- Morbidity benefit conferred by childhood immunisation in relation to maternal HIV status: a meta-analysis of demographic and health surveys. [Journal Article]
- HVHum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Sep 05; :1-13
- The study determined the prevalence of acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea among sub-Saharan African children. It also examined if there was any significant morbidity benefit conferred by thre...
The study determined the prevalence of acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea among sub-Saharan African children. It also examined if there was any significant morbidity benefit conferred by three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis containing vaccines (DTP3) with respect to maternal HIV status. Data were obtained from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) program, United Nations Development Programs, World Bank and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the countries. Test of heterogeneity, sensitivity analyses and meta-regression were also conducted. The prevalence of acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea were similar between the children that were vaccinated and those who were not vaccinated with DTP3. The pooled result shows that children who did not receive DTP3 were more likely to have symptoms of acute respiratory infections than children who had DTP3 (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.17); with low heterogeneity across the countries. The combined result for diarrhoea shows that children who did not receive DTP3 were less likely to have episodes of diarrhoea than children who received DTP3 (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.92); with substantial heterogeneity across the countries. There was no difference between the estimates of DTP3 vaccinated and unvaccinated children of HIV seropositive mothers with respect to symptoms of acute respiratory infections or episodes of diarrhoea. Tackling various causes and risk factors for respiratory tract infections and diarrhoeal diseases should be a priority for various stakeholders in sub-Saharan Africa.
- [Detection of intestinal parasites with conventional and molecular methods in follow-up HIV/AIDS cases]. [Journal Article]
- MBMikrobiyol Bul 2018; 52(3):273-283
- In people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), several complaints related to the gastrointestinal system, mainly diarrhea can be determined. In our study, we aimed to detect the existence ...
In people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), several complaints related to the gastrointestinal system, mainly diarrhea can be determined. In our study, we aimed to detect the existence of intestinal parasites with conventional methods based on microscopy and with molecular methods based on multiplex-PCR among 90 anti-retroviral treatment (ART) naive or ART adherent HIV/AIDS cases. The existence of Giardia spp., Blastocystis spp., Entamoeba histolytica, Dientamoeba spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were searched in stool samples and the relation with the existence of these parasites and demographic/clinical data of the cases were determined. The demographic and clinical data of the participants included in the study were as follows; the average age was 34.02 ± 9.7 years, average time of diagnosis was 2.4 ± 1.7 years. Gender distribution was as follows; 85.6% male and 14.4% female. HIV transmission was related with heterosexual intercourse in 60%, homosexual intercourse in 33.3%, blood/blood products contact in 1.1% and with unknown routes in 5.6% of the cases. Fifty percent of the patients were in pre-ART and 50% was in on-ART state. The average CD4+ T lymphocyte count was detected as 400 cells/mm3 and the median of viral load was 114.527 copies/ml. An overall prevalence of at least one intestinal parasitic infection was recorded as 36.7% and the prevalence of this infection due to Blastocystis spp. was 22.2%, followed by Dientamoeba spp. (13.3%), E.histolytica (4.4%), Cryptosporidium spp. (3.3%), Giardia spp. (2.2%) and multiple parasitic infections (7.7%). The type of sexual behaviours related with the detection of intestinal parasites were statistically significant especially in homosexual intercourse (p< 0.001). The increase in CD4+ T lymphocyte counts were reversely associated (p= 0.062) and the increase in the levels of viral load were positively associated (p< 0.001) with detection rate of intestinal parasite. The detection of parasites by molecular methods was statistically significant in pre-ART participants (p= 0.002) and participants with diarrhea (p= 0.019). In the present study, the increase in the frequency of intestinal parasitic infections has shown that essential interventions are required. In all HIV/AIDS cases, routine parasitic screening should be performed by more sensitive methods to manage early and specific treatment.
- Current trends in opportunistic infections in children living with HIV/AIDS in a tertiary care hospital in Northern India. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS 2017 Jul-Dec; 38(2):142-146
- A prospective cohort study was undertaken from November 2010 to March 2012 at Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital (KSCH), Lady Hardinge Medical College (LHMC), New Delhi. The study included all HIV po...
A prospective cohort study was undertaken from November 2010 to March 2012 at Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital (KSCH), Lady Hardinge Medical College (LHMC), New Delhi. The study included all HIV positive children aged between 0-15 years that were registered in the anti-retroviral therapy (ART) centre during the study period. HIV +ve children enrolled at the ART centre were started on ART on the basis of CD4counts (National/NACO guidelines).
- Antibiotic resistance pattern and molecular characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing enteroaggregative Escherichia coli isolates in children from southwest Iran. [Journal Article]
- IDInfect Drug Resist 2018; 11:1097-1104
- CONCLUSIONS: The high detection rate of ESBL-producing EAEC isolates accompanied with virulence genes highlights a need to restrict infection control policies in order to prevent further dissemination of the resistant and virulent EAEC strains.
- Widespread occurrence of Cryptosporidium infections in patients with HIV/AIDS: Epidemiology, clinical feature, diagnosis, and therapy. [Review]
- ATActa Trop 2018 Aug 14
- Cryptosporidium infection is a serious threat for HIV/AIDS patients, causing severe diarrhea and even death. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium in HIV/AIDS patients was calculated as approxima...
Cryptosporidium infection is a serious threat for HIV/AIDS patients, causing severe diarrhea and even death. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium in HIV/AIDS patients was calculated as approximately 8.69% (7,799/89,724), with higher prevalence observed in individuals with diarrhea, individuals with low CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts, and antiretroviral therapy-naïve individuals. Cryptosporidium infection was not significantly associated with patient age or gender, national development levels, or continent of residence. Over the period from 2007 to 2017, Cryptosporidium prevalence was 10.09% (3,282/32,517); this figure was higher than that observed in each of the previous observation periods (1985-1995 and 1996-2006), suggesting that the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis has been increasing over time in HIV/AIDS patients. Ten Cryptosporidium species and genotypes have been identified from 1,252 isolates, with C. hominis, C. parvum, and C. meleagridis accounting for 93.53% of infections. Five subtypes each of C. hominis (Ia, Ib, Id, Ie, and If), C. parvum (IIa to IIe), and C. meleagridis (IIIa to IIIe) have been described by sequence analyses of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. Variation in the clinical manifestations observed in HIV/AIDS patients might be attributed to infection by different Cryptosporidium species, genotypes and subtypes, as well as different sites of infection. New molecular and immunological diagnostic techniques are in development or already commercially available. High-throughput screening methods for development of new or repurposed therapeutics as well as novel parasite genetic manipulation strategies offer hope for improving human cryptosporidiosis therapies. Painstaking efforts by researchers as well as support from governments and funding agencies will be required to make lasting achievements in this field.
- Treatment of disseminated histoplasmosis in advanced HIV using itraconazole with increased bioavailability. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J STD AIDS 2018 Aug 16; :956462418788129
- Disseminated histoplasmosis (DH), an endemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised hosts. A patient with newly-diagnosed ...
Disseminated histoplasmosis (DH), an endemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised hosts. A patient with newly-diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection presented with a violaceous, raised, indurated, pruritic rash over the face, arms and trunk on a background of significant weight loss, fevers with sweats, diarrhoea and worsening shortness of breath. His CD4+ T cell count was 14 cells/µl (12%). Histoplasmosis was diagnosed from histology, fungal stain and culture of skin biopsy. In addition to DH, he was found to have Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and multi-resistant Salmonella choleraesuis bacteraemia. He improved with treatment with antibiotics and was commenced on conventional itraconazole, orally. Antiretroviral therapy was commenced soon after. He was unable to achieve therapeutic levels with the conventional formulation due to gastrointestinal side effects and had ongoing fevers. A newer formulation of oral itraconazole with improved bioavailability was commenced. He achieved therapeutic drug levels and had no further intolerance. His fevers settled and the rash improved. He has now completed one year of treatment and is well. To our knowledge this is the first case of moderate DH in an advanced HIV patient treated successfully with oral itraconazole with improved bioavailability.
- Infectious diseases in Poland in 2016 [Journal Article]
- PEPrzegl Epidemiol 2018; 72(2):129-141
- This is for the year 2016 subsequent annual analysis of the situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland as part of the Epidemiological Chronicle of the Epidemiological Review. Its purpos...
This is for the year 2016 subsequent annual analysis of the situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland as part of the Epidemiological Chronicle of the Epidemiological Review. Its purpose is to summarize the collective incidence of infectious diseases and to indicate potential threats to the health of populations from communicable diseases occurring in Poland.
- Agony resulting from cultural practices of canine bud extraction among children under five years in selected slums of Makindye: a cross sectional study. [Journal Article]
- BOBMC Oral Health 2018 Aug 07; 18(1):133
- CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of households practicing CBE from this study ought to awaken the perception that the practice is ancient. CBE in this community as the study suggests was strongly driven by myths. The strong belief that CBE is bad provides an opportunity for concerted effort by primary health care providers, policy makers and the community to demystify the myths associated with false teeth and the gains of CBE.
- Molecular detection of Enteropathogens from diarrheic stool of HIV positive patients in Gondar, Ethiopia. [Journal Article]
- BIBMC Infect Dis 2018 Jul 31; 18(1):354
- CONCLUSIONS: Diarrheic stool from HIV-positive outpatients in Gondar, Ethiopia had on average 5 enteropathogens present in their stool. Shigellaspp./enteroinvasive E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli are the major pathogens, not dissimilar to immunocompetent individuals in low income countries.
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- Darunavir alleviates irinotecan-induced intestinal toxicity in Vivo. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2018 Sep 05; 834:288-294
- Irinotecan (CPT-11) is used to treat various cancers but side effects such as delayed diarrhea restrict its use. Darunavir (DRV) is an antiretroviral drug used to treat and prevent human immunodefici...
Irinotecan (CPT-11) is used to treat various cancers but side effects such as delayed diarrhea restrict its use. Darunavir (DRV) is an antiretroviral drug used to treat and prevent human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), but whether DRV is protective against CPT-11-induced intestinal toxicity is unclear. An CPT-11-induced intestinal toxicity model was produced using uninterrupted CPT-11 (ip) for 4 d in mice. Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA), fecal occult blood test (FOBT), Western blot, histopathological evaluation, and immunohistochemistry staining assays were used to document toxicity. DRV treatment attenuated CPT-11-induced intestinal toxicity via decreasing fecal occult blood and mitigating delayed-onset diarrhea, as well as reducing weight loss, reduced food intake, and pathomorphologic changes without inhibiting β-glucuronidase (β-GLU) activity. The high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1)-toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway induced inflammation and tight junction protein (occludin and zonular occluden-1) reduction in the colon was inhibited by DRV. Hepatotoxicity induced by CPT-11 was diminished after treatment with DRV, and activation of the NOD-like receptor 3 inflammasome (NLRP3) was prevented in colon tissue. In addition, DRV didn't reduce the concentration of CPT-11 and 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38) in plasma at the same dose of irinotecan with DRV. DRV has anti-inflammatory and intestinal-protective properties and may be used to manage CPT-11-induced intestinal toxicity.