- Improvised first aid techniques for terrorist attacks. [Editorial]
- EMEmerg Med J 2018 Jun 15
- Terrorist acts occur every day around the world. Healthcare professionals are often present as bystander survivors in these situations, with none of the equipment or infrastructure they rely on in th...
Terrorist acts occur every day around the world. Healthcare professionals are often present as bystander survivors in these situations, with none of the equipment or infrastructure they rely on in their day-to-day practice. Within several countries there has been a move to disseminate the actions to take in the event of such attacks: in the UK, Run, Hide, Tell, and in the USA, Fight Back This paper outlines how a very basic medical knowledge combined with everyday high-street items can render highly effective first aid and save lives. We discuss and summarise modern improvised techniques. These include the <C> ABCDE approach of treating catastrophic haemorrhage before airway management, bringing together improvised techniques from the military and wilderness medicine. We explain how improvised tourniquets, wound dressings, splinting and traction devices can be fabricated using items from the high street: nappies, tampons, cling film, duct tape and tablecloths. Cervical spine immobilisation is a labour-intensive protocol that is often practised defensively. With little evidence to support the routine use of triple immobilisation, this should be replaced with a common sense dynamic approach such as the Montana neck brace. Acid or alkali attacks are also examined with simple pragmatic advice. Analgesia is discussed in the context of a prehospital setting. Pharmacy-obtained oral morphine and diclofenac suppositories can be used to treat moderate pain without relying on equipment for intravenous/intraosseous infusion in prolonged hold situations. The differentiation between concealment and cover is summarised: scene safety remains paramount.
- Urban Resources Selection and Allocation for Emergency Shelters: In a Multi-Hazard Environment. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Jun 14; 15(6)
- This study explores how emergency shelters can adapt to a multi-hazard environment by geographic information system (GIS) and takes Guangzhou as a case for analysis. The physical suitability of the o...
This study explores how emergency shelters can adapt to a multi-hazard environment by geographic information system (GIS) and takes Guangzhou as a case for analysis. The physical suitability of the overall urban resources was first assessed by aiming to select the suitable resources and safe locations for emergency shelters in the context of multiple disasters. Afterward, by analyzing the scale and spatial distribution of affected areas and populations under different types of disaster scenarios, the demand for different kinds of shelters were predicted. Lastly, taking into account the coverage of the affected people, shelters were allocated according to different conditions in the districts. This work will hopefully provide a reference for the construction of emergency shelters and help form emergency operations in order to mitigate the impact of hazards. The issues identified in the study need to be further studied in medium or small-scale cities.
- Wilderness Mass Casualty Incident (MCI): Rescue Chain After Avalanche at Everest Base Camp (EBC) In 2015. [Journal Article]
- WEWilderness Environ Med 2018 Jun 08
- The Nepal Earthquake of 2015 killed over 8000 people and injured over 20,000 in Nepal. Moments after the earthquake, an avalanche of falling ice came down from above Everest Base Camp (EBC). The air ...
The Nepal Earthquake of 2015 killed over 8000 people and injured over 20,000 in Nepal. Moments after the earthquake, an avalanche of falling ice came down from above Everest Base Camp (EBC). The air blast created by the avalanche flattened the middle part of EBC, killing 15 people and injuring at least 70. The casualties were initially triaged and treated at EBC and then evacuated by air to Kathmandu for definitive care. There were intermediate stops at the villages of Pheriche and Lukla during which the casualties were offloaded, retriaged, treated, and loaded again for further transport. Most of the authors of this article helped to provide primary disaster relief at EBC, Pheriche, or Lukla immediately after the earthquake. We describe the process by which an ad hoc rescue chain evacuated the casualties. We discuss challenges, both medical and nonmedical, what went well, and lessons learned. We make recommendations for disaster planning in the Khumbu (Everest) region, an isolated high altitude roadless area of Nepal.
- Case Study of Resilient Baton Rouge: Applying Depression Collaborative Care and Community Planning to Disaster Recovery. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Jun 08; 15(6)
- CONCLUSIONS: Our partnered processes and lessons learned may be applicable to other communities that aim to promote resilience, as well as planning for and responding to post-disaster behavioral health needs.
- Lessons Learned From an Epidemiologist-Led Countywide Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) in Oregon. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Public Health Manag Pract 2018 Jun 07
- CONCLUSIONS: This experience indicates the most important considerations for conducting a CASPER exercise are oversampling clusters, overrecruiting volunteers, anticipating the actual cost of staff time, and ensuring timely language services are available during the event.
- Natural Disasters and Injuries: What Does a Surgeon Need to Know? [Review]
- CTCurr Trauma Rep 2018; 4(2):103-108
- Natural disasters have injured more than 2 million people in the last 10 years and led to significant international medical relief deployment. Knowledge of expected injury patterns following these di...
Natural disasters have injured more than 2 million people in the last 10 years and led to significant international medical relief deployment. Knowledge of expected injury patterns following these disasters is an important part of planning for type and size of outside surgical assistance. This review aims to summarize what is known about injury patterns following natural sudden-onset disasters (SODs).
- The Disaster Information Needs of Families of Children with Special Healthcare Needs: A Scoping Review. [Journal Article]
- HSHealth Secur 2018 Jun 08
- Families with children who have access and mobility challenges, chronic illness, or intellectual or developmental disabilities require targeted messages before, during, and after disasters to ensure ...
Families with children who have access and mobility challenges, chronic illness, or intellectual or developmental disabilities require targeted messages before, during, and after disasters to ensure that they understand risks to their children's health and can take measures to avoid harm and build resilience. A scoping review was conducted to assess current evidence for optimal ways to address the disaster information needs and communication preferences of families with children and youth with special healthcare needs. The disaster information needs of such families remain understudied, with few published evidence-based practices. Much of the relevant research focuses on information content, specifically the preparedness needs of these families; disaster recovery information for them remains a major gap. The few studies that have been performed suggest that parents with children and youth with special healthcare needs require additional information, education, and training to develop an effective disaster preparedness plan for their children. They are also largely unaware of schools' disaster plans, and schools are often unable to meet parents' expectations for timely, accurate information during a disaster. Several guidance documents highlighted the importance of completing an emergency information form before an event. Several studies suggested that one-on-one education or counseling was a strategy for encouraging preparedness planning; others highlighted potential value in incorporating families directly into disaster risk reduction planning. Evidence about channel preferences and their effectiveness in this population was generally lacking. Future studies should expand the evidence basis for optimal communication during all disaster phases both with parents of children and youth with special healthcare needs and with children directly.
- Revealing and Responding to Multiple Health Risks in Informal Settlements in Sub-Saharan African Cities. [Journal Article]
- JUJ Urban Health 2018 Jun 05
- This paper underscores the need for detailed data on health and disaster risks for sub-Saharan African cities, particularly for their informal settlements. Systems that should contribute to the infor...
This paper underscores the need for detailed data on health and disaster risks for sub-Saharan African cities, particularly for their informal settlements. Systems that should contribute to the information base on health and health risks in each locality are rarely functional. In most cities, there is a lack of data on health risks, health outcomes, and health determinants; where data are available, they are usually too aggregated to be useful to urban governments. Such data shortfalls likely hide the scale of premature death, serious illness, and injury in informal settlements; limited data can also curtail the identification of particularly vulnerable urban residents. After outlining data shortfalls, this paper considers two sources of data that can help fill data gaps on health and health determinants. The first is from city case studies undertaken within a research programme called Urban Africa: Risk Knowledge (Urban-ARK). Urban-ARK's findings reveal the large spectrum of health risks in informal settlements, ranging from 'everyday' risks (e.g. infectious and parasitic diseases) to small- and larger-scale disasters. The second is from data collected by slum/shack dweller federations, which offer qualitative and quantitative findings on health, disasters, and other health determinants in informal settlements. Our conclusion reflects upon the need for additional data on multiple risks to advance urban health and well-being and support the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. It also highlights the need to strengthen accountable urban governance in sub-Saharan Africa.
- The Spillover Effect of a Flood on Pets and Their People: Implications for Rental Housing. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Appl Anim Welf Sci 2018 Jun 04; :1-11
- When disasters strike, companion animals (pets) matter. Emergency planning for them is a key aspect of disaster preparedness, especially considering that people may delay evacuation out of concern fo...
When disasters strike, companion animals (pets) matter. Emergency planning for them is a key aspect of disaster preparedness, especially considering that people may delay evacuation out of concern for their pets. Temporary boarding options for pets are important; however, caregivers (owners) must ultimately return to permanent housing. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to housing recovery in the disaster literature on pet ownership, and no studies have examined the potential for increased vulnerability among tenants with pets. This study analyzed online rental listings in a city that was severely flooded in 2013. In the following year, demand for pet-friendly rental housing outweighed supply. Landlords frequently stipulated restrictions on the allowable sizes, species, or breeds of pets. Dogs were often banned outright. To keep their pets, prospective tenants needed to exercise flexibility in location and pay higher surcharges. The implications of housing insecurity for tenants with pets have broad relevance, not just in disaster circumstances. Giving up a companion animal to secure housing can negatively impact resilience, whereas living in unsafe environments to avoid pet relinquishment may increase vulnerability.
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- The role of autophagy in steroid necrosis of the femoral head: a comprehensive research review. [Review]
- IOInt Orthop 2018 May 25
- Steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) has the incidence of 9-40% in patients receiving long-term treatment and is mainly involved in the middle and young people. It is mostly bilat...
Steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) has the incidence of 9-40% in patients receiving long-term treatment and is mainly involved in the middle and young people. It is mostly bilateral, with a wide range of necrosis and high disability rate, which brings disaster for patients and families. The experimental study shows that autophagy participates in the pathological process of steroid ONFH and is closely related to apoptosis, and the interaction between autophagy and bone cells is related to the dose of hormones. Moreover, autophagy also affects the interaction between osteoblasts and osteoclasts in ONFH. In the present review, we have discussed the role of autophagy in the pathological process of the steroid-induced ONFH.