- Business travel-associated illness: a GeoSentinel analysis. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Travel Med 2018 Jan 01; 25(1)
- CONCLUSIONS: Diarrheal illness was a major cause of morbidity. Malaria contributed substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly among business travelers to sub-Saharan Africa. Underuse or non-use of chemoprophylaxis contributed to malaria cases. Deaths in business travelers could be reduced by improving adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis and targeted vaccination for vaccine-preventable diseases. Pre-travel advice is indicated for business travelers and is currently under-utilized and needs improvement.
- Efficacy and Safety of Apremilast in Systemic- and Biologic-Naive Patients With Moderate Plaque Psoriasis: 52-Week Results of UNVEIL. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Drugs Dermatol 2018 Feb 01; 17(2):221-228
- CONCLUSIONS: Apremilast was effective in systemic-naive patients with moderate plaque psoriasis with BSA 5%-10%; efficacy was sustained through week 52. No new safety signals emerged with continued apremilast exposure.</p> <p>ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02425826</p> <p>J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(2):221-228.</p> <p>THIS ARTICLE HAD BEEN MADE AVAILABLE FREE OF CHARGE.</p> <p>PLEASE SCROLL DOWN TO ACCESS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS ARTICLE WITHOUT LOGGING IN.</p> <p>NO PURCHASE NECESSARY.</p> PLEASE CONTACT THE PUBLISHER WITH ANY QUESTIONS.
- Disulfiram attenuates morphine or methadone withdrawal syndrome in mice. [Journal Article]
- BPBehav Pharmacol 2018 Feb 16
- Taking opioids is often accompanied by the development of dependence. Unfortunately, treatment of opioid dependence is difficult, particularly because of codependence - for example, on alcohol or oth...
Taking opioids is often accompanied by the development of dependence. Unfortunately, treatment of opioid dependence is difficult, particularly because of codependence - for example, on alcohol or other drugs of abuse. In the presented study, we analyzed the potential influence of disulfiram, a drug used to aid the management of alcoholism, on opioid abstinence syndrome, which occurs as a result of opioid withdrawal. Opioid dependence in mice was induced by subcutaneous administration of either morphine or methadone at a dose of 48 mg/kg for 10 consecutive days. To trigger a withdrawal syndrome, the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, was administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg (subcutaneous), and the severity of withdrawal signs was assessed individually. Interruption of chronic treatment with morphine or methadone by naloxone has led to the occurrence of opioid abstinence signs such as jumping, paw tremor, wet-dog shakes, diarrhea, teeth chattering, ptosis, and piloerection. Importantly, pretreatment with disulfiram (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) reduced the intensity of withdrawal signs induced by naloxone in morphine or methadone-treated mice. These findings show the effectiveness of disulfiram in reducing opioid abstinence signs.
- [Concurrent lymphocytic colitis and microscopic enteritis in patients with chronic diarrhea]. [Journal Article]
- RGRev Gastroenterol Peru 2017 Oct-Dec; 37(4):340-345
- Lymphocytic colitis and microscopic enteritis are relatively common causes of chronic diarrhea and it is characterized by an intraepithelial lymphocytic infiltrate. There have been no previous report...
Lymphocytic colitis and microscopic enteritis are relatively common causes of chronic diarrhea and it is characterized by an intraepithelial lymphocytic infiltrate. There have been no previous reports of coexistence between these 2 pathologies.
- Galectin-9 is Critical for Mucosal Adaptive Immunity through the TH17-IgA Axis. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Pathol 2018 Feb 16
- Impairment of the intestinal mucosal immunity significantly increases the risk of acute and chronic diseases. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) plays a major role in humoral mucosal immunity to provide protecti...
Impairment of the intestinal mucosal immunity significantly increases the risk of acute and chronic diseases. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) plays a major role in humoral mucosal immunity to provide protection against pathogens and toxins in the gut. Here, we investigated the role of endogenous galectin-9, a tandem repeat-type β-galactoside-binding protein, in intestinal mucosal immunity. By mucosal immunization of Lgals9-/-and littermate control mice, it was found that lack of galectin-9 impaired mucosal antigen-specific IgA response in the gut. Moreover, Lgals9-/-mice were more susceptible to developing watery diarrhea and more prone to death in response to high-dose cholera toxin. The results indicate the importance of galectin-9 in modulating intestinal adaptive immunity. Furthermore, bone marrow chimera mice were established and galectin-9 in hematopoietic cells was found to be critical for adaptive IgA response. In addition, immunized Lgals9-/-mice exhibited lower expression of Il17 and fewer TH17 cells in the lamina propria, implying that the TH17-IgA axis is involved in this mechanism. Taken together, these findings suggest that galectin-9 plays a role in mucosal adaptive immunity through the TH17-IgA axis. By manipulating the expression or activity of galectin-9, intestinal mucosal immune response can be altered, and may benefit the development of mucosal vaccination.
- Genotype Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of Enterocytozoon Bieneusi Isolates from Stool Samples of Diarrheic Children. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Parasitol 2018 Feb 19
- Among approximately 14 human-pathogenic microsporidian species, Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common. It can inhabit the small intestines, causing chronic diarrhea and wasting syndrome. Until n...
Among approximately 14 human-pathogenic microsporidian species, Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common. It can inhabit the small intestines, causing chronic diarrhea and wasting syndrome. Until now, determining prevalence and the corresponding genotypes of E. bieneusi in humans have been performed only in a few provinces of China. Herein, 93 fecal specimens were collected from diarrheic children in Chongqing. By PCR and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the E. bieneusi rDNA sequence, we found 11 (11.83%) positive specimens. Among them, 8 (8.60%) are from patients with ages ranging from 2 months to 6 years old, and 3 (3.23%) positive specimens from patients 7 to 11 years old. In total, 6 genotypes (4 novel genotypes and 2 known genotypes) have been identified in this study. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the genotypes identified in present study belong to group 1, which previously has been described as a zoonotic group. This could mean these infections were acquired zoonotically. It may be prudent to warn of this potential risk to those people having close contact with animals.
- Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma, Ileal Crohn Disease or Both? - A Case of Diagnostic Challenge. [Journal Article]
- GPGE Port J Gastroenterol 2018; 25(1):47-51
- Signet ring cell carcinoma is a rare form of adenocarcinoma that predominantly affects the stomach. Signet ring cell carcinoma originated from the ileum is extremely rare and the prognosis is poor. W...
Signet ring cell carcinoma is a rare form of adenocarcinoma that predominantly affects the stomach. Signet ring cell carcinoma originated from the ileum is extremely rare and the prognosis is poor. We present a case of small bowel obstruction with features suggesting Crohn disease of the ileum. The symptoms were chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain with a family history of inflammatory bowel disease. The patient underwent surgery and histopathology revealed both aspects of signet ring cell carcinoma and Crohn disease of the ileum. An association between long-standing inflammation and the development of this subtype of tumor has been proposed but there are no established surveillance guidelines for small bowel neoplasm in inflammatory bowel disease.
- Can patients with symptomatic Tarlov cysts be differentiated from patients with specific low back pain based on comprehensive history taking? [Journal Article]
- ANActa Neurochir (Wien) 2018 Feb 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Including the above-listed items in the patient history might facilitate differentiation of low back pain and sciatica due to STCs from that due to disc problems or degenerative or inflammatory disorders.
- Association of Helicobacter pylori and protozoal parasites in patients with chronic diarrhoea. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Biomed Sci 2018 Feb 16; :1-5
- Introduction An association of Helicobacter pylori and common protozoal parasites in patients with abdominal discomfort and chronic diarrhoea is unclear and may be pathological. Materials and methods...
Introduction An association of Helicobacter pylori and common protozoal parasites in patients with abdominal discomfort and chronic diarrhoea is unclear and may be pathological. Materials and methods One hundred and sixty-one patients with diarrhoea were compared to 114 age and sex matched controls. Stool samples were examined by microscopy and DNA extracted for PCR with specific primers for H. pylori and protozoal parasites Blastocystis sp., Entamoeba sp. (Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii) and Giardia duodenalis (G. duodenalis). Results There was a marked difference in the presence of parasites between patients and controls: no parasite 42/75%, one parasite 42/15%, two or more parasites 16/10%, respectively (p < 0.001). Patients with diarrhoea were more likely to be infected with Blastocystis sp (p < 0.001), E. histolytica (p = 0.027) and E moshkovskii (p = 0.003). There was no difference in the frequency of H. pylori (p = 0.528), G duodenalis (p = 0.697) or E dispar (p = 0.425). Thirty-three patients and 27 controls had H. pylori infection. Of these, 22 patients and 6 controls were infected with Blastocystis sp (p = 0.001), 6 patients and no controls were infected with E. histolytica (p = 0.02), whilst 7 patents and 9 controls were infected with E dispar (p = 0.292). Conclusion In this population, diarrhoea is linked to infection with Blastocystis sp, E. histolytica and E moshkoviskii. In H. pylori infection, diarrhoea is linked to Blastocystis sp and E. histolytica infection. These associations may be linked pathogenically.
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- The prevalence of celiac disease in adult Chinese patients with diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome of China, a prospective, controlled, cohort study. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dig Dis 2018 Feb 16
- CONCLUSIONS: CD is not rare in Chinese people, particularly among those with IBS. Therefore, CD should receive greater attention in clinical practice in China.