- Simulation of key interventions for seasonal influenza outbreak control at school in Changsha, China. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Int Med Res 2018 Jan 01; :300060518764268
- Objective To use a mathematical model to simulate an influenza outbreak in a school in order to assess the effectiveness of isolation (Iso), antiviral therapeutics, antiviral prophylactics (P), vacci...
Objective To use a mathematical model to simulate an influenza outbreak in a school in order to assess the effectiveness of isolation (Iso), antiviral therapeutics, antiviral prophylactics (P), vaccination prior to the outbreak, and school closure (for 1 [S1w], 2 or 3 weeks). Methods This study developed a susceptible-exposed-infectious/asymptomatic-recovered model to estimate the effectiveness of commonly used interventions for seasonal influenza outbreaks in school. Results The most effective single-intervention strategy was isolation with a total attack rate of 1.99% and an outbreak duration of 30 days. The additional effectiveness of antiviral therapeutics and prophylactics and vaccination (prior to the outbreak) strategies were not obvious. Although Iso+P, P+Iso+S1w, four-, and five-combined intervention strategies had commendable effectiveness, total attack rate decreased only slightly, and outbreak duration was shortened by 9 days maximum, compared with the single-intervention isolation strategy. School closure for 1, 2 or 3 weeks was futile or even counterproductive. Conclusion Isolation, as a single intervention, was the most effective in terms of reducing the total attack rate and the duration of the outbreak.
- Serological Evidence ofOrthopoxvirusCirculation Among Equids, Southeast Brazil. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Microbiol 2018; 9:402
- Since 1999Vaccinia virus(VACV) outbreaks involving bovines and humans have been reported in Brazil; this zoonosis is known as Bovine Vaccinia (BV) and is mainly an occupational disease of milkers. It...
Since 1999Vaccinia virus(VACV) outbreaks involving bovines and humans have been reported in Brazil; this zoonosis is known as Bovine Vaccinia (BV) and is mainly an occupational disease of milkers. It was only in 2008 (and then again in 2011 and 2014) however, that VACV was found causing natural infections in Brazilian equids. These reports involved only equids, no infected humans or bovines were identified, and the sources of infections remain unknown up to date. The peculiarities of Equine Vaccinia outbreaks (e.g., absence of human infection), the frequently shared environments, and fomites by equids and bovines in Brazilian farms and the remaining gaps in BV epidemiology incited a question over OPV serological status of equids in Brazil. For this report, sera from 621 equids - representing different species, ages, sexes and locations of origin within Minas Gerais State, southeast Brazil - were examined for the presence of anti-Orthopoxvirus(OPV) antibodies. Only 74 of these were sampled during an Equine Vaccinia outbreak, meaning some of these specific animals presented typical lesions of OPV infections. The majority of sera, however, were sampled from animals without typical signs of OPV infection and during the absence of reported Bovine or Equine Vaccinia outbreaks. Results suggest the circulation of VACV among equids of southeast Brazil even prior to the time of the first VACV outbreak in 2008. There is a correlation of OPVs outbreaks among bovines and equids although many gaps remain to our understanding of its nature. The data obtained may even be carefully associated to recent discussion over OPVs history. Moreover, data is available to improve the knowledge and instigate new researches regarding OPVs circulation in Brazil and worldwide.
- 100% Use of Infection Control Procedures in Hemodialysis Facilities: Call to Action. [Journal Article]
- CJClin J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 Mar 22
- What We Learned from Ebola: Preparing Dialysis Units for the Next Outbreak. [Journal Article]
- CJClin J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 Mar 22
- Antimicrobial resistance in aquaculture: current knowledge and alternatives to tackle the problem. [Review]
- IJInt J Antimicrob Agents 2018 Mar 19
- Aquaculture is a rapidly growing industry that currently accounts for almost half of the fish used for human consumption worldwide. Intensive and semi-intensive practices are used to produce large st...
Aquaculture is a rapidly growing industry that currently accounts for almost half of the fish used for human consumption worldwide. Intensive and semi-intensive practices are used to produce large stocks of fish, but frequent disease outbreaks occur, and the use of antimicrobials has become a customary practice to control them. The selective pressure exerted by these drugs, which are usually present at sub-therapeutic levels for prolonged periods in the water and the sediments, provides ideal conditions for the emergence and selection of resistant bacterial strains and stimulates horizontal gene transfer. It is now widely recognized that the passage of antimicrobial resistance genes and resistant bacteria from aquatic to terrestrial animal husbandry and to the human environment and vice versa can have detrimental effects on both human and animal health and on aquatic ecosystems. A global effort must be made to cease antimicrobial overuse in aquaculture and encourage stakeholders to adopt other disease prevention measures. Shaping a new path is crucial to contain the increasing threat of antimicrobial resistance.
- Fusion Inhibitory Lipopeptides Engineered for Prophylaxis of Nipah Virus in Primates. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Infect Dis 2018 Mar 16
- CONCLUSIONS: The experiments provide a proof of concept for the use of anti-fusion lipopeptides for prophylaxis of lethal NiV. These results advance towards the goal of rational development of potent lipopeptide inhibitors with desirable pharmacokinetic and biodistribution properties and a safe effective delivery method to target NiV and other pathogenic viruses.
- An advection-deposition-survival model to assess the risk of introduction of vector-borne diseases through the wind: Application to bluetongue outbreaks in Spain. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(3):e0194573
- This work develops a methodology for estimating risk of wind-borne introduction of flying insects into a country, identifying areas and periods of high risk of vector-borne diseases incursion. This r...
This work develops a methodology for estimating risk of wind-borne introduction of flying insects into a country, identifying areas and periods of high risk of vector-borne diseases incursion. This risk can be characterized by the role of suitable temperatures and wind currents in small insects' survival and movements, respectively. The model predicts the number density of introduced insects over space and time based on three processes: the advection due to wind currents, the deposition on the ground and the survival due to climatic conditions. Spanish livestock has suffered many bluetongue outbreaks since 2004 and numerous experts point to Culicoides transported by wind from affected areas in North Africa as a possible cause. This work implements numerical experiments simulating the introduction of Culicoides in 2004. The model identified southern and eastern Spain, particularly between June and November, as being at greatest risk of wind-borne Culicoides introduction, which matches field data on bluetongue outbreaks in Spain this year. This validation suggests that this model may be useful for predicting introduction of airborne pathogens of significance to animal productivity.
- Fatal Yellow Fever in Travelers to Brazil, 2018. [Case Reports]
- MMMMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Mar 23; 67(11):340-341
- Yellow fever virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes yellow fever, an acute infectious disease that occurs in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. Most patients with yellow fever are asympt...
Yellow fever virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes yellow fever, an acute infectious disease that occurs in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. Most patients with yellow fever are asymptomatic, but among the 15% who develop severe illness, the case fatality rate is 20%-60%. Effective live-attenuated virus vaccines are available that protect against yellow fever (1). An outbreak of yellow fever began in Brazil in December 2016; since July 2017, cases in both humans and nonhuman primates have been reported from the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro, including cases occurring near large urban centers in these states (2). On January 16, 2018, the World Health Organization updated yellow fever vaccination recommendations for Brazil to include all persons traveling to or living in Espírito Santo, São Paulo, and Rio de Janeiro states, and certain cities in Bahia state, in addition to areas where vaccination had been recommended before the recent outbreak (3). Since January 2018, 10 travel-related cases of yellow fever, including four deaths, have been reported in international travelers returning from Brazil. None of the 10 travelers had received yellow fever vaccination.
- Virulence marker candidates in N-protein of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV): virulence variability within VHSV Ib clones. [Journal Article]
- DADis Aquat Organ 2018 Mar 22; 128(1):51-62
- Four major genotypes of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), which have been isolated from many marine and freshwater fish species, are known to differ in virulence. While fast and low-cost g...
Four major genotypes of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), which have been isolated from many marine and freshwater fish species, are known to differ in virulence. While fast and low-cost genotyping systems based on monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been developed for typing of VHSV virulence, there is a need for supplementing the knowledge. In particular, 2 field isolates from viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) outbreaks in sea-reared rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in Sweden, SE-SVA-14 and SE-SVA-1033 (both genotype Ib), have yielded contradictory reactions. In the present study, upon cloning by limited dilution, both isolates appeared to be heterogeneous in terms of reactivity with nucleo (N)-protein-specific MAbs as well their gene sequences. Infection trials in rainbow trout further revealed differences in the virulence of these virus clones derived from the same primary isolate. Based on a comparative analysis of the entire genome of the clones tested, we suggest that the differences in virulence are tentatively linked to substitutions of amino acids (aa) in the N-protein region covered by aa 43-46 and aa position 168, or a combination of the two. The fact that such minor naturally occurring genetic differences affect the virulence implies that even low-virulent VHSV isolates in the marine environment should be considered as a potential threat for the trout farming industry. The described MAbs can represent useful tools for initial risk assessment of disease outbreaks in farmed trout by marine VHSV isolates.
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- Imported case of measles in a university setting leading to an outbreak of measles in Edinburgh, Scotland from September to December 2016. [Journal Article]
- EIEpidemiol Infect 2018 Mar 22; :1-6
- In September 2016, an imported case of measles in Edinburgh in a university student resulted in a further 17 confirmed cases during October and November 2016. All cases were genotype D8 and were asso...
In September 2016, an imported case of measles in Edinburgh in a university student resulted in a further 17 confirmed cases during October and November 2016. All cases were genotype D8 and were associated with a virus strain most commonly seen in South East Asia. Twelve of the 18 cases were staff or students at a university in Edinburgh and 17 cases had incomplete or unknown measles mumps rubella (MMR) vaccination status. The public health response included mass follow-up of all identified contacts, widespread communications throughout universities in Edinburgh and prompt vaccination clinics at affected campuses. Imported cases of measles pose a significant risk to university student cohorts who may be undervaccinated, include a large number of international students and have a highly mobile population. Public health departments should work closely with universities to promote MMR uptake and put in place mass vaccination plans to prevent rapidly spreading measles outbreaks in higher educational settings in future.