- Facial Weakness, Diplopia, and Fever in a 31-Year-Old: An Atypical Case of Tuberculous Meningitis. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2017 Dec 07; 9(12):e1918
- Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is an infection of the central nervous system (CNS) meninges that carries high morbidity and mortality. It is important to recognize, as patients may present with atypica...
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is an infection of the central nervous system (CNS) meninges that carries high morbidity and mortality. It is important to recognize, as patients may present with atypical symptoms. We describe the case of a 31-year-old man with a history of diabetes who presented with a sub-acute onset of right-sided facial weakness and right gaze difficulty with diplopia. History revealed low-grade fever, right-sided headache, fatigue and moderate weight loss for the past several weeks. The patient did not report neck stiffness, rigidity, fever, chills or cough. The physical exam revealed sixth nerve palsy with a right Horner's syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed pachymeningeal enhancement. A spinal tap revealed elevated white blood cells (WBCs), glucose and protein; cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture showed Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The patient was diagnosed with TBM and treated with isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol and vitamin B6 for 12 months. The timely diagnosis of TBM can be challenging due to a nonspecific clinical presentation. In patients with a sub-acute onset of headache, fever and meningeal signs, TBM should be considered in the differential. If suspected, treatment should be initiated immediately to prevent further neurological impairment and death.
- Microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm: Outcome on spasm and complications. A review. [Journal Article]
- NNeurochirurgie 2018 Feb 14
- Over the last decades microvascular decompression (MVD) has been established as the curative treatment of the primary Hemifacial Spasm (HFS), proven to be linked in almost all cases to a neurovascula...
Over the last decades microvascular decompression (MVD) has been established as the curative treatment of the primary Hemifacial Spasm (HFS), proven to be linked in almost all cases to a neurovascular compression of the facial nerve. Because the disease is not life-threatening and MVD not totally innocuous, efficacy and safety have to be weighted before decision taken of indicating surgery. The authors have been charged by the French Speaking Society of Neurosurgery to conduct a detailed evaluation of the probability of relief of the spasm that MVD is able to obtain, together with its potential complications. For the review, the authors have gone through the reports available from the Pubmed system. Eighty-two publications have been read and analysed, totalizing more than 10,000 operated cases. In most series, the percentage of patients with total relief ranged between 85% and 90%. Relief was obtained after a certain delay in as many as in 33%±8% of the patients in many series. For those, delay lasted around one year in 12% of them. When effect of MVD was considered achieved, relief remained permanent in all but 1%-2% of the long-term followed patients. As regards to complications, risk of permanent cranial nerve deficit was evaluated at 1%-2% for facial palsy, 2%-3% for non-functional hearing loss, 0.5%-1% for lower cranial nerve dysfunction. Risk of stroke was at 0.1% and mortality at 0.1%. CSF leakage and related complications could be reduced at less than 2% in most series provided careful closing techniques be applied. Complications were at a higher rate in repeated MVD. MVD is an effective curative method for almost all the patients affected with primary HFS. Because MVD for HFS is functional surgery, scrupulous consideration of its potential risks, together with the ways to avoid complications are of paramount importance. When MVD is estimated to have failed, it is wise to wait one year before considering to repeat surgery, as number of patients may benefit from delayed effect. This is the more so as important as repeated surgery entails a higher rate of complications.
- Idiopathic Isolated Unilateral Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy: A Report of 2 Cases and Review of the Literature. [Journal Article]
- JOJ Oral Maxillofac Surg 2018 Feb 02
- Hypoglossal nerve palsy (HNP) is a common finding in neurologic diseases when associated with other cranial nerve palsies or further pathology and exhibits characteristic clinical manifestations, inc...
Hypoglossal nerve palsy (HNP) is a common finding in neurologic diseases when associated with other cranial nerve palsies or further pathology and exhibits characteristic clinical manifestations, including unilateral atrophy of the musculature of the tongue. It occasionally appears as the initial or solitary sign of an intracranial or extracranial space-occupying lesion, head or neck injury, or vascular abnormality of the internal carotid artery. There are few cases of idiopathic isolated unilateral HNP, which should be diagnosed through exclusion. This report describes 2 patients who had different outcomes and presents a literature review of idiopathic isolated unilateral HNP. Case 1 was a 71-year-old man who was referred with a 1-month history of dysphagia and speech impairment. Intraoral examination disclosed marked left-side hemiatrophy of the tongue and deviation toward the left on protrusion. At coronal Tl-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, left-side hemiatrophy of the tongue was clearly visible through deviation of the median septum to the left. The patient was diagnosed with idiopathic isolated unilateral HNP through exclusion and was treated with steroids and mecobalamin, but he did not recover. Case 2 was a 32-year-old man complaining of tongue weakness for 2 days. On examination, left HNP was evident, with deviation of the tongue to the left on protrusion. He was diagnosed with idiopathic isolated unilateral HNP through exclusion and was treated with steroids. After 3 weeks, the patient had completely recovered. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first detailed literature review on idiopathic isolated unilateral HNP. This condition is very rare but should be considered for diagnosis. It warrants a thorough and stepwise approach for etiologic diagnosis.
- Sequential spinal and intracranial dural metastases in gastric adenocarcinoma: A case report. [Journal Article]
- WJWorld J Gastroenterol 2018 Feb 07; 24(5):651-656
- Dural metastasis from primary gastric adenocarcinoma has been rarely reported, and its prognosis is very poor because it frequently leads to acute subdural hematoma. Here, we describe a case with seq...
Dural metastasis from primary gastric adenocarcinoma has been rarely reported, and its prognosis is very poor because it frequently leads to acute subdural hematoma. Here, we describe a case with sequential spinal and cranial dural metastases from gastric adenocarcinoma without subdural hematoma. A 43-year-old woman with gastric adenocarcinoma and well-controlled peritoneal carcinomatosis presented with back pain, right radiating leg pain, left facial palsy, and hearing loss. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine and brain revealed dural masses at the lumbosacral junction with invasion to the L5 and S1 nerve roots and at the skull base with invasion to the internal auditory canal. She was treated with local radiotherapy, and her pain and neurologic symptoms improved after palliative radiotherapy. This is the first reported case of dural metastases of gastric adenocarcinoma of the spine and skull base but with a relatively indolent course and without subdural hematoma.
- Factors associated with clinical and radiological status on admission in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. [Journal Article]
- NRNeurosurg Rev 2018 Feb 10
- Grading scales yield objective measure of the severity of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and serve as to guide treatment decisions and for prognostication. The purpose of this cohort study was to...
Grading scales yield objective measure of the severity of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and serve as to guide treatment decisions and for prognostication. The purpose of this cohort study was to determine what factors govern a patient's disease-specific admission scores in a representative Central European cohort. The Swiss Study of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage includes anonymized data from all tertiary referral centers serving subarachnoid hemorrhage patients in Switzerland. The 2009-2014 dataset was used to evaluate the impact of patient and aneurysm characteristics on the patients' status at admission using descriptive and multivariate regression analysis. The primary/co-primary endpoints were the GCS and the WFNS grade. The secondary endpoints were the Fisher grade, the presence of a thick cisternal or ventricular clot, the presence of a new focal neurological deficit or cranial nerve palsy, and the patient's intubation status. In our cohort of 1787 consecutive patients, increasing patient age by 10 years and low pre-ictal functional status (mRS 3-5) were inversely correlated with "high" GCS score (GCS ≥ 13) (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.97 and OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.31-1.46), "low" WFNS grade (grade VI-V) (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.04-1.20 and OR 1.47, 95% CI 0.66-3.27), and high Fisher grade (grade III-IV) (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00-1.17 and OR 1.54, 95% CI 0.55-4.32). Other independent predictors for the patients' clinical and radiological condition at admission were the ruptured aneurysms' location and its size. In sum, chronological age and pre-ictal functional status, as well as the ruptured aneurysm's location and size, determine the patients' clinical and radiological condition at admission to the tertiary referral hospital.
- Pathogenesis of cranial neuropathies in Moebius syndrome: Electrodiagnostic orofacial studies. [Journal Article]
- MNMuscle Nerve 2018 Feb 09
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis of an early developmental defect localized in motor cranial nerves with spared V to VII internuclear pathways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Primitive Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Pterygopalatine Fossa. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Craniofac Surg 2018 Feb 07
- Primitive tumors of pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) are often benign tumors or extension of a malignant sinonasal tract. Primitive tumors may rarely occur in PPF.The authors present a 71-year-old woman w...
Primitive tumors of pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) are often benign tumors or extension of a malignant sinonasal tract. Primitive tumors may rarely occur in PPF.The authors present a 71-year-old woman with a 6-month history of left cranial nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography-computed tomography showed an enhancing isolated lesion at the PPF. A transmaxillary biopsy was performed, leading to diagnosis of primitive squamous cell carcinoma. The patient underwent radiotherapy treatment.Primitive tumors of PPF are rare and diagnosis may be difficult. Endoscopic access for diagnosis can be performed. Squamous cell carcinoma occurring in PPF is associated with poor prognosis.
- Complications of Optic Nerve Sheath Fenestration as a Treatment for Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension. [Review]
- SOSemin Ophthalmol 2018; 33(1):36-41
- There are a number of surgical options for treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) when it is refractory to medical treatment and weight loss. Optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF) i...
There are a number of surgical options for treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) when it is refractory to medical treatment and weight loss. Optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF) is one of these options. Use of this procedure varies among centers due to experience with the procedure and concern for associated complications that can result in severe loss of vision. This review summarizes the literature concerning post-surgical complications of ONSF for IIH.
- Tuberculum Meningioma: Orbitopterional Approach. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurol Surg B Skull Base 2018; 79(2):S219-S220
- This is a case of an extensive tuberculum sella meningioma involving the circle of Willis down to the basilar artery that presented with bilateral visual loss worse on the right than left side. A one...
This is a case of an extensive tuberculum sella meningioma involving the circle of Willis down to the basilar artery that presented with bilateral visual loss worse on the right than left side. A one-piece right orbitopterional approach along the worse eye was used to gain access to the three cranial fossae. The orbitotomy facilitates access to the midline structures and contralateral base of the tumor with minimal brain retraction. Tumor resection is initiated by first identifying the tumor capsule, followed by piecemeal debulking via ultrasonic aspiration. Early decompression of the ipsilateral optic nerve was performed. Gross total resection of the tumor was achieved through multiple windows as follows: prechiasmatic, opticocarotid, and carotid oculomotor. Sharp dissection is performed around critical neurovascular structures to reduce strain and vascular injury. The circle of Willis including the small perforators was completely preserved. Postoperative examination at follow-up demonstrated improvement in vision less on the right side and resolution of postoperative partial third nerve palsy. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/XfEh8CjkvA0 .
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- Transient trochlear nerve palsy following percutaneous angioplasty. [Journal Article]
- ASArch Soc Esp Oftalmol 2018 Feb 01
- CONCLUSIONS: Ophthalmoplegia following coronary percutaneous angioplasty is rare. Only internuclear ophthalmoplegia, III and VI cranial nerve palsy have been previously reported following percutaneous angioplasty. This is the first reported case of unilateral isolated trochlear nerve ophthalmoplegia following this procedure.