- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Desvenlafaxine is an antidepressant that is FDA-approved drug to treat major depressive disorder in adults. For healthy women who have contraindications to estrogen, desvenlafaxine can be used off...
Desvenlafaxine is an antidepressant that is FDA-approved drug to treat major depressive disorder in adults. For healthy women who have contraindications to estrogen, desvenlafaxine can be used off-label to treat hot flashes during menopause.
- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Depressive disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5) include diagnoses of different disorders, for example, major depressive disorder (MDD), disruptive mood dysre...
Depressive disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5) include diagnoses of different disorders, for example, major depressive disorder (MDD), disruptive mood dysregulation, persistent depressive disorder, and depression not otherwise specified. This article reviews major depressive disorder (MDD). MDD is the first cause of disability among adolescents aged 10 to 19 years (WHO 2014). Suicide is the third cause of death in this age group, and adolescent depression is a major risk factor for suicide. Depressed adolescents experienced significantly more stressors during the year before onset when compared with a comparable 12-month period in normal controls.
- Social support and second trimester depression. [Journal Article]
- MMidwifery 2018 Nov 23; 69:158-162
- CONCLUSIONS: Support from the family may be a protective factor against perinatal depression among Chinese pregnant women. The study of social support during pregnancy could help us preferably understand and effectively use social resources to guide and support women in pregnancy. Context-tailored support enhancement should be based on the availability of social networks.
- Disruption of function: Neurophysiological markers of cognitive deficits in retired football players. [Journal Article]
- CNClin Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 26; 130(1):111-121
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that multiple concussions sustained over several years can lead to altered cognitive and psychosocial function.Neurophysiological markers of conscious and pre-conscious attention provide an objective assessment for evaluating long-term cognitive consequences of concussion.
- Disgust, impulsivity and depressive dimensions in subjects at risk for bulimia nervosa and/or binge eating disorder. [Journal Article]
- AJAsian J Psychiatr 2018 Nov 27; 39:32-34
- CONCLUSIONS: The neurobiological basis for these associations might be related to a dysfunction in the insular cortex.
- Metabolic syndrome, depression and anhedonia among young adults. [Journal Article]
- PRPsychiatry Res 2018 Aug 07; 271:306-310
- The aim of this study was to assess the association between anhedonia and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a well-characterized community sample of individuals with a current depressive episode. This is ...
The aim of this study was to assess the association between anhedonia and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a well-characterized community sample of individuals with a current depressive episode. This is a cross-sectional study with young adults aged 24-30 years old. Depressive episode and the presence of anhedonia was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview - Plus version (MINI Plus). The MetS was assessed using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATP III). The sample included 931 subjects, being 22 had depression without anhedonia, whereas 55 had depression with anhedonia. MetS was more prevalent among subjects with depression and anhedonia (43.6%) when compared to individuals without anhedonia and population control group. Moreover, subjects with depression and anhedonia have a significant increase of levels of glucose, triglycerides, total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, as well as significant decreased in the HDL-cholesterol level. The present study showed that individuals with depression and anhedonia present higher prevalence of MetS. Our study suggests that the use of the concept of anhedonia may contribute to a better understanding of the complex relationship between depression and metabolic syndrome.
- Proteomic analysis of olfactory bulb suggests CACNA1E as a promoter of CREB signaling in microbiota-induced depression. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Proteomics 2018 Dec 03
- Major depressive disorders impact approximately 17% of the population worldwide, whose high morbidity and considerable adversity have resulted in enormous social and economic burden. In addition, cli...
Major depressive disorders impact approximately 17% of the population worldwide, whose high morbidity and considerable adversity have resulted in enormous social and economic burden. In addition, clinically depressed patients often show reduced volume of olfactory bulb (OB) and decreased olfactory sensitivity. Although mounting evidence conveyed that the gut microbiota may implicate the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) via the microbe-gut-brain axis, knowledge about its distinctive molecular mechanism is rudimentary. Herein, iTRAQ coupled with LC-MS/MS was applied to compare the OB proteome between "pathological microbiota" and "healthy microbiota" germ-free mice. A set of 367 proteins were differentially identified in the OB, including 119 up-regulated and 248 down-regulated proteins compared with the levels in controls. A combined analysis with significantly changed OB proteins from CUMS depression model supported the role of CREB signaling, whose dysregulation is likely to disrupt the axonogenesis of OB under microbiota condition. With that, the down-regulated CACNA1E and its downstream proteins (CALM/ CaMKII/ CREB/ BDNF) in CREB pathway were validated by Western blot. Meanwhile, the canonical pathways involved Nuclear Receptor Signaling highlighted the fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) model, which would be a new breakthrough for depressive research. These findings enrich the previous research achievements about the gut microbiota in psychiatric disorders, providing a creative insight into the intricate mechanisms of OB dysfunction in depression. SIGNIFICANCE: Emerging evidence has shown that gut microbiota can greatly influence brain functions and even behaviors. As one of the post-developmental neurogenesis areas for the adult brain, the OB is becoming increasingly important in the study of the pathogenesis of depression. Using an iTRAQ-based proteomics, we identified 367 altered proteins in the OB of fecal microbiota transplanted mouse, which provide a novel insight for further research of the "microbiota-gut-brain axis". In addition, combined analyses with the CUMS depression model and the validation of key proteins by Western blot may assist in the investigation of OB dysfunction in mental sickness.
- Enhanced anxiety-like behavior emerges with weight gain in male and female obesity-susceptible rats. [Journal Article]
- BBBehav Brain Res 2018 Dec 03
- Epidemiological data suggest that body mass index and obesity are strong risk factors for depression and anxiety. However, it is difficult to separate cause from effect, as predisposition to obesity ...
Epidemiological data suggest that body mass index and obesity are strong risk factors for depression and anxiety. However, it is difficult to separate cause from effect, as predisposition to obesity may enhance susceptibility to anxiety, or vice versa. Here, we examined the effect of diet and obesity on anxiety-like behaviors in male and female selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats, and outbred Sprague-Dawley rats. We found that when obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats do not differ in weight or fat mass, measures of anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze and open field are similar between the two groups. However, once weight and fat mass diverge, group differences emerge, with greater anxiety in obesity-prone relative to obesity-resistant rats. This same pattern was observed for males and females. Interestingly, even when obesity-resistant rats were "forced" to gain fat mass comparable to obesity-prone rats (via prolonged access to 60% high-fat diet), anxiety-like behaviors did not differ from lean chow fed controls. In addition, a positive correlation between anxiety-like behaviors and adiposity were observed in male but not in female obesity-prone rats. Finally, diet-induced weight gain in and of itself was not sufficient to increase measures of anxiety in outbred male rats. Together, these data suggest that interactions between susceptibility to obesity and physiological alterations accompanying weight gain may contribute to the development of enhanced anxiety.
- Classic Psychedelics: An integrative review of epidemiology, mystical experience, brain network function, and therapeutics. [Review]
- P&TPharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 03
- The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrative review and offer novel insights regarding human research with classic psychedelics (classic hallucinogens), which are 5HT2AR agonists such as ly...
The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrative review and offer novel insights regarding human research with classic psychedelics (classic hallucinogens), which are 5HT2AR agonists such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin. Classic psychedelics have been administered as sacraments since ancient times. They were of prominent interest within psychiatry and neuroscience in the 1950s to 1960s, and during this time contributed to the emergence of the field of molecular neuroscience. Promising results were reported for treatment of both end-of-life psychological distress and addiction, and classic psychedelics served as tools for studying the neurobiological bases of psychological disorders. Moreover, classic psychedelics were shown to occasion mystical experiences, which are subjective experiences reported throughout different cultures and religions involving a strong sense of unity, among other characteristics. However, the recreational use of classic psychedelics and their association with the counterculture prompted an end to human research with classic psychedelics in the early 1970s. We review recent therapeutic studies suggesting efficacy in treating psychological distress associated with life-threatening diseases, treating depression, and treating nicotine and alcohol addictions. We also describe the construct of mystical experience, and provide a comprehensive review of modern studies investigating classic psychedelic-occasioned mystical experiences and their consequences. These studies have shown classic psychedelics to fairly reliably occasion mystical experiences. Moreover, classic psychedelic-occasioned mystical experiences are associated with improved psychological outcomes in both healthy volunteer and patient populations. We also review neuroimaging studies that suggest neurobiological mechanisms of psychedelics. These studies have also broadened our understanding of the brain, the serotonin system, and the neurobiological basis of consciousness. Finally, we provide the most comprehensive review of epidemiological studies of classic psychedelics to date. Notable among these are a number of studies which have suggested the possibility that nonmedical naturalistic (non-laboratory) use of classic psychedelics is associated with positive mental health and prosocial outcomes, although it is clear that some individuals are harmed by classic psychedelics in non-supervised settings. Overall, these various lines of research suggest that classic psychedelics might hold strong potential as therapeutics, and as tools for experimentally investigating mystical experiences and behavioral-brain function more generally.
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- Race and income moderate the association between depressive symptoms and obesity. [Journal Article]
- PMPrev Med 2018 Dec 03
- Complex interrelationships between race, sex, obesity and depression have been well-documented. Because of differences in associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and health by race, determini...
Complex interrelationships between race, sex, obesity and depression have been well-documented. Because of differences in associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and health by race, determining the role of SES may help to further explicate these relationships. The aim of this study was to determine how race and income interact with obesity on depression. Combining data from the 2007-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, depressive symptoms was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and obesity was assessed as body mass index ≥30 kg/m2. Three-way interactions between race, income and obesity on depressive symptoms were determined using ordered regression models. Significant interactions between race, middle income and obesity (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.22-1.96) suggested that, among white women, obesity is positively associated with depressive symptoms across income levels, while obesity was not associated with depression for African American women at any income level. Obesity was only associated with depressive symptoms among middle-income white men (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.02-2.03) and among high-income African American men (OR = 4.65, 95% CI = 1.48-14.59). The associations between obesity and depressive symptoms vary greatly by race and income. Findings from this study underscore the importance of addressing obesity and depression among higher income African American men.