- Conservative management of chylous ascites after oncological surgery for peripheral neuroblastic tumors in pediatric patients. [Journal Article]
- LLymphology 2019; 52(1):25-34
- Chylous ascites may complicate the postoperative course of abdominal surgery mainly due to the iatrogenic disruption of the lymphatic channels during extensive retroperitoneal dissection. Sparse data…
Chylous ascites may complicate the postoperative course of abdominal surgery mainly due to the iatrogenic disruption of the lymphatic channels during extensive retroperitoneal dissection. Sparse data are available regarding treatment; however, in many cases a recommended first-line treatment approach is by way of enteral feeding, consisting of a formula high in medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) together with a complete total parenteral nutrition teamed with somatostatin (or an equivalent). Nonetheless, the ligation of chylous fistulae, together with the application of Fibrin glue, as well as the creation of peritoneal-venous shunts have also been documented. The aims of this study are to document incidence of postoperative chylous ascites following resection of abdominal peripheral neuroblastic tumors, evaluate efficacy of the management of chylous ascites, and investigate the main risk factors. A survey was carried out over a span of six years, from March 2010 to March 2016 at Giannina Gaslini Children's Hospital involving seventy-seven children with resections of peripheral neuroblastic tumors. Incidence rate of postoperative chylous ascites following a normal diet was 9% (n=7). Treatment using total parenteral nutrition with octreotide resulted in a complete recovery from chylous ascites within a 20 day period without recurrence. Length of operative time, nephrectomy, and the extension of lymphadenectomy were all significantly associated with a higher incidence of postoperative chylous ascites (p<0.05) which also lengthened hospital stay (p<0.05) and possibly delayed beginning adjuvant chemotherapy.
- Representations of Cancer Recurrence Risk, Recurrence Worry, and Health-Protective Behaviours: An Elaborated, Systematic Review. [Journal Article]
- HPHealth Psychol Rev 2019 May 22; :1-66
- A proposed, expanded Common-Sense Model (CSM) contextualized to the self-regulation of cancer recurrence risk identifies risk representational attributes and recurrence worry as primary processes mot…
A proposed, expanded Common-Sense Model (CSM) contextualized to the self-regulation of cancer recurrence risk identifies risk representational attributes and recurrence worry as primary processes motivating protective behaviours in cancer survivors post-treatment. A systematic review examined evidence for CSM hypotheses regarding how these processes influence diet and physical activity (PA) among survivors. A research agenda is outlined and used to evaluate the status of the evidence base based on the studies meeting criteria for the systematic review. Common databases were searched for eligible, peer-reviewed, English language reports, yielding 18 studies quantitatively testing hypothesized relationships among representations of prior cancer, recurrence risk representations, recurrence worry, and diet and PA. The findings provide promising, but mixed and limited evidence for some of the hypothesized associations of specific risk recurrence attributes with recurrence worry, and risk recurrence attributes and recurrence worry with healthy diet and PA. Findings support the distinction of recurrence risk representations and illness representations of the prior cancer, with each showing different relationships with recurrence worry and behaviours. We discuss the status of the evidence base in relation to assessment, design, and analysis priorities and propose strategies that can yield more sensitive, rigorous tests of the CSM for cancer recurrence risk as applied to diet and PA.
- Pterostilbene Ameliorates Nephropathy Injury in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. [Journal Article]
- PPharmacology 2019 May 22; 104(1-2):71-80
- CONCLUSIONS: PS had potential therapeutic effects on DN, which may be related to the regulation of NF-κB pathway.
- Esophageal cancer genetics in South Africa. [Review]
- CEClin Exp Gastroenterol 2019; 12:157-177
- Esophageal cancer (EC) is an extremely aggressive cancer with one of the highest mortality rates. The cancer is generally only diagnosed at the later stages and has a poor 5-year survival rate due to…
Esophageal cancer (EC) is an extremely aggressive cancer with one of the highest mortality rates. The cancer is generally only diagnosed at the later stages and has a poor 5-year survival rate due to the limited treatment options. China and South Africa are two countries with a very high prevalence rate of EC. EC rates in South Africa have been on the increase, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is the predominant subtype and a primary cause of cancer-related deaths in the black and male mixed ancestry populations in South Africa. The incidence of EC is highest in the Eastern Cape Province, especially in the rural areas such as the Transkei, where the consumption of foods contaminated with Fusarium verticillioides is thought to play a major contributing role to the incidence of EC. China is responsible for almost half of all new cases of EC globally. In China, the prevalence of EC varies greatly. However, the two main areas of high prevalence are the southern Taihang Mountain area (Linxian, Henan Province) and the north Jiangsu area. In both countries, environmental toxins play a major role in increasing the chance that an individual will develop EC. These associative factors include tobacco use, alcohol consumption, nutritional deficiencies and exposure to environmental toxins. However, genetic polymorphisms also play a role in predisposing individuals to EC. These include single-nucleotide polymorphisms that can be found in both protein-coding genes and in non-coding sequences such as miRNAs. The aim of this review is to summarize the contribution of genetic polymorphisms to EC in South Africa and to compare and contrast this to the genetic polymorphisms observed in EC in the most comprehensively studied population group, the Chinese.
- Effects of short-term fasting on cancer treatment. [Review]
- JEJ Exp Clin Cancer Res 2019 May 22; 38(1):209
- Growing preclinical evidence shows that short-term fasting (STF) protects from toxicity while enhancing the efficacy of a variety of chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of various tumour types. …
Growing preclinical evidence shows that short-term fasting (STF) protects from toxicity while enhancing the efficacy of a variety of chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of various tumour types. STF reinforces stress resistance of healthy cells, while tumor cells become even more sensitive to toxins, perhaps through shortage of nutrients to satisfy their needs in the context of high proliferation rates and/or loss of flexibility to respond to extreme circumstances. In humans, STF may be a feasible approach to enhance the efficacy and tolerability of chemotherapy. Clinical research evaluating the potential of STF is in its infancy. This review focuses on the molecular background, current knowledge and clinical trials evaluating the effects of STF in cancer treatment. Preliminary data show that STF is safe, but challenging in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Ongoing clinical trials need to unravel if STF can also diminish toxicity and increase efficacy of chemotherapeutic regimes in daily practice.
- Chia flour (Salvia hispanica L.) did not improve the deleterious aspects of hyperlipidic diet ingestion on glucose metabolism, but worsened glycaemia in mice. [Journal Article]
- FRFood Res Int 2019; 121:641-647
- Obesity is mainly caused by intake of a high-fat diet and sedentarism, and is considered a public health issue worldwide. Increased intestinal permeability may favour endotoxaemia generated by lipopo…
Obesity is mainly caused by intake of a high-fat diet and sedentarism, and is considered a public health issue worldwide. Increased intestinal permeability may favour endotoxaemia generated by lipopolysaccharides, a substance present in the cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, and, consequently, an increase in systemic inflammation and metabolic diseases. In contrast (On the other hand), consumption of a healthy diet can help in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. In this way, chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.), rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, may present an anti-inflammatory role. In addition, chia is rich in antioxidants like caffeic and gallic acid and fiber. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between chia seeds, inflammatory mechanisms and intestinal permeability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the effects of chia administration on metabolism in obese mice. Swiss mice were fed a hyperlipidic diet either supplemented with or without 3% chia flour for 16 weeks. The results showed that supplementation could not reduce the deleterious effects of the lipid-rich diet in terms of body composition, glucose intolerance and activity of antioxidants enzymes in the liver. In addition, supplementation with chia in the control diet decreased the amount of occludin in the intestinal colon. In conclusion, although chia did not improve metabolic parameters it seemed to restore the intestinal barriers integrity. The beneficial effects of chia seem to be dependent of the quantity used, since our data conflict with those in the literature; however, it is important to note that other studies, unlike our protocol, used chia in the form of seeds or oil, and not flour.
- Perioperative nutrition for the treatment of bladder cancer by radical cystectomy. [Review]
- CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2019 May 20; 5:CD010127
- CONCLUSIONS: Based on few, small and dated studies, with serious methodological limitations, we found limited evidence for a benefit of perioperative nutrition interventions. We rated the quality of evidence as low or very low, which underscores the urgent need for high-quality research studies to better inform nutritional support interventions for people undergoing surgery for bladder cancer.
- Transketolase deficiency protects the liver from DNA damage by increasing levels of ribose 5-phosphate and nucleotides. [Journal Article]
- CRCancer Res 2019 May 17
- De novo nucleotide biosynthesis is essential for maintaining cellular nucleotide pools, the suppression of which leads to genome instability. The metabolic enzyme transketolase (TKT) in the non-oxida…
De novo nucleotide biosynthesis is essential for maintaining cellular nucleotide pools, the suppression of which leads to genome instability. The metabolic enzyme transketolase (TKT) in the non-oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) regulates ribose 5-phosphate (R5P) levels and de novo nucleotide biosynthesis. TKT is required for maintaining cell proliferation in human liver cancer cell lines, yet the role of TKT in liver injury and cancer initiation remains to be elucidated. In this study, we generated a liver-specific TKT knockout mouse strain by crossing TKTflox/flox mice with albumin-Cre mice. Loss of TKT in hepatocytes protected the liver from diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced DNA damage without altering DEN metabolism. DEN treatment of TKT-null liver increased levels of R5P and promoted de novo nucleotide synthesis. More importantly, supplementation of dNTPs in primary hepatocytes alleviated DEN-induced DNA damage, cell death, inflammatory response, and cell proliferation. Furthermore, DEN and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced liver carcinogenesis was reduced in TKTflox/floxAlb-Cre mice compared to control littermates. Mechanistically, loss of TKT in the liver increased apoptosis, reduced cell proliferation and TNF-α, IL-6, and STAT3 levels, and alleviated DEN/HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and fibrosis. Together, our data identify a key role for TKT in promoting genome instability during liver injury and tumor initiation.
- Macro Histone Variants: Emerging Rheostats of Gastrointestinal Cancers. [Review]
- CCancers (Basel) 2019 May 15; 11(5)
- Gastrointestinal cancers (GC) are malignancies involving the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and accessory organs of the digestive system, including the pancreas, liver, and gall bladder. GC is one of th…
Gastrointestinal cancers (GC) are malignancies involving the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and accessory organs of the digestive system, including the pancreas, liver, and gall bladder. GC is one of the most common cancers and contributes to more cancer-related deaths than cancers of any other system in the human body. Causative factors of GC have been consistently attributed to infections, smoking, an unhealthy diet, obesity, diabetes, and genetic factors. More recently, aberrant epigenetic regulation of gene expression has emerged as a new, fundamental pathway in GC pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the role of the macroH2A histone family in GI cell function and malignant transformation, and highlight how this histone family may open up novel biomarkers for cancer detection, prediction, and response to treatment.
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- Oncologists' Attitudes and Practice of Addressing Diet, Physical Activity, and Weight Management With Patients With Cancer: Findings of an ASCO Survey of the Oncology Workforce. [Journal Article]
- JOJ Oncol Pract 2019 May 16; :JOP1900124
- CONCLUSIONS: In a survey of oncology providers, attention to weight management, physical activity, and diet in patients with cancer was high during and after cancer treatment but often did not result in referrals to support lifestyle change. Future work is needed to support education and training of oncology providers to facilitate referrals and overcome barriers to implementation of weight management and physical activity programs for patients with cancer.