- "Collateral Damage:" Horner's Syndrome Following Excision of a Cervical Vagal Schwannoma. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Appl Basic Med Res 2018 Jul-Sep; 8(3):190-192
- Horner's syndrome is characterized by triad of blepharoptosis, miosis, and anhydrosis on the lateral part of the face. Incidence of iatrogenic Horner syndrome resulting from neck surgeries has been r...
Horner's syndrome is characterized by triad of blepharoptosis, miosis, and anhydrosis on the lateral part of the face. Incidence of iatrogenic Horner syndrome resulting from neck surgeries has been reported between 10% to 18.5%. Iatrogenic Horner syndrome resulting from excision of cervical vagal nerve schwannoma is uncommon, and has rarely been mentioned in literature. We report a rare case of iatrogenic preganglionic Horner's syndrome resulting from excision of a cervical vagal schwannoma. An 18 years old female presented with the complaints of sudden drooping of right upper lid associated with reduced sweating on right side of face for the past 3 months. There was history of excision of a right cervical vagal schwannoma. Ocular examination revealed mild ptosis, miosis with anisocoria more in scotopic illumination. Photographs of the patient prior to surgery showed no evidence of ptosis. Preoperative Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass suggesting a vagal nerve schwanomma. A diagnosis of iatrogenic preganglionic Horner's syndrome was made and the patient was kept under follow up. Horner's syndrome is an uncommon sequelae of cervical vagal schwannoma excision that results from injury of the cervical sympathetic chain intraoperatively and hence should be discussed with the patient during pre-operative counseling.
- Cluster headache: pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. [Review]
- JNJ Neurol 2018 Aug 17
- Cluster headache (CH) is characterized by attacks of severe, strictly unilateral pain that is orbital, supraorbital, temporal, or any combination of these, lasts 15-180 min, and occurs from once ever...
Cluster headache (CH) is characterized by attacks of severe, strictly unilateral pain that is orbital, supraorbital, temporal, or any combination of these, lasts 15-180 min, and occurs from once every other day to eight times a day. The pain is associated with ipsilateral conjunctival injection, lacrimation, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, forehead and facial sweating, miosis, ptosis and/or eyelid edema, and/or with restlessness or agitation. The understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind CH is far from complete, but CH is considered to be a neurovascular and chronobiologic headache disorder, with a pivotal role played by the central brain mechanisms. The diagnosis of CH is based on a careful history that elicits the clinical features of attacks, ipsilateral autonomic phenomena, and the cyclical nature of the bouts in which the attacks occur. Additional diagnostic interventions are needed to rule out secondary causes of CH. The main focus of therapy is to abort attacks once they have begun and to prevent future attacks. Alternative interventions in patients with CH who have not experienced any meaningful benefit from preventive drugs are well defined. Although there have been advances in the diagnosis and therapy of CH, a significant number of CH patients experience misdiagnoses and diagnostic delay, which stalls the possibility of the timely application of adequate abortive and preventive therapy.
- Toxicity of tapentadol: a systematic review. [Journal Article]
- PMPain Manag 2018 Aug 06
- CONCLUSIONS: At least four confirmed fatalities, and serious adverse effects have been documented for individuals abusing or using tapentadol as prescribed. Serious adverse effects of tapentadol use may include respiratory depression, confusion, coma, hallucination/delusion, seizures, tachycardia, hypertension, agitation, tremor, miosis, hypotension, dyspnea, electrolyte abnormality, atrial fibrillation or severe upper abdominal pain. Tapentadol is unlikely to cause serotonin syndrome. The toxicity of tapentadol is significantly less than pure mu opioids, such as oxycodone.
- Effect of phenylephrine 1.0%-ketorolac 0.3% injection on tamsulosin-associated intraoperative floppy-iris syndrome. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cataract Refract Surg 2018 Aug 02
- CONCLUSIONS: The use of the phenylephrine 1.0%-ketorolac 0.3% injection combination added to the irrigating solution during cataract surgery in patients at risk for IFIS led to significantly better prevention of miosis, less pupil billowing, and a reduced incidence of iris prolapse. A new grading scale for intraoperative iris abnormalities might be used for future evaluation.
- Comparison of intraocular pressure and pupil diameter after sedation with either acepromazine or dexmedetomidine in healthy dogs. [Journal Article]
- VAVet Anaesth Analg 2018 Jun 02
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that premedication with IV dexmedetomidine temporarily decreases IOP when compared with IV acepromazine. Both drugs cause miosis.
- Efficacy of 0.015% intracameral epinephrine for significant miosis induced by photodisruption during femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(31):e11693
- Despite the various advantages of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS), pupillary constriction during laser photodisruption is considered one of the most unfavorable events. This study...
Despite the various advantages of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS), pupillary constriction during laser photodisruption is considered one of the most unfavorable events. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of intracameral 0.015% epinephrine injection for miosis after laser pretreatment during FLACS.A total of 82 patients who underwent FLACS for age-related cataracts were investigated in this retrospective study. The epinephrine group included patients who received intracameral epinephrine injection for miosis after femtosecond laser pretreatment, while the no-epinephrine group included the patients who underwent FLACS without intracameral epinephrine due to minimal miosis. Quantitative pupil area measurements were performed through the analysis of captured images extracted from surgical videos of both femtosecond laser pretreatment and phacoemulsification.Laser photodisruption induced miosis in both groups, although the degree of miosis was greater in the epinephrine group (4.65 ± 0.87 mm) than in the no-epinephrine group (6.30 ± 0.65 mm; P < .001). The intracameral epinephrine injection significantly increased the pupil diameter from 4.65 ± 0.87 to 5.49 ± 0.76 mm (21.61 ± 22.68%; P < .001) and the pupil area from 70.28 ± 24.46 to 96.49 ± 25.24 mm (52.89 ± 63.54%; P < .001). After additional viscomydriasis, there was no difference between groups in pupil diameter (epinephrine vs no-epinephrine group; 6.10 ± 0.77 vs 6.39 ± 0.65 mm; P = .073).A single intracameral injection of 0.015% epinephrine provided immediate and appropriate redilation of pupil in patients with significant miosis after femtosecond laser photodisruption. Intracameral epinephrine is a simple and practical option for pupil redilation in case of miosis during FLACS.
- Horner Syndrome as a Rare Complication of Radiofrequency Tonsil Ablation. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2018 Jul 26; 55:e14-e15
- Horner syndrome is a rare but likely underdiagnosed complication of tonsillary surgery. The authors report the case of a 2.5-year-old boy who developed miosis and mild ptosis after radiofrequency ton...
Horner syndrome is a rare but likely underdiagnosed complication of tonsillary surgery. The authors report the case of a 2.5-year-old boy who developed miosis and mild ptosis after radiofrequency tonsil ablation surgery. Pharmacologic testing with apraclonidine 0.5% eye drops confirmed left Horner syndrome. This case highlights the close anatomical relationship between the tonsils and cervical sympathetic trunk and draws attention to the occurrence of Horner syndrome after tonsillectomy. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2018;55:e14-e15.].
- Acute organophosphate poisoning: 17 years of experience of the National Poison Control Center in Serbia. [Journal Article]
- TToxicology 2018 Jul 25; 409:73-79
- CONCLUSIONS: Acute poisoning with OP pesticides is not frequent in Serbia, however, it represents important clinical feature due to severity, possible complications and their impact on duration and costs of hospitalization. Initial treatment involves prevention of further absorption and provision of supportive care, followed by administration of specific antidotes. According to its role, the National Poison Control Centre in Belgrade, in addition to treatment of acute poisonings, continuously performs toxicovigilance, i.e. the identification, investigation and evaluation of various toxic risks in the community in order to undertake adequate and timely procedures. Permanent efforts are being made in order to reduce availability and to improve control measures for pesticides marketing.
- Medical and surgical management of the small pupil during cataract surgery. [Review]
- JCJ Cataract Refract Surg 2018; 44(8):1032-1041
- As cataract surgery continues to evolve, the intraoperative small pupil continues to pose challenges to even the most experienced cataract surgeon. Several steps can be taken preoperatively to decrea...
As cataract surgery continues to evolve, the intraoperative small pupil continues to pose challenges to even the most experienced cataract surgeon. Several steps can be taken preoperatively to decrease the chance of intraoperative miosis. Even so, the problem of miosis during cataract surgery remains a relatively common occurrence. This paper discusses many steps, both preoperative and intraoperative, that can make surgery technically easier and safer, thus maximizing the postoperative outcomes and patient satisfaction. Complications associated with small-pupil cataract surgery, risk factors for intraoperative miosis, the preoperative and intraoperative management of the small pupil during cataract surgery, and postoperative care are reviewed.
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- Two cases of sporadic adult-onset neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease preceded by urinary disturbance for many years. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurol Sci 2018 Sep 15; 392:89-93
- Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a neurodegenerative disease defined by the presence of eosinophilic hyaline intranuclear inclusions. The initial and main clinical feature of adult-o...
Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a neurodegenerative disease defined by the presence of eosinophilic hyaline intranuclear inclusions. The initial and main clinical feature of adult-onset NIID is predominantly dementia. We present herein 2 cases of sporadic adult-onset NIID with longstanding urinary disturbance prior to development of other neurological symptoms. Case 1: A 71-year-old woman was admitted after she lost consciousness while bathing. She presented slowly progressive bladder dysfunction starting at the age of 40. Recently, she complained of recurrent light-headedness on standing. Her neurological findings showed miosis, muscle weakness, rigidity, hyporeflexia, sensory disturbance, cerebellar ataxia, and orthostatic hypotension. Case 2: A 68-year-old man was admitted because of episodes of transient loss of consciousness. Ten years earlier, he had developed urinary dysfunction. His neurological findings revealed cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, and hyporeflexia. Both patients had leukoencephalopathy and motor-sensory neuropathy. In both cases, diffusion-weighted imaging showed high-intensity signals in the corticomedurally junction; and skin biopsy samples revealed ubiquitin-positive intranuclear inclusions. Therefore, we made a diagnosis of adult-onset NIID. Although numerous cases of this disorder have been reported in the past, there were only a few cases showing the development of other neurological symptoms after longstanding urinary disturbance. Our cases suggest that it is worthwhile considering the possibility of NIID in cases with a long-term history of neurogenic bladder dysfunction.