little to fully prevent ocular infections. This pathogen has several virulence factors that wreak havoc on the conjunctiva, cornea, and intraocular system. Polysaccharide capsule aids in the evasion of host complement system. Pneumolysin (PLY) is a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin that acts as pore-forming toxin. Neuraminidases assist in adherence and colonization by exposing cell surface receptors to the pneumococcus. Zinc metalloproteinases contribute to evasion of the immune system and disease severity. The main purpose of this review is to consolidate the multiple studies that have been conducted on several pneumococcal virulence factors and the role each plays in conjunctivitis, keratitis, and endophthalmitis.
- Long-term efficacy and dose-finding trial of Japanese cedar pollen SLIT tablet. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2018 Dec 08
- CONCLUSIONS: The optimal dose of the JC pollen SLIT tablet was 5,000 JAU, with good efficacy and safety over a 3-year treatment period. This sustained effect was dependent on treatment duration.
- Outbreak of Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis Caused by Human Adenovirus Type D53 in an Eye Care Clinic - Los Angeles County, 2017. [Journal Article]
- MMMMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Dec 07; 67(48):1347-1349
- On June 22, 2017, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LAC DPH) was notified of seven patients who were seen at an eye care clinic on June 8, 2017, and later developed symptoms of epid...
On June 22, 2017, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LAC DPH) was notified of seven patients who were seen at an eye care clinic on June 8, 2017, and later developed symptoms of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC). EKC is a contagious, severe form of viral conjunctivitis that can cause pain and blurred vision for up to 4 weeks (1). LAC DPH conducted an investigation, which identified 17 patients with EKC, including 15 who had visited the optometry clinic and two who were household contacts of clinic patients. Observations in the clinic found deficiencies in disinfection of tonometers (an instrument connected to a slit lamp and used to test for glaucoma by measuring intraocular pressure) and multiuse eye drop administration. Staff member education and revision of disinfection practices interrupted further transmission. Patient specimens tested positive for human adenovirus (HAdV) type D53 (HAdV-53). As the first documented EKC outbreak associated with HAdV-D53 in the United States, this outbreak highlights the need for rigorous implementation of recommended infection prevention practices in eye care settings.
- Spatiotemporal clustering of cases of Kawasaki disease and associated coronary artery aneurysms in Canada. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Dec 05; 8(1):17682
- Detailed epidemiologic examination of the distribution of Kawasaki disease (KD) cases could help elucidate the etiology and pathogenesis of this puzzling condition. Location of residence at KD admiss...
Detailed epidemiologic examination of the distribution of Kawasaki disease (KD) cases could help elucidate the etiology and pathogenesis of this puzzling condition. Location of residence at KD admission was obtained for patients diagnosed in Canada (excluding Quebec) between March 2004 and March 2015. We identified 4,839 patients, 164 of whom (3.4%) developed a coronary artery aneurysm (CAA). A spatiotemporal clustering analysis was performed to determine whether non-random clusters emerged in the distributions of KD and CAA cases. A high-incidence KD cluster occurred in Toronto, ON, between October 2004 and May 2005 (116 cases; relative risk (RR) = 3.43; p < 0.001). A cluster of increased CAA frequency emerged in Mississauga, ON, between April 2004 and September 2005 (17% of KD cases; RR = 4.86). High-incidence clusters also arose in British Columbia (November 2010 to March 2011) and Alberta (January 2010 to November 2012) for KD and CAA, respectively. In an exploratory comparison between the primary KD cluster and reference groups of varying spatial and temporal origin, the main cluster demonstrated higher frequencies of conjunctivitis, oral mucosa changes and treatment with antibiotics, suggesting a possible coincident infectious process. Further spatiotemporal evaluation of KD cases might help understand the probable multifactorial etiology.
- Probable Roles of Coagulation Cascade and Fibrinolysis System in the Development of Allergic Rhinitis. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Rhinol Allergy 2018 Dec 06; :1945892418816015
- CONCLUSIONS: In AR, particular components of the coagulation cascade were increased and fibrinolysis system was decreased compared to normal control. This difference may be associated with the fibrin deposition in the mucosa of AR mouse model.
- Adult conjunctivitis secondary to dual infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae - A case report. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2019; 13:6-8
- CONCLUSIONS: Ophthalmologists should be aware of the possibility that Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae can cause co-infection in adult conjunctivitis, and of the straightforward method of treatment for such individuals. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of affected patients can lead to corneal complications and potential blindness. It is advisable to discuss these cases with the local microbiology service wherever possible, and referral to a sexual health service is imperative.
- IL-27 Signaling Deficiency Develops Th17-enhanced Th2-dominant Inflammation in Murine Allergic Conjunctivitis Model. [Journal Article]
- AAllergy 2018 Dec 04
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrated a natural protective mechanism by IL-27, of which signaling deficiency develops a Th17-type hyper-response that further aggravates Th2-dominant Allergic Inflammation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Diagnosis of a case of ligneous gingivitis in a patient with moderate plasminogen deficiency. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg 2018 Dec 01
- Plasminogen deficiency is a rare congenital condition that leads to pseudomembraneous lesions, such as ligneous conjunctivitis and ligneous gingivitis. Because of its rarity, ligneous gingivitis is n...
Plasminogen deficiency is a rare congenital condition that leads to pseudomembraneous lesions, such as ligneous conjunctivitis and ligneous gingivitis. Because of its rarity, ligneous gingivitis is not a pathology one may easily suspect from its clinical symptoms. We report the case of a 35-year-old Caucasian woman who experienced gum masses with white spots, but no pain. Based on the clinical picture, one could refute a diagnosis of necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis. Several biopsies were taken. The last ones showed an amorphous eosinophilic substance that could be fibrin. Plasmatic dosage of plasminogen (activity level 44%) confirmed the hypothesis of ligneous gingivitis. This report appears to be a very rare diagnosis of a ligneous gingivitis without major conjunctivitis, associated with a moderate plasminogen deficiency.
- Cross-linked hyaluronic acid gel occlusive device for the treatment of dry eye syndrome. [Journal Article]
- COClin Ophthalmol 2018; 12:2277-2283
- CONCLUSIONS: The xlHA Occlusive Device offers a new, safe, and effective method to treat dry eyes. It appears to have efficacy for at least 3 months on clinical examination. The xlHA gel demonstrated a good tolerance and safety profile.
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- Neonatal conjunctivitis in the New Zealand Midland region. [Journal Article]
- NZN Z Med J 2018 Nov 30; 131(1486):9-17
- CONCLUSIONS: Greater Midland region rates of CON and GON are higher compared to other international reported rates. For Tairāwhiti and Waikato, rates of CON are significantly higher in Māori than non-Māori, although there is no difference in mean NZDep13 scores between Māori and non-Māori. CON appears to be a condition of babies of young mothers with higher deprivation.