- Cryptosporidiosis: A zoonotic disease concern. [Review]
- VWVet World 2018; 11(5):681-686
- Cryptosporidiosis is considered to be a crucial zoonotic disease caused by worldwide distributing parasitic protozoa called Cryptosporidium spp. Cryptosporidiosis becomes a major public health and ve...
Cryptosporidiosis is considered to be a crucial zoonotic disease caused by worldwide distributing parasitic protozoa called Cryptosporidium spp. Cryptosporidiosis becomes a major public health and veterinary concern by affecting in human and various host range species of animals. Essentially, its importance of infection is increasing because of the high incidence in young children, immunocompromised persons, or immunodeficiency syndrome patients, especially in HIV/AIDS, and it is also one of the most causes of mortality in those patients who infected with Cryptosporidium spp. as well as young animals. All domestic animal, livestock, wildlife, and human can be potential reservoirs that contribute Cryptosporidium spp. to food and surface waters and transmitted to other hosts through fecal-oral route. The oocyst stage of Cryptosporidium spp. can remain infective and resistant to various environmental exposure and also resistant to many general disinfecting agents including chlorination which normally used in water treatment. Therefore, the understanding of these zoonotic pathogens is very essential in both animal and human health. This review focuses on the biology, life cycle, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control of this protozoan infection to emphasize and remind as the significant One Health problem.
- Cost utility, budget impact, and scenario analysis of racecadotril in addition to oral rehydration for acute diarrhea in children in Malaysia. [Journal Article]
- COClinicoecon Outcomes Res 2018; 10:169-178
- CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant racecadotril vs ORS alone is potentially cost-effective from a Malaysian public payer perspective subject to the assumptions and limitations of the model. BI analysis shows that this translates into potential cost savings for the Malaysian public health care system. Results hold true at evidence-based base case values and over a range of alternate scenarios.
- Prevalence of Opportunistic Infections and Causes of Death among Hospitalized HIV-Infected Patients in Sichuan, China. [Journal Article]
- TJTohoku J Exp Med 2018; 244(3):231-242
- Opportunistic infections (OIs) are the most significant complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The prevalence of OIs differs among various countries in part due to different cl...
Opportunistic infections (OIs) are the most significant complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The prevalence of OIs differs among various countries in part due to different climates and socio-economic conditions. We, therefore, carried out the retrospective study at the Public Health Clinical Center of Chengdu, Sichuan to comprehensively investigate the prevalence of OIs, predictors of OIs, and risk factors for in-hospital death among HIV-infected patients. Sichuan in West China is characterized by the largest population living with HIV/Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) across China. In total, we reviewed 954 cases of HIV infection, admitted to the hospital during January 2014 to December 2015, and found that bacterial pneumonia (25.8%) was the most common OIs, followed by candida infection (18.3%), Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (11.9%), tuberculosis (11.5%), infectious diarrhoea (9.3%), cryptococcus infection (7.3%), cytomegalovirus infection (4.9%), toxoplasmosis (4.6%), hepatitis C (4.0%), nontuberculous mycobacteria desease (2.2%) and Penicillium marneffei infection (0.3%). We also found two strongest risk factors for in-hospital mortality: CD4+T cell counts of less than 100 cells/μL and not receiving antiretroviral therapy. Moreover, the study revealed the specific pathogens causing bacterial pneumonia and/or candida infection, the effect of tuberculosis on CD4+T cell counts, and the drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected patients. The present findings may aid in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of HIV-infected patients, and could help developing efficient public health strategies in China.
- Sarcocystis myopathy in a patient with HIV-AIDS. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurovirol 2018; 24(3):376-378
- Sarcocystosis is a zoonotic infection that causes intestinal and muscular illnesses in humans. Sarcocystosis was until recently considered rare in humans. To complete their life cycle, Sarcocystis sp...
Sarcocystosis is a zoonotic infection that causes intestinal and muscular illnesses in humans. Sarcocystosis was until recently considered rare in humans. To complete their life cycle, Sarcocystis species require both a definitive and an intermediate host. Humans are the definitive host when infected by one of two species: Sarcocystis hominis (from eating undercooked beef) or Sarcocystis suihominis (from eating uncooked pork). Infection with either of these species results in intestinal sarcocystosis, causing a self-limited disease characterized by nausea, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Humans act as the intermediate host when infected by Sarcocystis nesbitti, resulting in the markedly different clinical picture of muscular sarcocystosis. Most documented cases of muscular sarcocystosis were assumed to be acquired in Malaysia, in addition to other regions of Southeast Asia and India. Published cases of muscular sarcocystosis from the Middle East, Central and South America, and Africa are all rare. Although the clinical presentation of muscular sarcocystosis remains to be fully characterized, fever, myalgia, and headache are among the most common symptoms. Here, we report a patient from sub-Saharan Africa with chronic Sarcocystis myopathy and well-controlled HIV-AIDS.
- Global disability-adjusted life-year estimates of long-term health burden and undernutrition attributable to diarrhoeal diseases in children younger than 5 years. [Journal Article]
- LGLancet Glob Health 2018; 6(3):e255-e269
- Diarrhoea is a leading cause of death and illness globally among children younger than 5 years. Mortality and short-term morbidity cause substantial burden of disease but probably underestimate the t...
Diarrhoea is a leading cause of death and illness globally among children younger than 5 years. Mortality and short-term morbidity cause substantial burden of disease but probably underestimate the true effect of diarrhoea on population health. This underestimation is because diarrhoeal diseases can negatively affect early childhood growth, probably through enteric dysfunction and impaired uptake of macronutrients and micronutrients. We attempt to quantify the long-term sequelae associated with childhood growth impairment due to diarrhoea.
- The relationship between gastrointestinal symptom attribution, bothersomeness, and antiretroviral adherence among adults with HIV. [Journal Article]
- ACAIDS Care 2018; 30(8):997-1003
- Patients who attribute their symptoms to HIV medications, rather than disease, may be prone to switching antiretrovirals (ARVs) and experience poor retention/adherence to care. Gastrointestinal (GI) ...
Patients who attribute their symptoms to HIV medications, rather than disease, may be prone to switching antiretrovirals (ARVs) and experience poor retention/adherence to care. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (e.g., nausea/vomiting) are often experienced as a side effect of ARVs, but little is known about the relationship of symptom attribution and bothersomeness to adherence. We hypothesized that attribution of a GI symptom to ARVs is associated with a reduction in adherence, and that this relationship is moderated by the bothersomeness of the symptom. Data for our analysis come from the pre-randomization enrollment period of a larger study testing an adherence improvement intervention. Analyses revealed that patients with diarrhea who attributed the symptom to ARVs (compared to those who did not) had significantly worse adherence. We did not find a significant moderating effect of bothersomeness on this relationship. Incorporating patient beliefs about causes of symptoms into clinical care may contribute to improved symptom and medication management, and better adherence.
- Common Gastrointestinal Complications Associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS: An Overview. [Review]
- CCCrit Care Nurs Clin North Am 2018; 30(1):101-107
- Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has transformed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS into a manageable chronic illness. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) can experience multiple phy...
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has transformed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS into a manageable chronic illness. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) can experience multiple physical symptoms or problems related to HIV infection and treatment. A common problem for PLWHA continues to be diarrhea and nausea and vomiting (NV). Diarrhea and NV can negatively impact the quality of life and adherence to medication therapy among PLWHA and are common reasons to change or discontinue HAART regimens. Because diarrhea and NV can have substantial negative health outcomes for PLWHA, it is important to understand the causes of these conditions.
- Inflammatory and infectious manifestations of immunodeficiency in the gastrointestinal tract. [Review]
- MPMod Pathol 2018; 31(6):844-861
- Immune compromise may result from genetic abnormalities, HIV/AIDS, or consequences of therapy for neoplastic and autoimmune diseases. Many immunocompromised patients develop severe gastrointestinal s...
Immune compromise may result from genetic abnormalities, HIV/AIDS, or consequences of therapy for neoplastic and autoimmune diseases. Many immunocompromised patients develop severe gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly diarrhea, accompanied by non-specific or mild endoscopic abnormalities; mucosal biopsy with pathologic interpretation has a major role in the diagnosis and management of these patients. Immunocompromised individuals are at risk for all the diseases that affect those with a healthy immune system, but they are also prone to other illnesses that rarely affect immunocompetent patients. This review discusses the gastrointestinal manifestations of primary and acquired immunodeficiency, chemotherapy-related injury, and infections that show a predilection for immunocompromised patients. Key histologic features and relevant differential diagnoses are emphasized.
- Brentuximab vedotin with AVD shows safety, in the absence of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, in newly diagnosed HIV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma. [Journal Article]
- AIDSAIDS 2018 Mar 13; 32(5):605-611
- CONCLUSIONS: AVD-BV was well tolerated at recommended phase 2 dose of 1.2 mg/kg. Concurrent strong CYP3A4 inhibitors should be avoided. A phase 2 study of AVD-BV is currently enrolling (NCT01771107).
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- National survey of Ebola-related knowledge, attitudes and practices before the outbreak peak in Sierra Leone: August 2014. [Journal Article]
- BGBMJ Glob Health 2017; 2(4):e000285
- CONCLUSIONS: Three months into the 2014 Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone, our findings suggest there was high awareness of the disease but misconceptions and discriminatory attitudes toward survivors remained common. These findings directly informed the development of a national social mobilisation strategy and demonstrated the importance of KAP assessment early in an epidemic.