- Tacit knowledge and risk perceptions: Tullow Oil and lay publics in Ghana's offshore oil region. [Journal Article]
- PUPublic Underst Sci 2017 Jan 01; :963662516685488
- This study examines how local residents make sense of offshore oil production risks in Ghana's nascent petroleum industry. From a naturalistic-interpretive perspective, it is primarily based on in-de...
This study examines how local residents make sense of offshore oil production risks in Ghana's nascent petroleum industry. From a naturalistic-interpretive perspective, it is primarily based on in-depth interviews with community residents: 8 opinion leaders, 15 residents, and 1 journalist. Residents associate Tullow's oil activities with health concerns (e.g. conjunctivitis), environmental challenges (e.g. the emergence of decomposed seaweeds along the shore), and socio-economic concerns (e.g. loss of livelihoods, decline in fish harvest, and increased rent and cost of living). Focusing on how the local, practical knowledge of interviewees manifest in their sense of offshore oil risks, the study identifies two strategies-scapegoating and tacit knowing-underlying how residents construe offshore oil risks and benefits. Beyond its theoretical contribution to the social construction of risk process, the study illustrates the challenge the expert-lay publics dichotomy poses (and the potential bridging this dichotomy has) for corporate and societal risk management.
- Periocular Amyloidosis Manifesting as Pseudopemphigoid Treated With Mitomycin C. [Journal Article]
- CCornea 2017 Jan 11
- CONCLUSIONS: Pseudopemphigoid represents a rare manifestation of periocular amyloid. Risks and benefits of surgical procedures in this context need to be carefully weighed to minimize the risk of secondary complications. Topical mitomycin C may be considered as a relatively safe adjunct in managing the cicatricial component of the disease.
- Besifloxacin Ophthalmic Suspension 0.6% Compared with Gatifloxacin Ophthalmic Solution 0.3% for the Treatment of Bacterial Conjunctivitis in Neonates. [Journal Article]
- DRDrugs R D 2017 Jan 11
- CONCLUSIONS: In this small study in neonates, both besifloxacin and gatifloxacin appeared effective and safe in the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis. Larger studies are warranted.
- Vehicle-Controlled, Phase 2 Clinical Trial of a Sustained-Release Dexamethasone Intracanalicular Insert in a Chronic Allergen Challenge Model. [Journal Article]
- JOJ Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2017 Jan 10
- CONCLUSIONS: This Phase 2 study demonstrated preliminary efficacy and safety data of Dextenza for treatment of allergic conjunctivitis.
- Pilot study of mobile phone technology in allergic rhinitis in European countries. The MASK-rhinitis study. [Journal Article]
- AAllergy 2017 Jan 10
- CONCLUSIONS: This is the first App (iOS and Android) to have tested for allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis. A simple questionnaire administered by cell phones enables the identification of phenotypic differences between a priori defined rhinitis groups. The results suggest novel concepts and research questions in allergic rhinitis that may not be identified using classical methods. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Sporadic cases of adult measles: a research article. [Journal Article]
- BRBMC Res Notes 2017 Jan 10; 10(1):38
- CONCLUSIONS: At least a 3-5 day delay in the diagnosis was observed (even after the appearance of the rash in some patients), due to non-awareness of its occurrence, unfamiliarity of measles in adults, non-specific nature of the illness and non-availability of rapid diagnostics, risking transmission to the immune-compromised or non-immune staff or patients. Identification of the source of infection in these sporadic adult cases and their virologic surveillance and molecular epidemiology will be important to interrupt the transmission and to achieve the targeted elimination of measles from Sri Lanka by 2020.
- Superoxide dismutase 3 attenuates experimental Th2-driven allergic conjunctivitis. [Journal Article]
- CIClin Immunol 2017 Jan 04; 176:49-54
- Allergic conjunctivitis is an inflammatory eye disease mediated by Th2 type immune response. The role of extracellular superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) in immune response and allergic conjunctival infla...
Allergic conjunctivitis is an inflammatory eye disease mediated by Th2 type immune response. The role of extracellular superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) in immune response and allergic conjunctival inflammation was examined in a murine model for experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC). Allergic conjunctivitis was induced in mice by allergen challenge with ovalbumin in alum via the conjunctival sac. SOD3 was topically applied and allergy indicators were compared. Clinical signs associated with conjunctivitis, such as OVA-specific IgE production, IgG1/G2a ratio and eosinophil infiltration, were drastically reduced in mice treated with SOD3. They also had less dendritic cells and CD4(+) T cells in conjunctiva than controls. Attenuated allergic inflammation was accredited to reduced Th2 type cytokine responses and increased Treg cytokine in draining lymph node. The characteristics of EAC were attributed to the absence of SOD3. Our findings suggest that SOD3 might be considered as a potential target for Th2-driven allergic conjunctival inflammation.
- [The virological and epidemiological aspects of human adenoviral conjunctivitis in Tunisia]. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Fr Ophtalmol 2017 Jan 04
- Human adenoviruses (HAdV) are the main cause of viral conjunctivitis. In Tunisia and North Africa more generally, there is no regular nationwide surveillance program that monitors viruses causing con...
Human adenoviruses (HAdV) are the main cause of viral conjunctivitis. In Tunisia and North Africa more generally, there is no regular nationwide surveillance program that monitors viruses causing conjunctivitis and keratoconjunctivitis. In this study, we report the results of HAdV screening in conjunctival samples collected for over 14 years in Tunisia. A total of 282 conjunctival samples received between 2000 and 2013 were investigated. Detection and identification of genotype were performed by PCR-sequencing at the hexon gene; 64.5% of samples (n=182) revealed positive by PCR detection without correlation noted between infection, age, sex, social class or clinical manifestations of viral conjunctivitis. HAdV-D8 was the largely predominant genotype in Tunisia, representing 81.3% of all isolates, and was detected continuously from 2000 to 2013. Minor co-circulating genotypes were also identified - HAdV-E4, HAdV-B3, B55 and HAdV-B7 - accounting for 10.7%, 4.9%, 1.9% and 0.9% of isolates, respectively. In conclusion, this work reports epidemiological data on adenoviral conjunctivitis from a region where such information is very scarce and contributes to a better knowledge of the worldwide distribution of causative genotypes. It also presents an approach for the identification of circulating HAdV in the country and demonstrates the importance of molecular tools for both detection and identification of genotypes, which allow rapid virological investigation, especially during epidemics.
- Molecular Characterization of Pneumococcal Surface Protein K, a Potential Pneumococcal Vaccine Antigen. [Journal Article]
- VVirulence 2017 Jan 06; :0
- The pneumococcal capsule is indispensable for pathogenesis in systemic infections; however, many pneumococcal diseases, including conjunctivitis, otitis media, and some systemic infections in immunoc...
The pneumococcal capsule is indispensable for pathogenesis in systemic infections; however, many pneumococcal diseases, including conjunctivitis, otitis media, and some systemic infections in immunocompromised patients, are caused by nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae (NESp). Null capsule clade 1 (NCC1), found in group 2 NESp, expresses pneumococcal surface protein K (PspK) and is becoming prevalent among pneumococcal organisms owing to the widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Despite its clinical importance, the molecular mechanisms underlying the prevalence of NCC1 have not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the role of the R3 domain of PspK in the epithelial cell adherence of NCC1. We found that the R3 domain of PspK mediated NCC1 adherence via its direct interaction with the epithelial surface protein annexin A2. Additionally, neutralization with purified recombinant PspK-R3 or rabbit anti-UD:R3 IgG inhibited binding of NESp to lung epithelial cells in vitro. Immunization with the 'repeat' domain of PspK-R3 or PspK-UD:R3 effectively elicited mucosal and systemic immune responses against PspK-R3 and provided protection against nasopharyngeal, lung, and middle ear colonization of NESp in mice. Additionally, we found that rabbit anti-UD:R3 IgG bound to PspC-R1 of the encapsulated TIGR4 strain and that UD:R3 immunization provided protection against nasopharyngeal and lung colonization of TIGR4 and deaths by TIGR4 and D39 in mice. Further studies using 68 pneumococcal clinical isolates showed that 79% of clinical isolates showed cross-reactivity to rabbit anti-UD:R3 IgG. About 87% of serotypes in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and 68% of non-vaccine serotypes were positive for cross-reactivity with rabbit anti-UD:R3 IgG. Thus, the R3 domain of PspK may be an effective vaccine candidate for both NESp and encapsulated Sp.
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- The impact of an international initiative on exposures to liquid laundry detergent capsules reported to the United Kingdom National Poisons Information Service between 2008 and 2015. [Journal Article]
- CTClin Toxicol (Phila) 2017 Jan 06; :1-4
- CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence that the Product Stewardship Programme had a beneficial impact on the number of exposures reported to the National Poisons Information Service or their severity.