- Desquamative gingivitis: Clinical findings and diseases. [Review]
- JAJ Am Acad Dermatol 2018; 78(5):839-848
- Desquamative gingivitis is a clinical finding with several potential etiologies. Among the most common are oral lichen planus, cicatricial pemphigoid, and pemphigus vulgaris, though various other dif...
Desquamative gingivitis is a clinical finding with several potential etiologies. Among the most common are oral lichen planus, cicatricial pemphigoid, and pemphigus vulgaris, though various other differential diagnoses exist. The presence of desquamative gingivitis often results in poor oral hygiene, which can have downstream consequences, including periodontitis and tooth loss. Though certain mucosal findings may be suggestive of a particular diagnosis, a thorough history, physical examination, and appropriate dermato- and immunopathologic assessment is necessary for narrowing this broad differential diagnosis. This article offers a comprehensive review on the subject, including how to differentiate between the different underlying causes and the best methods for diagnosis (eg, how best to obtain mucosal biopsy specimens). In addition, there is minimal information in the dermatology literature on evaluation of oral hygiene and the consequences of poor oral hygiene not only on disease activity but also overall health. Knowledge on appropriate oral cavity inspection and evaluation of dental hygiene is lacking, and this continuing medical education series discusses methods to evaluate for these consequences so that the dermatologist can be better equipped in managing these patients and recognizing complications early on.
- Subgingival Microbiota in White Patients With Desquamative Gingivitis: A Cross-Sectional Study. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Periodontol 2017; 88(7):643-650
- CONCLUSIONS: Microbiologic differences were found in subgingival plaque for patients with DG and pGI. This may suggest possible association between periodontal pathogens and DG.
- Dermoscopy in General Dermatology: A Practical Overview. [Review]
- DTDermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2016; 6(4):471-507
- Over the last few years, dermoscopy has been shown to be a useful tool in assisting the noninvasive diagnosis of various general dermatological disorders. In this article, we sought to provide an up-...
Over the last few years, dermoscopy has been shown to be a useful tool in assisting the noninvasive diagnosis of various general dermatological disorders. In this article, we sought to provide an up-to-date practical overview on the use of dermoscopy in general dermatology by analysing the dermoscopic differential diagnosis of relatively common dermatological disorders grouped according to their clinical presentation, i.e. dermatoses presenting with erythematous-desquamative patches/plaques (plaque psoriasis, eczematous dermatitis, pityriasis rosea, mycosis fungoides and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus), papulosquamous/papulokeratotic dermatoses (lichen planus, pityriasis rosea, papulosquamous sarcoidosis, guttate psoriasis, pityriasis lichenoides chronica, classical pityriasis rubra pilaris, porokeratosis, lymphomatoid papulosis, papulosquamous chronic GVHD, parakeratosis variegata, Grover disease, Darier disease and BRAF-inhibitor-induced acantholytic dyskeratosis), facial inflammatory skin diseases (rosacea, seborrheic dermatitis, discoid lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, lupus vulgaris, granuloma faciale and demodicidosis), acquired keratodermas (chronic hand eczema, palmar psoriasis, keratoderma due to mycosis fungoides, keratoderma resulting from pityriasis rubra pilaris, tinea manuum, palmar lichen planus and aquagenic palmar keratoderma), sclero-atrophic dermatoses (necrobiosis lipoidica, morphea and cutaneous lichen sclerosus), hypopigmented macular diseases (extragenital guttate lichen sclerosus, achromic pityriasis versicolor, guttate vitiligo, idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis, progressive macular hypomelanosis and postinflammatory hypopigmentations), hyperpigmented maculopapular diseases (pityriasis versicolor, lichen planus pigmentosus, Gougerot-Carteaud syndrome, Dowling-Degos disease, erythema ab igne, macular amyloidosis, lichen amyloidosus, friction melanosis, terra firma-forme dermatosis, urticaria pigmentosa and telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans), itchy papulonodular dermatoses (hypertrophic lichen planus, prurigo nodularis, nodular scabies and acquired perforating dermatosis), erythrodermas (due to psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, mycosis fungoides, pityriasis rubra pilaris and scabies), noninfectious balanitis (Zoon's plasma cell balanitis, psoriatic balanitis, seborrheic dermatitis and non-specific balanitis) and erythroplasia of Queyrat, inflammatory cicatricial alopecias (scalp discoid lupus erythematosus, lichen planopilaris, frontal fibrosing alopecia and folliculitis decalvans), nonscarring alopecias (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, androgenetic alopecia and telogen effluvium) and scaling disorders of the scalp (tinea capitis, scalp psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis and pityriasis amiantacea).
- Recurrent desquamative vulvovaginitis in a young woman. [Case Reports]
- IJInt J Dermatol 2016; 55(1):21-3
- The Differential Diagnosis of Desquamative Gingivitis: Review of the Literature and Clinical Guide for Dental Undergraduates. [Review]
- JIJ Int Oral Health 2015; 7(Suppl 1):88-92
- CONCLUSIONS: The clinical signs and symptoms of desquamative gingivitis are insufficient to make a definitive diagnosis. We proposed a clinical flowchart aimed to help dental undergraduates achieving their goal in making an accurate and easy diagnosis. However, this guideline needs further evaluation.
- [In case of pelvic pain desquamative inflammatory vaginitis is an important differential diagnosis]. [Case Reports]
- ULUgeskr Laeger 2015 Jun 01; 177(23):V12140693
- Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis (DIV) is an uncommon, severe form of chronic vaginitis of unknown aetiology. The syndrome is characterised by profuse vaginal discharge, vulvovaginal irritation, d...
Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis (DIV) is an uncommon, severe form of chronic vaginitis of unknown aetiology. The syndrome is characterised by profuse vaginal discharge, vulvovaginal irritation, dyspareunia and vaginal erythema. As the symptoms and signs are nonspecific, other causes of purulent discharge have to be excluded first. Definition necessitates specific wet smear findings. The purpose of this case report is to consider DIV as a diagnosis in women presenting with persistent vaginitis. An effective treatment using clindamycin and/or glucocorticoids is available.
- Docetaxel induced Lyell's syndrome: a rare life threatening cause of dermatitis medicamentosas. [Case Reports]
- JCJ Cancer Res Ther 2014 Jul-Sep; 10(3):742-4
- Lyell's syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a life threatening complication mostly caused by medications, characterized by desquamative lesions of the skin and mucous membranes with 30 pe...
Lyell's syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a life threatening complication mostly caused by medications, characterized by desquamative lesions of the skin and mucous membranes with 30 percent or more epidermal involvement along with mucus membrane. We report a rare case of toxic epidermal necrolysis following administration of docetaxel, a semi-synthetic taxane. A female diagnosed as having metastatic breast carcinoma received chemotherapy in form of docetaxel after being exposed to adjuvant chemotherapy, developed severe involvement of skin and mucus membrane. Diagnosis of TEN was made and she was managed with steroids, antibiotics, intravenous fluids and antiseptic dressings. Common toxicities reported with this drug include myelosuppression, alopecia, nail damage, erythema multiforme major and neuropathy. We believe this is the first case report of Lyell's syndrome following docetaxel. Main aim of this case is to make physicians aware of the severe skin reactions with docetaxel, measures to avoid them, early recognition and prompt treatment.
- Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. [Review]
- BPBest Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2014; 28(7):1042-50
- Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis (DIV) is an uncommon form of chronic purulent vaginitis. It occurs mainly in Caucasians with a peak occurrence in the perimenopause. Symptoms and signs are nonspec...
Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis (DIV) is an uncommon form of chronic purulent vaginitis. It occurs mainly in Caucasians with a peak occurrence in the perimenopause. Symptoms and signs are nonspecific; DIV is a diagnosis of exclusion, and other causes of purulent vaginitis should be excluded. The main symptoms include purulent discharge, vestibulo-vaginal irritation, and dyspareunia. Examination of vaginal walls shows signs of inflammation with increased erythema and petechiae. Through microscopy (wet mount) of the vaginal secretions, DIV is defined by an increase in inflammatory cells and parabasal epithelial cells (immature squamous cells). Vaginal flora is abnormal and pH is always elevated above 4.5. Although etiology and pathogenesis remain unknown, the favorable response to anti-inflammatory agents suggests that the etiology is immune mediated. Either local vaginal clindamycin or vaginal corticosteroids are adequate treatment. As a chronic condition, maintenance treatment should be considered as relapse is common.
- Chronic desquamative gingivitis in siblings: A report of two cases. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Indian Soc Periodontol 2014; 18(3):385-9
- Desquamative gingivitis is a gingival response associated with a variety of clinical conditions and characterized by intense erythema, desquamation and ulceration of free and attached gingiva. A vari...
Desquamative gingivitis is a gingival response associated with a variety of clinical conditions and characterized by intense erythema, desquamation and ulceration of free and attached gingiva. A variety of diseases such as lichen planus, pemphigus, pemphigoid, dermatitis herpetiformis, linear IgA disease, lupus erythematosus, erythema multiformae manifest clinically as desquamative gingivitis. Of all the disease entities, Lichen Planus is a relatively common disorder affecting the skin and mucous membrane. Very often it has oral manifestations. These lesions of oral lichen planus (OLP) have myriad but distinct morphology. As they mimic other mucocutaneous disorders with regard to clinical appearance, many lesions of oral lichen planus go undiagnosed or are wrongly diagnosed. Reported here are two cases of desquamative gingivitis. One of these was diagnosed as erosive lichen planus based on the symptoms, clinical findings, histologic, and immunofluorescent examination. Further management was done in consultation with a dermatologist.
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- Boric acid ingestion clinically mimicking toxic epidermal necrolysis. [Case Reports]
- JCJ Cutan Pathol 2013; 40(11):962-5
- The ingestion of large amounts of boric acid, a component of household insecticides, is a rare occurrence, characterized by a diffuse desquamative skin eruption, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, deliri...
The ingestion of large amounts of boric acid, a component of household insecticides, is a rare occurrence, characterized by a diffuse desquamative skin eruption, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, delirium, acute renal failure and prolonged ileus. A 56-year-old male with a history of multiple previous suicide attempts was witnessed ingesting household roach killer and 4 days later presented to the hospital with lethargy, stiffness and a diffuse erythematous and desquamative eruption with bullous formation. He subsequently developed erythema of both palms as well as alopecia totalis. Histopathology from a right arm shave biopsy revealed a mostly intact epidermis with subtle vacuolar alteration of the basal layer, scattered intraepidermal apoptotic keratinocytes, parakeratosis with alternating layers of orthokeratosis and considerable superficial exfoliation; accompanying dermal changes included vasodilatation and mild perivascular inflammation. This report describes the cutaneous and systemic complications in a rare case of boric acid ingestion. There is little published material on the symptoms and histopathology following boric acid ingestion, but knowledge of this entity is important, both to differentiate it from other causes of desquamative skin rashes and to allow the initiation of appropriate clinical care.