- Management of Ocular Human herpesvirus 1 Infection in a White‑faced Saki Monkey (Pithecia pithecia). [Journal Article]
- CMComp Med 2018 Jun 15
- A 20-y-old male intact white-faced saki monkey (Pithecia pithecia) presented with an acute ocular disease of the righteye.Clinical signs included periocular swelling, conjunctivitis, and anisocoria w...
A 20-y-old male intact white-faced saki monkey (Pithecia pithecia) presented with an acute ocular disease of the righteye.Clinical signs included periocular swelling, conjunctivitis, and anisocoria with a miotic right pupil. Conjunctival swabs werepositive for Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV1) according to PCR amplification with sequencing. Initial clinical signs resolvedwith supportive treatment, and the animal was managed chronically by using acyclovir (5 mg/kg PO twice daily) during flare-ups. After more than 2 y, the progression of clinical disease led to enucleation of the right eye. At 2 mo after surgery, acute presentation of severe neurologic signs, including ataxia and blindness, resulted in euthanasia. Histopathology, PCRanalysis, and sequencing results were consistent with viral encephalitis due to HHV1; coinfection with Pithecia pithecialymphocryptovirus 1 was identified. This report describes the first case of managed HHV1 infection in a platyrrhine primateand the first case of HHV1 in a white-faced saki monkey that was not rapidly fatal.
- Ocular Symptoms and Signs of Chikungunya Fever in Puerto Rico. [Journal Article]
- PRP R Health Sci J 2018; 37(2):83-87
- CONCLUSIONS: Red eyes, conjunctivitis, and anterior uveitis occur frequently in patients with Chikungunya fever. Systemic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, and cancer, may increase the risk of such ocular manifestations. Routine ophthalmic evaluation is warranted in patients with these medical conditions. The relevance of this study lies in the fact that this disease remains an important public health issue, since such ocular sequelae as may be present can range from mild to severe, either as an acute or a delayed manifestation.
- Children with allergic diseases have an increased subsequent risk of migraine upon reaching school age. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Investig Med 2018 Jun 14
- The association between migraine and allergy has remained a subject of debate for more than a century. To systemically investigate the interaction between children with antecedent allergic diseases a...
The association between migraine and allergy has remained a subject of debate for more than a century. To systemically investigate the interaction between children with antecedent allergic diseases and their future risks of migraine on reaching school age, we recruited 16,130 children aged 7-18 with migraine diagnosed between 2000 and 2008, and 64,520 matched controls without a history of migraine. The ORs of migraine were calculated for the association with allergic diseases diagnosed before migraine diagnosis. The allergic diseases included atopic dermatitis, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis (AR), and asthma. Children with preceding allergic diseases had a greater subsequent risk of migraine than the controls. Among the four evaluated diseases, AR had the highest adjusted OR (aOR) of 2.17 (95% CI 2.09 to 2.26). Children with all four allergic diseases had the highest aOR of 3.59 (95% CI 2.91 to 4.44). Further, an increasing trend of aORs was observed with more allergic disease-associated medical consulting. Our study indicates that children with allergic diseases are at increased subsequent risk of migraine when they reach school age, and the risk shows a cumulative effect of more allergic diseases and more allergy-related healthcare.
- Ocular Munchhausen's syndrome: Self-inflicted conjunctivitis. [Letter]
- JFJ Fr Ophtalmol 2018 Jun 11
- NLRP3 inflammasome: a likely target for the treatment of allergic diseases. [Journal Article]
- CEClin Exp Allergy 2018 Jun 13
- Allergic diseases, such as asthma, rhinitis, dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and anaphylaxis, have recently become a global public health concern. According to previous studies, the NLRP3 inflammasome is...
Allergic diseases, such as asthma, rhinitis, dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and anaphylaxis, have recently become a global public health concern. According to previous studies, the NLRP3 inflammasome is a multi-protein complex known to be associated with many inflammatory conditions. In response to allergens or allergen/damage-associated molecular signals, NLRP3 changes its conformation to allow the assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome complex and activates caspase-1, which is an evolutionarily conserved enzyme that proteolytically cleaves other proteins, such as the precursors of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Subsequently, active caspase-1 cleaves pro-IL-1 and pro-IL-18. Recently, accumulating human and mouse experimental evidence has demonstrated that the NLRP3 inflammasome, IL-1β, and IL-18 are critically involved in the development of allergic diseases. Furthermore, the application of specific NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors has been demonstrated in animal models. Therefore, these inhibitors may represent potential therapeutic methods for the management of clinical allergic disorders. This review summarizes findings related to the NLRP3 inflammasome and its related factors and concludes that specific NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors may be potential therapeutic agents for allergic diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Coxsackievirus A24 Variant Associated with Acute Haemorrhagic Conjunctivitis Cases, French Guiana, 2017. [Journal Article]
- IIntervirology 2018 Jun 13; :1-5
- In 2017, numerous cases of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) were reported in the Caribbean and in South America. Preliminary reports identified adenoviruses and enteroviruses in some patient s...
In 2017, numerous cases of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) were reported in the Caribbean and in South America. Preliminary reports identified adenoviruses and enteroviruses in some patient samples but, until now, none of the etiologic agents have been fully characterized. We report the full-length genomic sequences of 4 coxsackievirus A24 (CV-A24) isolates collected from AHC patients in French Guiana during this outbreak (May and June 2017). These isolates are very closely related and belong to the genotype IV of CV-A24 variant, which consists of strains sampled worldwide during AHC outbreaks in the 2000s and 2010s. No recombination events were detected within the genomic sequences, indicating that members of this genotype have continuously circulated worldwide for more than 10 years without undergoing recombination with other enteroviruses. This unusual trait could be due to their ocular tropism that could impede genetic exchanges between these viruses and other enteroviruses, which replicate mainly in the gut.
- Use of topical ocular antibiotics in young children: a Scandinavian drug utilization study. [Journal Article]
- AOActa Ophthalmol 2018 Jun 09
- CONCLUSIONS: Considerable variation is seen in the utilization of topical ocular antibiotics among children in Scandinavia, with Denmark having the highest use. Across the Scandinavian countries, however, a decline was noted from 2010 onwards.
- Evaluating Antigen-Specific IgE Using the Rat Basophil Leukemia Cell (RBL) Assay. [Journal Article]
- MMMethods Mol Biol 2018; 1803:371-381
- Allergic diseases (atopy) include asthma, allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and allergic sinusitis. It is estimated that up to 90% of asthmatics are atopic and have an allergy trigger for asthmatic ...
Allergic diseases (atopy) include asthma, allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and allergic sinusitis. It is estimated that up to 90% of asthmatics are atopic and have an allergy trigger for asthmatic episodes. In order to assess the risk of allergy induction associated with inhalation exposure, animal models of protein allergy have been developed. These models have been used both to identify proteins as allergens and to assess their relative potency. Often these research situations include allergens that are not well characterized or are unknown. In these situations, specific allergens are not available to be evaluated by more well-known assays (such as ELISAs), and developing a specific assay to evaluate an extract or mixture for an unknown or potential allergen is very time consuming and generally requires purified antigen/allergen. Additionally, when the comparison of the relative potency of multiple extracts is of interest, a common/generic platform is necessary. A more generic method, the rat basophil leukemia cell assay (RBL assay), has been developed which provides insight into the allergenicity of extracts and mixtures as well as providing a common platform for relative potency comparison between/among these complex allergen sources.
- Clinical Characteristics of Measles in Previously Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Patients in California. [Journal Article]
- CIClin Infect Dis 2018 Jun 07
- CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine failure measles cases were less ill than cases that occurred in unvaccinated patients. Nevertheless, these cases still required the same amount of public health effort in tracing contacts as in cases who were unvaccinated.
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- Translational Model of Zika Virus Disease in Baboons. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Virol 2018 Jun 06
- Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus with devastating outcomes seen recently in the Americas due to the association of maternal ZIKV infection with fetal microcephaly and other ...
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus with devastating outcomes seen recently in the Americas due to the association of maternal ZIKV infection with fetal microcephaly and other fetal malformations not previously associated with flavivirus infections. Here, we have developed the olive baboon (Papio anubis) as a non-human primate (NHP) translational model for the study of ZIKV pathogenesis and associated disease outcomes to contrast and compare with humans and other major NHPs such as macaques. Following subcutaneous inoculation of adult male and non-pregnant female baboons, viremia was detected at 3 and 4 days post infection (dpi) with the concordant presentation of a visible rash and conjunctivitis similar to human ZIKV infection. Furthermore, virus was detected in the mucosa and cerebrospinal fluid. A robust ZIKV-specific IgM and IgG antibody response was also observed in all animals. These data show striking similarity between humans and the olive baboon following infection with ZIKV suggesting our model as a suitable translational NHP model to study ZIKV pathogenesis and potential therapeutics.IMPORTANCE ZIKV was first identified in 1947 in a sentinel rhesus monkey in Uganda and subsequently spread to Southeast Asia. Until 2007, only a small number of cases were reported, and ZIKV infection was relatively minor until the South Pacific and Brazilian outbreaks where more severe outcomes were reported. Here we present the baboon as a non-human primate model for contrast and comparison to other published animal models of ZIKV such as the mouse and macaque species. Baboons breed year around and are not currently a primary non-human primate species used in biomedical research marking them more readily available for studies other than Human Immunodeficiency virus studies, which many macaque species are designated for. This taken together with the similarities baboons have with humans, such as immunology, reproduction, genetics and size, makes the baboon an attractive NHP model for ZIKV studies in comparison to other non-human primates.