- CADTH Canadian Drug Expert Committee Recommendation: Rivaroxaban (Xarelto — Bayer Inc.): Indication: Coronary artery disease with or without peripheral artery disease [BOOK]
- BOOKCanadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health: Ottawa (ON)
- Predictive Value of Low Testosterone Concentrations Regarding Coronary Heart Disease and Mortality in Men and Women - Evidence From The FINRISK97 Study. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Intern Med 2019 May 23
- CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of testosterone are not predictive regarding future CHD or mortality -neither in men, nor in women. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Effects of alirocumab on types of myocardial infarction: insights from the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial. [Journal Article]
- EHEur Heart J 2019 May 23
- CONCLUSIONS: After ACS, alirocumab added to intensive statin therapy favourably impacted on Type 1 and 2 MIs. The data indicate for the first time that a lipid-lowering therapy can attenuate the risk of Type 2 MI. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction below levels achievable with statins is an effective preventive strategy for both MI types.
- Immunotherapy for cardiovascular disease. [Journal Article]
- EHEur Heart J 2019 May 23
- The outcomes of the Canakinumab Anti-inflammatory Thrombosis Outcome Study (CANTOS) trial have unequivocally proven that inflammation is a key driver of atherosclerosis and that targeting inflammatio…
The outcomes of the Canakinumab Anti-inflammatory Thrombosis Outcome Study (CANTOS) trial have unequivocally proven that inflammation is a key driver of atherosclerosis and that targeting inflammation, in this case by using an anti-interleukin-1β antibody, improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes. This is especially true for CVD patients with a pro-inflammatory constitution. Although CANTOS has epitomized the importance of targeting inflammation in atherosclerosis, treatment with canakinumab did not improve CVD mortality, and caused an increase in infections. Therefore, the identification of novel drug targets and development of novel therapeutics that block atherosclerosis-specific inflammatory pathways and exhibit limited immune-suppressive side effects, as pursued in our collaborative research centre, are required to optimize immunotherapy for CVD. In this review, we will highlight the potential of novel immunotherapeutic targets that are currently considered to become a future treatment for CVD.
- Voluntary wheel running activates Akt/AMPK/eNOS signaling cascades without improving profound endothelial dysfunction in mice deficient in α-galactosidase A. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(5):e0217214
- Fabry disease is caused by loss of activity of the lysosomal hydrolase α-galactosidase A (GLA). Premature life-threatening complications in Fabry patients arise from cardiovascular disease, including…
Fabry disease is caused by loss of activity of the lysosomal hydrolase α-galactosidase A (GLA). Premature life-threatening complications in Fabry patients arise from cardiovascular disease, including stroke and myocardial infarction. Exercise training has been shown to improve endothelial dysfunction in various settings including coronary artery disease. However, the effects of exercise training on endothelial dysfunction in Fabry disease have not been investigated. Gla knockout mice were single-housed in a cage equipped with a voluntary wheel (EX) or no wheel (SED) for 12 weeks. Exercised mice ran 10 km/day on average during the voluntary running intervention (VR) period. Despite significantly higher food intake in EX than SED, body weights of EX and SED remained stable during the VR period. After the completion of VR, citrate synthase activity in gastrocnemius muscle was significantly higher in EX than SED. VR resulted in greater phosphorylation of Akt (S473) and AMPK (T172) in the aorta of EX compared to SED measured by western blot. Furthermore, VR significantly enhanced eNOS protein expression and phosphorylation at S1177 by 20% and 50% in the aorta of EX when compared with SED. Similarly, plasma nitrate and nitrite levels were 77% higher in EX than SED. In contrast, measures of anti- and pro-oxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase and p67phox subunit of NADPH oxidase) and overall oxidative stress (plasma oxidized glutathione) were not different between groups. Although the aortic endothelial relaxation to acetylcholine was slightly increased in EX, it did not reach statistical significance. This study provides the first evidence that VR improves Akt/AMPK/eNOS signaling cascades, but not endothelial function in the aorta of aged Gla deficient mice.
- Overlap between angina without obstructive coronary artery disease and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction with preserved ejection fraction. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(5):e0216240
- CONCLUSIONS: Patients with angina and no obstructive CAD had a more impaired left ventricular diastolic function compared with an asymptomatic reference population. This suggests some common pathophysiological pathway between the two syndromes.
- Oral anticoagulation in very elderly patients with atrial fibrillation: Results from the prospective multicenter START2-REGISTER study. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(5):e0216831
- Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have shown similar efficacy and safety with respect to warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the proportion of patients aged ≥85 years enroll…
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have shown similar efficacy and safety with respect to warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the proportion of patients aged ≥85 years enrolled in clinical trials was low and the applicability of their results to very elderly patients is still uncertain. We have carried out a prospective cohort study on AF patients aged ≥85 years enrolled in the Survey on anticoagulaTed pAtients RegisTer (START2-Register) and treated with either VKAs or DOACs, with the aim to evaluate mortality, bleeding and thrombotic rates during a long-term follow-up. We enrolled 1124 patients who started anticoagulation at ≥85 years with VKA (58.7%) or DOACs (41.3%), Clinical characteristics of patients were similar, except for a higher prevalence of coronary artery disease and renal failure in VKAs patients and of a history of previous bleeding and previous stroke/TIA in patients on DOACs. Median CHA2DS2VASc and HAS-BLED scores were similar between the two groups. During follow-up, 47 major bleedings (rate 2.3 x100 pt-yrs) and 19 stroke/TIA (0.9 x100 pt-yrs) were recorded. The incidence of bleeding was similar between patients on VKAs and DOACs. Patients on DOACs showed a higher rate of thrombotic events during treatment (rate 1.84 and 0.50,respectively). Mortality rate was higher in patients on VKAs than in patients on DOACs (HR 0.64 (95% CI 0.46-0.91). In conclusion, we confirm the overall safety and effectiveness of anticoagulant treatment in very elderly AF patients, with lower mortality rates in DOACs patients, similar bleeding risk, and a higher risk for cerebral thrombotic events in DOACs patients.
- Medical Therapy for Heart Failure Caused by Ischemic Heart Disease. [Journal Article]
- CircRCirc Res 2019 May 24; 124(11):1520-1535
- Patients with heart failure (HF) syndromes have been categorized as those with reduced ejection fraction (EF) or preserved EF (HFpEF), and ischemia plays a key role in both types. HF remains a major …
Patients with heart failure (HF) syndromes have been categorized as those with reduced ejection fraction (EF) or preserved EF (HFpEF), and ischemia plays a key role in both types. HF remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and with the aging of our population this burden continues to rise, predominantly as a result of hospitalizations for HFpEF. Patients with obstructive coronary artery disease more likely have HF with reduced EF, rather than HFpEF, secondary to acute ischemic injury resulting in myocardial infarction, and large outcomes trials of treatments with neurohumoral inhibition have documented reduced adverse outcomes. In contrast, similar treatments in patients with HFpEF have not proven beneficial. This therapeutic dilemma may be attributed, in part, to heterogeneity in the underlying pathophysiology with different systemic and myocardial signaling pathways, despite similar clinical presentations and findings, in patients with HFpEF. Also, emerging evidence indicates that impaired myocardial perfusion and inflammation secondary to multiple comorbidities are key mechanisms in HFpEF. We will thoroughly review the role of ischemic heart disease in the pathogenesis of HF with reduced EF and HFpEF, and discuss the medical management strategies available for these conditions.
- Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus Class D Aortoiliac Lesions: A Comparison of Endovascular and Open Surgical Outcomes. [Journal Article]
- AAAJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 May 23; :1-6
- CONCLUSIONS: For properly selected patients, the clinical outcomes of endovascular reconstruction versus surgical bypass for TASC II D AOID may be equivalent at 2.5 years after the procedure. The decreased operative risk associated with endovascular reconstruction suggests that it is the technique of choice for high-risk patients.
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- [Myocarditis, a treacherous condition]. [Journal Article]
- NTNed Tijdschr Geneeskd 2019 May 09; 163
- Myocarditis, a treacherous condition It is important to recognize myocarditis at an early stage. To illustrate this, we present two male patients aged 39 and 51, respectively, who were admitted with …
Myocarditis, a treacherous condition It is important to recognize myocarditis at an early stage. To illustrate this, we present two male patients aged 39 and 51, respectively, who were admitted with febrile disease and signs of circulatory instability. Initially, myocarditis was not suspected in these patients. After the sudden death of the younger patient it was discovered that he had had fulminant myocarditis. Its nonspecific, heterogeneous clinical presentation, and potentially disastrous outcome make myocarditis a treacherous condition, which mainly affects younger adults. Although its aetiology is broad, the primary cause in the western world is a viral infection leading to lymphocytic myocarditis. Fulminant forms are rare, but this diagnosis needs to be considered in patients with an atypical illness and impaired haemodynamics or electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities. Early and liberal consultation of a cardiologist is important. Primary diagnostics include blood testing (e.g. troponin, creatinine kinase), ECG, echocardiography and exclusion of coronary ischaemia. The diagnosis can be confirmed by cardiovascular MRI or endomyocardial biopsy.