- Outbreak of human brucellosis in Southern Brazil and historical review of data from 2009 to 2018. [Journal Article]
- PNPLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Sep 18; 12(9):e0006770
- CONCLUSIONS: HB outbreaks can occur in low to middle-income countries and are associated with slaughterhouse work, handling of unpasteurized milk and animal manipulation. Intensive programs for control of HB are important to reduce the number of cases.
- [Semi-quantitative risk assessment of human infection with H7N9 avian influenza epidemic in Zhejiang province]. [Journal Article]
- ZDZhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2018 May 25; 47(2):131-136
- CONCLUSIONS: A semi-quantitative method has been established in this study, which provides scientific basis for prevention and control of H7N9 avian influenza epidemic in Zhejiang province.
- Mapping Histoplasma capsulatum Exposure, United States. [Journal Article]
- EIEmerg Infect Dis 2018; 24(10):1835-1839
- Maps of Histoplasma capsulatum infection prevalence were created 50 years ago; since then, the environment, climate, and anthropogenic land use have changed drastically. Recent outbreaks of acute dis...
Maps of Histoplasma capsulatum infection prevalence were created 50 years ago; since then, the environment, climate, and anthropogenic land use have changed drastically. Recent outbreaks of acute disease in Montana and Nebraska, USA, suggest shifts in geographic distribution, necessitating updated prevalence maps. To create a weighted overlay geographic suitability model for Histoplasma, we used a geographic information system to combine satellite imagery integrating land cover use (70%), distance to water (20%), and soil pH (10%). We used logistic regression modeling to compare our map with state-level histoplasmosis incidence data from a 5% sample from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. When compared with the state-based Centers data, the predictive accuracy of the suitability score-predicted states with high and mid-to-high histoplasmosis incidence was moderate. Preferred soil environments for Histoplasma have migrated into the upper Missouri River basin. Suitability score mapping may be applicable to other geographically specific infectious vectors.
- Two Community Clusters of Legionnaires' Disease Directly Linked to a Biologic Wastewater Treatment Plant, the Netherlands. [Journal Article]
- EIEmerg Infect Dis 2018; 24(10):1914-1918
- A biologic wastewater treatment plant was identified as a common source for 2 consecutive Legionnaires' disease clusters in the Netherlands in 2016 and 2017. Sequence typing and transmission modeling...
A biologic wastewater treatment plant was identified as a common source for 2 consecutive Legionnaires' disease clusters in the Netherlands in 2016 and 2017. Sequence typing and transmission modeling indicated direct and long-distance transmission of Legionella, indicating this source type should also be investigated in sporadic Legionnaires' disease cases.
- Environmental Determinants of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in High-Risk Counties in China: A Time Series Analysis (2002-2012). [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Sep 17
- The transmission pattern of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is associated with environmental conditions, including meteorological factors and land-cover. In the present study, the associ...
The transmission pattern of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is associated with environmental conditions, including meteorological factors and land-cover. In the present study, the association between HFRS and environmental factors (including maximum temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and normalized difference vegetation index) were explored in two typical counties in Northeast and two counties in Northwest China with severe HFRS outbreaks by using seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model (SARIMAX) with exogenous variables. The results showed that rainfall with 3- to 4-month lag was closely associated with HFRS in the two counties in Northeast China, whereas relative humidity with 1- or 5-month lag significantly impacts HFRS transmission in the two counties in Northwest China. Moreover, the SARIMAX models exhibit accurate forecasting ability of HFRS cases. Our findings provide scientific support for local HFRS monitoring and control, and the development of a HFRS early warning system.
- Seroprevalence and Symptomatic Attack Rate of Chikungunya Virus Infection, United States Virgin Islands, 2014-2015. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Sep 17
- When introduced into a naïve population, chikungunya virus generally spreads rapidly, causing large outbreaks of fever and severe polyarthralgia. We randomly selected households in the U.S. Virgin Is...
When introduced into a naïve population, chikungunya virus generally spreads rapidly, causing large outbreaks of fever and severe polyarthralgia. We randomly selected households in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) to estimate seroprevalence and symptomatic attack rate for chikungunya virus infection at approximately 1 year following the introduction of the virus. Eligible household members were administered a questionnaire and tested for chikungunya virus antibodies. Estimated proportions were calibrated to age and gender of the population. We enrolled 509 participants. The weighted infection rate was 31% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 26-36%). Among those with evidence of chikungunya virus infection, 72% (95% CI: 65-80%) reported symptomatic illness and 31% (95% CI: 23-38%) reported joint pain at least once per week approximately 1 year following the introduction of the virus to USVI. Comparing rates from infected and noninfected study participants, 70% (95% CI: 62-79%) of fever and polyarthralgia and 23% (95% CI: 9-37%) of continuing joint pain in patients infected with chikungunya virus were due to their infection. Overall, an estimated 43% (95% CI: 33-52%) of the febrile illness and polyarthralgia in the USVI population during the outbreak was attributable to chikungunya virus and only 12% (95% CI: 7-17%) of longer term joint pains were attributed to chikungunya virus. Although the rates of infection, symptomatic disease, and longer term joint symptoms identified in USVI are similar to other outbreaks of the disease, a lower proportion of acute fever and joint pain was found to be attributable to chikungunya virus.
- A comparison of mosquito densities, weather and infection rates of Aedes aegypti during the first epidemics of Chikungunya (2014) and Zika (2016) in areas with and without vector control in Puerto Rico. [Journal Article]
- MVMed Vet Entomol 2018 Sep 17
- In Puerto Rico, the first records of the transmission of Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses were confirmed in May 2014 and December 2015, respectively. Transmission of CHIKV peaked in Septem...
In Puerto Rico, the first records of the transmission of Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses were confirmed in May 2014 and December 2015, respectively. Transmission of CHIKV peaked in September 2014, whereas that of ZIKV peaked in August 2016. The emergence of these mosquito-transmitted arboviruses in the context of a lack of human population immunity allowed observations of whether the outbreaks were associated with Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) densities and weather. Mosquito density was monitored weekly in four communities using sentinel autocidal gravid ovitraps (AGO traps) during 2016 in order to provide data to be compared with the findings of a previous study carried out during the 2014 CHIKV epidemic. Findings in two communities protected against Ae. aegypti using mass AGO trapping (three traps per house in most houses) were compared with those in two nearby communities without vector control. Mosquito pools were collected to detect viral RNA of ZIKV, CHIKV and dengue virus. In areas without vector control, mosquito densities and rates of ZIKV detection in 2016 were significantly higher, similarly to those observed for CHIKV in 2014. The density of Ae. aegypti in treated sites was less than two females/trap/week, which is similar to the putative adult female threshold for CHIKV transmission. No significant differences in mosquito density or infection rates with ZIKV and CHIKV at the same sites between years were observed. Although 2016 was significantly wetter, mosquito densities were similar.
- The fecal virome of red-crowned cranes. [Journal Article]
- AVArch Virol 2018 Sep 17
- The red-crowned crane is one of the rarest crane species, and its population is decreasing due to loss of habitat, poisoning, and infections. Using a viral metagenomics approach, we analyzed the viro...
The red-crowned crane is one of the rarest crane species, and its population is decreasing due to loss of habitat, poisoning, and infections. Using a viral metagenomics approach, we analyzed the virome of feces from wild and captive red-crowned cranes, which were pooled separately. Vertebrate viruses belonging to the families Picornaviridae, Parvoviridae, Circoviridae, and Caliciviridae were detected. Among the members of the family Picornaviridae, we found three that appear to represent new genera. Six nearly complete genomes from members of the family Parvoviridae were also obtained, including four new members of the proposed genus "Chapparvovirus", and two members of the genus Aveparvovirus. Six small circular DNA genomes were also characterized. One nearly complete genome showing a low level of sequence identity to caliciviruses was also characterized. Numerous viruses believed to infect insects, plants, and crustaceans were also identified, which were probably derived from the diet of red-crowned cranes. This study increases our understanding of the enteric virome of red-crowned cranes and provides a baseline for comparison to those of other birds or following disease outbreaks.
- Advancing risk assessment: mechanistic dose-response modelling of Listeria monocytogenes infection in human populations. [Journal Article]
- RSR Soc Open Sci 2018; 5(8):180343
- The utility of characterizing the effects of strain variation and individual/subgroup susceptibility on dose-response outcomes has motivated the search for new approaches beyond the popular use of th...
The utility of characterizing the effects of strain variation and individual/subgroup susceptibility on dose-response outcomes has motivated the search for new approaches beyond the popular use of the exponential dose-response model for listeriosis. While descriptive models can account for such variation, they have limited power to extrapolate beyond the details of particular outbreaks. By contrast, this study exhibits dose-response relationships from a mechanistic basis, quantifying key biological factors involved in pathogen-host dynamics. An efficient computational algorithm and geometric interpretation of the infection pathway are developed to connect dose-response relationships with the underlying bistable dynamics of the model. Relying on in vitro experiments as well as outbreak data, we estimate plausible parameters for the human context. Despite the presence of uncertainty in such parameters, sensitivity analysis reveals that the host response is most influenced by the pathogen-immune system interaction. In particular, we show how variation in this interaction across a subgroup of the population dictates the shape of dose-response curves. Finally, in terms of future experimentation, our model results provide guidelines and highlight vital aspects of the interplay between immune cells and particular strains of Listeria monocytogenes that should be examined.
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- An Exploration of the Spatiotemporal and Demographic Patterns of Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic in West Africa Using Open Access Data Sources. [Journal Article]
- AGAppl Geogr 2018; 90:272-281
- The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of exploratory analytical techniques using publically available data in informing interventions in case of infectious diseases outbreaks. More...
The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of exploratory analytical techniques using publically available data in informing interventions in case of infectious diseases outbreaks. More exactly spatiotemporal and multivariate methods were used to characterize the dynamics of the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa, and propose plausible relationships with demographic/social risk factors. The analysis showed that there was significant spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal dependence in the evolution of the disease. For the first part of the epidemic, the cases were highly clustered in a few administrative units, in the proximity of the point of origin of the outbreak, possibly offering the opportunity to stop the spread of the disease. Later in the epidemic, high clusters were observed, but only in Liberia and Sierra Leone. Although not definitely factors of risk, in the setting in which the epidemic arose, our analysis suggests infrastructure, access to and use of health services, and connectivity possibly accelerated and magnified the spread of EVD. Also, the spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal patterns of epidemic can be clearly shown - with evident application in the early stages of management of epidemics. In particular, we found that the spatial-temporal analytic tool SaTScan may be used effectively during the evolution of an epidemic to identify areas for targeted intervention. In the case of EVD epidemic in West Africa, better data and integration local knowledge and customs may have been more useful to recognize the proper response.