- Travelling with medicines in 2018. [Review]
- APAust Prescr 2018; 41(4):102-104
- Clinical epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection among hospitalized patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea in a university hospital of Brazil. [Journal Article]
- AAnaerobe 2018 Aug 13
- A cohort of 110 adult individuals was analyzed to compare clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients who received antibiotics and developed Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with those who...
A cohort of 110 adult individuals was analyzed to compare clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients who received antibiotics and developed Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with those who received antibiotics and did not develop the disease in a university Hospital in Brazil. CDI was diagnosed by toxigenic culture and C. difficile isolates were characterized by PCR ribotyping. Stool samples were also screened for Clostridium perfringens, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Klebsiella oxytoca. The prevalence of CDI among patients with AAD was 31.8%. C. difficile diarrhea was significantly associated with the severity of underlying comorbidities at admission (OR= 1.21; 95% CI, 1.04-1.40) and with the number of antibiotics used during hospitalization (OR= 1.43; 95% CI, 1.07-1.92). Diabetes mellitus was markedly associated with a higher risk of death in patients with AAD (OR=6.38; 95% CI, 1.33-30.7). PCR ribotypes 014/020 and 106 (20.6% each) were the most common among the isolates. Binary toxin-encoding gene (cdtB) was detected in six samples, but previously described hypervirulent ribotypes 027 and 078 were not found. K. oxytoca and enterotoxigenic C. perfringens were not detected, while only one patient (0.9%) was positive for MRSA. Our results indicate that comorbidity severity and the number of antibiotics used during hospitalization are strong independent predictors of nosocomial C. difficile diarrhea. Diabetes was associated with a higher mortality among patients with AAD. A huge diversity of C. difficile ribotypes was observed in our study, although classical hypervirulent strains were not observed.
- Coeliac disease. [Journal Article]
- PIPaediatr Int Child Health 2018 Aug 13; :1-9
- Coeliac disease (CD) develops in genetically susceptible individuals who, in response to unclear environmental triggers, develop an immune response triggered by gluten ingestion. It is now recognised...
Coeliac disease (CD) develops in genetically susceptible individuals who, in response to unclear environmental triggers, develop an immune response triggered by gluten ingestion. It is now recognised as a global disease affecting about 0.7% of the world's population. The clinical presentation ranges from malabsorption to asymptomatic individuals diagnosed by screening high-risk groups. Diagnosis requires the demonstration of small intestinal villous atrophy in the presence of circulating coeliac auto-antibodies and/or an unequivocal response to a gluten-free diet (GFD). Recent guidelines suggest that, in a subset of children, duodenal biopsies can be avoided in the presence of strict symptomatic and serological criteria. While the majority of patients respond to a GFD, up to 20% of patients with CD have persistent or recurrent symptoms. There are several aetiologies for residual or new symptoms in a patient with CD on a GFD, with inadvertent exposure to gluten being the most common. Following a GFD can be challenging for patients with CD and understanding the barriers/challenges faced by patients in maintaining a GFD is crucial for compliance.
- Low linolenic and linoleic acid consumption are associated with chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(8):e0195249
- CONCLUSIONS: The lower intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linolenic and linoleic acid, is associated with chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.
- Clinical Spectrum and Mechanism of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus on SGLT-2 Inhibitors. [Journal Article]
- IMIsr Med Assoc J 2018; 20(8):513-516
- CONCLUSIONS: SGLT2i are usually safe and provide multiple benefits for patients with T2DM. However, during particular medical circumstances, and in association with usual co-medications, particularly if baseline glomerular filtration rate is decreased, patients treated with SGLT2i may be at risk of AKI, thus warranting caution when prescribed.
- Investigation of biological activities of the flowers of Lagerstroemia speciosa, the Jarul flower of Bangladesh. [Journal Article]
- BCBMC Complement Altern Med 2018 Aug 06; 18(1):231
- CONCLUSIONS: From our investigation, it can be suggested that, the extract should be further studied for possible phytochemicals responsible for the observed biological activities.
- Novel Potent Hypoglycemic Compounds from Euonymus laxiflorus Champ. and Their Effect on Reducing Plasma Glucose in an ICR Mouse Model. [Journal Article]
- MMolecules 2018 Aug 02; 23(8)
- α-Glucosidase inhibitors (aGIs) have been used as an effective therapy for type-2 diabetes, which remains a global health issue. The aim of this study was to achieve bioactivity-guided isolation, ide...
α-Glucosidase inhibitors (aGIs) have been used as an effective therapy for type-2 diabetes, which remains a global health issue. The aim of this study was to achieve bioactivity-guided isolation, identification and evaluation of hypoglycemic compounds from Euonymus laxiflorus Champ. trunk bark (ELCTB). Eleven active compounds were isolated and identified as walterolactone A/B β-d-pyranoglucoside (1), 1-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy-3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzene (9), (-)-gallocatechin (10), schweinfurthinol 9-O-β-d-pyranoglucoside (11), 1-O-(3-methyl)-butenoyl-myo-inositol (12), leonuriside (14), (+)-catechin (19), methyl galloate (20), (-)-catechin (23), and condensed tannins (5 and 18). Of these 11, novel 4 compounds (1, 11, 12, and 14) were found as new α-glucosidase inhibitors. Notably, in vitro results indicated that compounds 1, 5, 10⁻12, 18, and 19 showed potent activity (IC50 = 0.076-31 µg/mL), and their activities were at a higher level than that of acarbose, a commercial inhibitor (IC50 = 1345 µg/mL). In animal tests, the major inhibitor, condensed tannin (18), demonstrated significant reduction of plasma glucose in mice with no symptoms of diarrhea at the dose of 100 mg/kg bw. The results suggest that Euonymus laxiflorus Champ. is a rich source of bioactive compounds for development as health food or drugs with potent hypoglycemic effect. The results of this study also enriched the current novel biological activities of constituents from Euonymus laxiflorus species.
- Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection: epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical characteristics. [Journal Article]
- EREur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2018; 22(15):4956-4961
- CONCLUSIONS: MERS-CoV infection is an emerging global health concern, affected people in 27 countries in the various continents. MERS-CoV infection has been identified mainly in the Middle East, Europe, Africa, Asia and North America. Early detection and management of MERS-CoV infection is of critical importance to minimize the burden of the disease.
- An Unusual Case of Ototoxicity with Use of Oral Vancomycin. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Infect Dis 2018; 2018:2980913
- Systemic absorption of oral vancomycin is poor due to the size of the molecule and its pharmacokinetics. It has an elimination half life of 5-11 hours in patients with normal renal function. We prese...
Systemic absorption of oral vancomycin is poor due to the size of the molecule and its pharmacokinetics. It has an elimination half life of 5-11 hours in patients with normal renal function. We present a rare case of ototoxicity after oral vancomycin administration and detectable serum vancomycin levels 24 hours after cessation of vancomycin.
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- The genus Ficus (Moracea) used in diet: Its plant diversity, distribution, traditional uses and ethnopharmacological importance. [Review]
- JEJ Ethnopharmacol 2018 Jul 25
- CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that throughout its area of distribution, the genus Ficus is commonly used as a dietary plant, although uses of the individual species are uncommon. Furthermore, we highlight the diet-medicine overlap of the uses of this genus, which should enable further understanding of the potential for broader health benefits, rather than limiting studies in this genus to its only-medicinal properties.