- Past and future trends of Cryptosporidium in vitro research. [Review]
- EPExp Parasitol 2018 Dec 03
- Cryptosporidium is a genus of single celled parasites capable of infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Cryptosporidium species are members of the phylum apicomplexa, which includes well...
Cryptosporidium is a genus of single celled parasites capable of infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Cryptosporidium species are members of the phylum apicomplexa, which includes well-known genera such as Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Cryptosporidium parasites cause a severe gastro-intestinal disease known as cryptosporidiosis. They are one of the most common causes of childhood diarrhoea worldwide, and infection can have prolonged detrimental effects on the development of children, but also can be life threatening to HIV/AIDS patients and transplant recipients. A variety of hosts can act as reservoirs, and Cryptosporidium can persist in the environment for prolonged times as oocysts. While there has been substantial interest in these parasites, there is very little progress in terms of treatment development and understanding the majority of the life cycle of this unusual organism. In this review, we will provide an overview on the existing knowledge of the biology of the parasite and the current progress in developing in vitro cultivation systems. We will then describe a synopsis of current and next generation approaches that could spearhead further research in combating the parasite.
- Disseminated AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. [Journal Article]
- OMOxf Med Case Reports 2018; 2018(12):omy107
- We present a case of disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma with both cutaneous and extracutaneous involvement in an HIV-infected patient with a relatively high CD4 count of 369 cell/mm3. He developed chronic...
We present a case of disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma with both cutaneous and extracutaneous involvement in an HIV-infected patient with a relatively high CD4 count of 369 cell/mm3. He developed chronic diarrhea, constitutional symptoms, worsening bilateral pleural effusion with respiratory distress, and progression of skin lesions distributed over his chest and extremities. The temporal relationship between rapid clinical progression and initiation of HAART suggested the possibility of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, which eventually resulted in the death of this patient.
- [Epidemiological and clinical aspects of prurigo in HIV infected patients in Fousseyni N'Daou hospital of Kayes, Mali]. [Journal Article]
- MMMali Med 2018; 33(2):13-16
- CONCLUSIONS: In our study, prurigo remains a common condition in PLHIV, particularly in patients with low CD4 counts. Early detection and rapid antietroviral therapy can reduce the frequency of prurigo in PLHIV.
- Histoplasmosis-induced ileal perforation in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Case report. [Journal Article]
- JOJGH Open 2018; 2(4):166-168
- Intestinal involvement with disseminated histoplasmosis is common in some populations infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), especially in those ...
Intestinal involvement with disseminated histoplasmosis is common in some populations infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), especially in those who come from tropical zones. We report the case of a 29-year-old male patient, from a tropical zone, with HIV infection and a CD4 value less than 50 cells/mm3, with a history of abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea, and weight loss. On presentation, he was pale, sweaty, and had abdominal rebound tenderness. Laboratory findings demonstrated microcitic hipocromic anemia, azoemia, and hypoalbuminemia. Abdominal-X-rays revealed pneumoperitoneum and air fluid levels. He underwent surgery, and a 1-cm perforation proximal to ileocecal valve was found. A resection and an ileostomy were performed. Histopathology identified caseating granulomas with yeast, compatible with histoplasmosis. He was treated with anfotericin B plus itraconazol with clinical improvement.
- Socio-Behavioral Risk Factors Associated with Cryptosporidiosis in HIV/AIDS Patients Visiting the HIV Referral Clinic at Cape Coast Teaching Hospital, Ghana. [Journal Article]
- OAOpen AIDS J 2018; 12:106-116
- CONCLUSIONS: We report the risk factor for exposure of Cryptosporidium infection among HIV/AIDS patients for the first time in Ghana. The contamination of drinking water by protozoan parasites should be a public health concern. These results provide the stepping block to understand the transmission dynamics of Cryptosporidium and other opportunistic pathogens in HIV/AIDS infected patients in Ghana.
- Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients Treated With Antiretroviral Therapy Only Versus Chemotherapy and Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV-Associated Kaposi Sarcoma: A Randomized Control Trial. [Journal Article]
- JGJ Glob Oncol 2018; (4):1-9
- CONCLUSIONS: African patients with HIV-associated KS derive a significant benefit in QOL from ART and tumor regression.
- Prevalence of enteric parasitic infections among people living with HIV in Abeokuta, Nigeria. [Journal Article]
- PAPan Afr Med J 2018; 30:66
- CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of opportunistic parasitic infection was significantly correlated with diarrhea, low CD4+ count and ART naïve individuals in the study. These findings re-emphasize the need for early diagnosis of opportunistic parasites and appropriate intervention among PLWHA.
- Duodenitis, Diarrhea, and Death in a Patient with AIDS. [Journal Article]
- DDDig Dis Sci 2018; 63(11):2858-2863
- Morbidity benefit conferred by childhood immunisation in relation to maternal HIV status: a meta-analysis of demographic and health surveys. [Journal Article]
- HVHum Vaccin Immunother 2018; 14(10):2414-2426
- The study determined the prevalence of acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea among sub-Saharan African children. It also examined if there was any significant morbidity benefit conferred by thre...
The study determined the prevalence of acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea among sub-Saharan African children. It also examined if there was any significant morbidity benefit conferred by three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis containing vaccines (DTP3) with respect to maternal HIV status. Data were obtained from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) program, United Nations Development Programs, World Bank and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the countries. Test of heterogeneity, sensitivity analyses and meta-regression were also conducted. The prevalence of acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea were similar between the children that were vaccinated and those who were not vaccinated with DTP3. The pooled result shows that children who did not receive DTP3 were more likely to have symptoms of acute respiratory infections than children who had DTP3 (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.17); with low heterogeneity across the countries. The combined result for diarrhoea shows that children who did not receive DTP3 were less likely to have episodes of diarrhoea than children who received DTP3 (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.92); with substantial heterogeneity across the countries. There was no difference between the estimates of DTP3 vaccinated and unvaccinated children of HIV seropositive mothers with respect to symptoms of acute respiratory infections or episodes of diarrhoea. Tackling various causes and risk factors for respiratory tract infections and diarrhoeal diseases should be a priority for various stakeholders in sub-Saharan Africa.
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- [Detection of intestinal parasites with conventional and molecular methods in follow-up HIV/AIDS cases]. [Journal Article]
- MBMikrobiyol Bul 2018; 52(3):273-283
- In people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), several complaints related to the gastrointestinal system, mainly diarrhea can be determined. In our study, we aimed to detect the existence ...
In people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), several complaints related to the gastrointestinal system, mainly diarrhea can be determined. In our study, we aimed to detect the existence of intestinal parasites with conventional methods based on microscopy and with molecular methods based on multiplex-PCR among 90 anti-retroviral treatment (ART) naive or ART adherent HIV/AIDS cases. The existence of Giardia spp., Blastocystis spp., Entamoeba histolytica, Dientamoeba spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were searched in stool samples and the relation with the existence of these parasites and demographic/clinical data of the cases were determined. The demographic and clinical data of the participants included in the study were as follows; the average age was 34.02 ± 9.7 years, average time of diagnosis was 2.4 ± 1.7 years. Gender distribution was as follows; 85.6% male and 14.4% female. HIV transmission was related with heterosexual intercourse in 60%, homosexual intercourse in 33.3%, blood/blood products contact in 1.1% and with unknown routes in 5.6% of the cases. Fifty percent of the patients were in pre-ART and 50% was in on-ART state. The average CD4+ T lymphocyte count was detected as 400 cells/mm3 and the median of viral load was 114.527 copies/ml. An overall prevalence of at least one intestinal parasitic infection was recorded as 36.7% and the prevalence of this infection due to Blastocystis spp. was 22.2%, followed by Dientamoeba spp. (13.3%), E.histolytica (4.4%), Cryptosporidium spp. (3.3%), Giardia spp. (2.2%) and multiple parasitic infections (7.7%). The type of sexual behaviours related with the detection of intestinal parasites were statistically significant especially in homosexual intercourse (p< 0.001). The increase in CD4+ T lymphocyte counts were reversely associated (p= 0.062) and the increase in the levels of viral load were positively associated (p< 0.001) with detection rate of intestinal parasite. The detection of parasites by molecular methods was statistically significant in pre-ART participants (p= 0.002) and participants with diarrhea (p= 0.019). In the present study, the increase in the frequency of intestinal parasitic infections has shown that essential interventions are required. In all HIV/AIDS cases, routine parasitic screening should be performed by more sensitive methods to manage early and specific treatment.