- Galectin-9 is Critical for Mucosal Adaptive Immunity through the TH17-IgA Axis. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Pathol 2018 Feb 16
- Impairment of the intestinal mucosal immunity significantly increases the risk of acute and chronic diseases. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) plays a major role in humoral mucosal immunity to provide protecti...
Impairment of the intestinal mucosal immunity significantly increases the risk of acute and chronic diseases. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) plays a major role in humoral mucosal immunity to provide protection against pathogens and toxins in the gut. Here, we investigated the role of endogenous galectin-9, a tandem repeat-type β-galactoside-binding protein, in intestinal mucosal immunity. By mucosal immunization of Lgals9-/-and littermate control mice, it was found that lack of galectin-9 impaired mucosal antigen-specific IgA response in the gut. Moreover, Lgals9-/-mice were more susceptible to developing watery diarrhea and more prone to death in response to high-dose cholera toxin. The results indicate the importance of galectin-9 in modulating intestinal adaptive immunity. Furthermore, bone marrow chimera mice were established and galectin-9 in hematopoietic cells was found to be critical for adaptive IgA response. In addition, immunized Lgals9-/-mice exhibited lower expression of Il17 and fewer TH17 cells in the lamina propria, implying that the TH17-IgA axis is involved in this mechanism. Taken together, these findings suggest that galectin-9 plays a role in mucosal adaptive immunity through the TH17-IgA axis. By manipulating the expression or activity of galectin-9, intestinal mucosal immune response can be altered, and may benefit the development of mucosal vaccination.
- Gastroenteritis in an adult female revealing hemolytic uremic syndrome: Case report. [Journal Article]
- WJWorld J Gastroenterol 2018 Feb 14; 24(6):763-766
- Nowadays acute gastroenteritis infection caused byEscherichia coli(E. coli) O157:H7 is frequently associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which usually developed after prodromal diarrhea tha...
Nowadays acute gastroenteritis infection caused byEscherichia coli(E. coli) O157:H7 is frequently associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which usually developed after prodromal diarrhea that is often bloody. The abdominal pain accompanied by failure kidney is a suspicious symptom to develop this disorder. Their pathological characteristic is vascular damage which manifested as arteriolar and capillary thrombosis with abnormalities in the endothelium and vessel walls. The major etiological agent of HUS is enterohemorragic (E coli) strain belonging to serotype O157:H7. The lack of papers about HUS associated to gastroenteritis lead us to report this case for explain the symptoms that are uncommon. Furthermore, this report provides some strategies to suspect and make an early diagnosis, besides treatment approach to improving outcomes and prognosis for patients with this disorder.
- Septicemia from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, from a Probiotic Enriched Yogurt, in a Patient with Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation. [Journal Article]
- PAProbiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2018 Feb 17
- Probiotic-rich foods are consumed without much restriction. We report here, a case of septic shock caused by yogurt derived Lactobacillus species in a 54-year-old male patient with acute promyelocyti...
Probiotic-rich foods are consumed without much restriction. We report here, a case of septic shock caused by yogurt derived Lactobacillus species in a 54-year-old male patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia, in second complete remission, and who was an autologous stem cell transplantation recipient. He received high dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. He ingested commercially available probiotic-enriched yogurt because of severe diarrhea. One week later, he developed septic shock, and the pathogen was determined by strain-specific PCR analysis as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103), which was found to be identical with the strain in the yogurt he consumed. Thus, because even low virulent Lactobacilli in the probiotic products can be pathogenic in the compromised hosts, ingestion of such products should be considered with caution in neutropenic patients with severe diarrhea, such as stem cell transplantation recipients.
- European guidance on paediatric use of probiotics states that benefits are limited to several conditions and urges caution with specific vulnerable groups. [Review]
- APActa Paediatr 2018 Feb 15
- CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of probiotics is strain specific and the scientifically proven benefits are currently limited to several clinical indications in the paediatric age group and not recommended for certain patient groups. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Is there any difference between the symptomatology and clinical findings of viral agents causing dehydration? [Journal Article]
- MPMinerva Pediatr 2018; 70(2):165-174
- CONCLUSIONS: The main agents of acute gastroenteritis which caused dehydration were norovirus and rotavirus in our patients. Rotavirus was detected in most of the hospitalized patients with severe symptoms. AST was prominently elevated in rotavirus gastroenteritis. The clinical characteristics and some laboratory findings including hyperglycemia, leukocytosis, and elevated AST may be helpful in differentiating rotavirus from norovirus gastroenteritis. BUN level was insignificantly elevated in patients with rotavirus.
- Detection and Molecular Characterization of Human Adenovirus Infections among Hospitalized Children with Acute Diarrhea in Shanghai, China, 2006-2011. [Journal Article]
- CJCan J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2017; 2017:9304830
- Background: Human adenovirus (HAdV) is considered a significant enteropathogen associated with sporadic diarrhea in children. However, limited data are available regarding the epi...
Background: Human adenovirus (HAdV) is considered a significant enteropathogen associated with sporadic diarrhea in children. However, limited data are available regarding the epidemiology of HAdV in hospitalized children with viral diarrhea in Shanghai. The aim of this study was to characterize the epidemiology of HAdVs and describe their association with acute diarrhea in hospitalized children.Methods: A total of 674 fecal samples were subjected to PCR or RT-PCR to detect RVA, HuCV, HAstV, and HAdV.Results: HAdV infections were detected in 4.7% (32/674) of specimens, with detection rates of 13.4% (11/82), 4.6% (8/174), 3.2% (4/124), 4.1% (3/74), 2.0% (2/100), and 3.3% (4/120) from 2006 to 2011, respectively. Comprehensive detection of the four viruses revealed the presence of a high percentage (90.6%) of coinfections among HAdV-positive samples, where HAdV+RVA was the most prevalent coinfection. Of the 32 HAdV-positive samples, 50.0% (16/32) were classified as HAdV-41, and 18.8% (6/32) were classified as HAdV-3. Almost 94.0% of children infected with HAdV were less than 24 months of age.Conclusions: These results clearly indicated diversity across the HAdV genotypes detected in inpatient children with acute diarrhea in Shanghai and suggested that HAdVs play a role in children with acute diarrhea.
- A traumatic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm and arterioportal fistula, with severe diarrhea as the first symptom: A case report and review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(7):e9893
- CONCLUSIONS: A penetrating abdominal stab wound is a rare cause of hepatic APFs, and occasionally leads to portal hypertension, the medical history and physical examination are the most important cornerstones of clinical diagnosis. Interventional radiology is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of an APF.
- Modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy with image guidance allows low toxicity rates and good local control in chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer patients. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2018 Feb 13
- CONCLUSIONS: Modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy with daily image-guided radiotherapy is effective and safe in treating anal cancer patients and should be considered the standard of care in this clinical setting.
- Molecular characterization of Giardia lamblia in children less than 5 years of age with diarrhoea attending the Bengo General Hospital, Angola. [Journal Article]
- TRTrans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2018 Feb 09
- CONCLUSIONS: This study provides information about G. lamblia assemblages in Bengo Province, Angola and may contribute as a first step in understanding the molecular epidemiology of this protozoan in the country. GenBank accession numbers for the ssur-RNA gene: MF479750, MF479751, MF479752, MF479753, MF479754, MF479755, MF479756, MF479757, MF479758, MF479759, MF479760, MF479761. GenBank accession numbers for the β-giardin gene: MF565378, MF565379, MF565380, MF565381.
New Search Next
- Histologic Features of Gastrointestinal Tract Biopsies in IgA Vasculitis (Henoch-Schönlein Purpura). [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Surg Pathol 2018 Feb 12
- Immunoglobulin A (IgA) vasculitis or Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) typically occurs in the pediatric population, although rare cases also occur in adults. Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement is common...
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) vasculitis or Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) typically occurs in the pediatric population, although rare cases also occur in adults. Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement is common. The "classic" histologic finding in IgA vasculitis (HSP) is leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV); other histologic features in biopsies of IgA vasculitis (HSP) have only been rarely described. The pathology archival files at our institution were searched for GI biopsies from patients with IgA vasculitis (HSP). Slides were retrieved and histologic and clinical features were reviewed. We identified 16 patients with IgA vasculitis (HSP) with a GI biopsy series, including both adult and pediatric patients. The most common histologic abnormality was lamina propria hemorrhage (all cases) with many cases also showing lamina propria fibrin deposition with red cell sludging and nuclear debris (7 cases). Twelve of the 16 duodenal biopsies had acute duodenitis; 3 of which were severe and erosive. Several also had an eosinophilic infiltrate. Seven of the 9 jejunal and/or ileal biopsies had acute jejunitis or ileitis. An acute colitis or proctitis was observed in 9/12 colorectal biopsies. Four biopsies contained LCV; in each of these cases, the involved vessels were small capillaries within the lamina propria. Only 1 biopsy contained deeper submucosal vessels, but they were uninvolved. Sites involved by LCV included the colorectum (2 cases), colorectum and terminal ileum, terminal ileum only, duodenum, and jejunum (1 case each). All patients presented with abdominal pain; 13/16 developed a rash, 1 following the index biopsy. Other presenting symptoms included diarrhea and/or hematochezia (8 cases), nausea/vomiting (5 cases), and intussusception (1 case). Four patients had concurrent skin biopsies showing LCV; only 1 of these patients had LCV on GI biopsy. Indications for biopsy included nonspecific presenting symptoms, absence of rash at presentation, and/or failure to respond adequately to steroid therapy. Biopsies are commonly performed in patients with or without suspected IgA vasculitis (HSP) to rule out infection, inflammatory bowel disease, and less commonly, vasculitis. In general, vasculitis is not commonly observed in GI biopsies of patients with IgA vasculitis (HSP), and the spectrum of findings includes neutrophilic infiltrate within the small bowel and colon, with the duodenum most commonly affected. While the clinical and histologic findings may mimic early inflammatory bowel disease, the presence of predominant small bowel involvement, especially erosive duodenitis, should raise suspicion for IgA vasculitis (HSP). Biopsies should be obtained before steroid therapy is initiated, if possible.