- Common Gastrointestinal Infections. [Review]
- PCPrim Care 2018; 45(3):519-532
- Gastrointestinal infections account for a large burden of acute and chronic disease, with diarrhea being the most common manifestation. Most cases are due to viruses, with norovirus being the most co...
Gastrointestinal infections account for a large burden of acute and chronic disease, with diarrhea being the most common manifestation. Most cases are due to viruses, with norovirus being the most common, whereas bacteria and parasites are also important contributors to acute and chronic gastrointestinal infections and their sequelae. Nontyphoidal Salmonella species cause the most hospitalizations and deaths in the United States. This article reviews an evidence-based approach to diarrhea evaluation with a focus on pathogen-specific testing and management for the most common viral, bacterial, and parasitic causes in the United States.
- Oral administration of inactivated porcine epidemic diarrhea virus activate DCs in porcine Peyer's patches. [Journal Article]
- BVBMC Vet Res 2018 Aug 16; 14(1):239
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that oral administration of inactivated PEDV activate DCs in porcine Peyer's patches and inactivated PEDV may be a useful and safe vaccine to trigger adaptive immunity.
- [Acute cytomegalovirus proctitis in a immunocompetent patient]. [Case Reports]
- RMRev Med Liege 2018; 73(7-8):380-383
- Cases of CMV proctitis are frequently reported in immunocompromised patients. However, some cases of CMV proctitis are linked to a CMV primary infection and to unprotected anal intercourse in immunoc...
Cases of CMV proctitis are frequently reported in immunocompromised patients. However, some cases of CMV proctitis are linked to a CMV primary infection and to unprotected anal intercourse in immunocompetent patients. The most common symptom is bloody diarrhea (hemorrhagic colitis). The endoscopic exam can present in distincts forms. The diagnostic is based on a set of clinical, biological, endoscopic and histological arguments. The prognosis of the disease is favorable. The treatment is supportive. A research on other sexually transmitted diseases must be conducted.
- Heterotopic Respiratory Mucosa in the Rectum: An Unusual Type and Site of Heterotopia in the Gastrointestinal Tract. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Surg Pathol 2018 Aug 16; :1066896918793944
- Although pancreatic and gastric heterotopias are common findings in the gastrointestinal tract, heterotopic respiratory mucosa (HRM) in the rectum is extremely rare and has only been reported twice p...
Although pancreatic and gastric heterotopias are common findings in the gastrointestinal tract, heterotopic respiratory mucosa (HRM) in the rectum is extremely rare and has only been reported twice previously. We are presenting, to our knowledge, the third case of HRM in the rectum. A 56-year-old man with a history of chronic diarrhea presented for diagnostic colonoscopy, where he was found to have a rectal subepithelial nodule. He was subsequently referred to a tertiary medical center for further evaluation with rectal endoscopic ultrasound. Endoscopically, the nodule was hypoechoic, 2 to 3 mm in size, located in the submucosa, and did not appear to invade the muscularis propria. An uncomplicated endoscopic submucosal resection was subsequently performed. Microscopically, the nodule showed a multicystic complex lesion located in the submucosa, lined by ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium and surrounded by thin to moderately thick smooth muscle bundles and multiple lobules of seromucinous glands. There was associated acute and chronic inflammation. The rectum overlying the subepithelial lesion was lined by congested and edematous colonic mucosa and demonstrated no connection with the underlying cystic lesion. Immunohistochemical stains showed positive p63 basal cell staining in the respiratory epithelium of the lesion, while CDX2, TTF-1, and estrogen receptors were all negative. HRM is a benign nonneoplastic lesion with unclear etiology. Pathologists and gastroenterologists should be aware of this entity and consider it in their differential diagnosis for a subepithelial nodule in the rectum, keeping in mind that neoplastic processes can also develop in this location.
- Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from patients with acute diarrhea. [Journal Article]
- IJIran J Microbiol 2018; 10(3):151-157
- CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that E. coli is one of the major causes of diarrhea and is highly resistant to commonly used antibiotics; therefore, officials must pay great attention to this issue in order to increase the health of the community.
- Rectal perforation following paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy for advanced ovarian cancer: a case report and review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Case Rep 2018 Aug 16; 12(1):221
- CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the importance of recognizing gastrointestinal complications following chemotherapy and the need to be aware of the possibility of bowel perforation. Prompt surgical review and intervention must be requested in patients with acute abdominal pain and persistent gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea and vomiting.
- Mink (Neovison vison) kits with pre-weaning diarrhea have elevated serum amyloid A levels and intestinal pathomorphological similarities with New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhea Syndrome. [Journal Article]
- AVActa Vet Scand 2018 Aug 15; 60(1):48
- CONCLUSIONS: A significant increase in circulating concentrations of SAA was found in PWD affected mink kits from 6 to 23 days old compared to controls. The histopathological changes in PWD mink kits suggest that the type of diarrhea is secretory. Attachment of coccoid bacteria, therefore, might be responsible for an enterotoxic effect causing a loss of balance in movements of ions and water leading to the vacuolization and swelling of the enterocytes. The slight to moderate infiltrations of neutrophils irrespectively of diarrheic status and the attachment of coccoid bacteria to enterocytes are comparable to observations found in piglets suffering from New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhea Syndrome. Mechanisms behind the correlation between increased SAA levels and the observed pathological intestinal features remain obscure.
- Ipilimumab for the treatment of advanced melanoma in six kidney transplant patients. [Case Reports]
- AJAm J Transplant 2018 Aug 14
- Immune checkpoint inhibitors are new therapeutic options for metastatic melanoma, but little data is available in organ transplant recipient populations. Six French patients, 3 men and 3 women, mean ...
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are new therapeutic options for metastatic melanoma, but little data is available in organ transplant recipient populations. Six French patients, 3 men and 3 women, mean age 66 years (range 44-74), all kidney transplant recipients, received ipilimumab (CTLA-4 inhibitor) for metastatic melanoma. At diagnosis of advanced melanoma, immunosuppressive therapy had been minimized in all but one. Adverse effects included one case of grade 1 diarrhea and one grade 1 pruritus. One patient had acute T-cell-mediated rejection confirmed by histology, after the first injection of ipilimumab. After a median follow-up of 4.5 (3-20) months, one patient achieved partial response, one had stable disease and four had disease progression. All the patients died, 5 from melanoma, 1 from another cause. In this series and in the literature, ipilimumab proves to be safe and possibly active. The acute rejection we encountered was probably related to both a rapid, drastic reduction of immunosuppression and to the use of ipilimumab. Our safety data on ipilimumab contrasts with the organ transplant rejections already reported with PD-1 inhibitors. We consider that immunosuppression should not be minimized, as the impact on metastatic disease control is probably small. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Safety and efficacy of Rapamune® (Sirolimus) in kidney transplant recipients: results of a prospective post-marketing surveillance study in Korea. [Journal Article]
- BNBMC Nephrol 2018 Aug 13; 19(1):201
- CONCLUSIONS: Rapamune had an acceptable safety profile in prevention of kidney allograft rejection in Korea.
New Search Next
- Bacillus clausii for the Treatment of Acute Diarrhea in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. [Review]
- NNutrients 2018 Aug 12; 10(8)
- Acute diarrhea is a burdensome disease with potentially harmful consequences, especially in childhood. Despite its large use in clinical practice, the efficacy of the probiotic Bacillus clausii in tr...
Acute diarrhea is a burdensome disease with potentially harmful consequences, especially in childhood. Despite its large use in clinical practice, the efficacy of the probiotic Bacillus clausii in treating acute childhood diarrhea remains unclear. Our objective was to systematically review the efficacy of Bacillus clausii in the treatment of acute childhood diarrhea. The following electronic databases were systematically searched up to October 2017: MEDLINE (via PubMed/OVID), EMBASE (via OVID), Cochrane Central Database of Controlled Trials (via CENTRAL), Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Only randomized controlled trials were included. The overall effect for the meta-analysis was derived by using a random effects model. Six randomized controlled trials (1298 patients) met the eligibility criteria. Data arising from pooled analysis showed that Bacillus clausii significantly reduced the duration of diarrhea (mean difference = -9.12 h; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -16.49 to -1.75, p = 0.015), and the duration of hospitalization (mean difference = -0.85 days; 95% CI: -1.56 to -0.15, p = 0.017), compared with control. There was a trend of decreasing stool frequency after Bacillus clausii administration compared with the control group (mean difference = -0.19 diarrheal motions; 95% CI: -0.43 to -0.06, p = 0.14). Bacillus clausii may represent an effective therapeutic option in acute childhood diarrhea, with a good safety profile.