- Zika Virus Diagnosis: Challenges and Solutions. [Review]
- CMClin Microbiol Infect 2018 Dec 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Surveillance and research in the case of ZIKV has shifted into a more rapid and coordinated worldwide directive than has occurred with most viral epidemics to date. The particular concentration of outbreaks in resource-limited settings increases the need for simple assays capable of reliable, inexpensive, high-throughput ZIKV diagnosis. This review serves to both catalog current diagnostic options and consider their suitability at point-of-care.
- First report of two consecutive respiratory syncytial virus outbreaks by the novel genotypes ON-1 and NA-2 in a neonatal intensive care unit. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pediatr (Rio J) 2018 Dec 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Infants in a neonatal intensive care unit who develop abrupt respiratory symptoms should be tested for respiratory viruses, especially respiratory syncytial virus. Even in the absence of severe symptoms, respiratory syncytial virus detection can prevent nosocomial transmission through infection control measures. A better understanding of respiratory syncytial virus molecular epidemiology is essential for developing new vaccines and antiviral drugs against respiratory syncytial virus.
- Clinical and aetiological study of hand, foot and mouth disease in southern Vietnam, 2013-2015: inpatients and outpatients. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 11
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study represents the most comprehensive descriptive HFMD study from Vietnam. Co-circulation and replacement of different serotypes has implications for vaccine development and implementation. These findings from one of the severely affected countries add to our understanding of the presentation, progression and aetiology of HFMD.
- Asymptomatic Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection: Extent and implications for infection control: A systematic review. [Review]
- TMTravel Med Infect Dis 2018 Dec 11
- CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of asymptomatic MERS cases were detected with increasing frequency as the disease progressed overtime. Those patients were less likely to have comorbid disease and contributed to the transmission of the virus.
- Tetanus outbreak in a sheep flock due to ear tagging. [Case Reports]
- VMVet Med Sci 2018 Dec 13
- Tetanus is an acute, often fatal, infectious neuromuscular disease in all farmed mammals caused by Clostridium tetani. The disease is sporadic but outbreaks of tetanus have been described, as a resul...
Tetanus is an acute, often fatal, infectious neuromuscular disease in all farmed mammals caused by Clostridium tetani. The disease is sporadic but outbreaks of tetanus have been described, as a result of wound contaminated with spores of C. tetani, which sporulates to the vegetative form and produce toxins. The present study reports an outbreak of tetanus in a sheep flock, shortly after ear tagging. Three sheep from a large flock (with a population of 1000 sheep) were presented with signs of: convulsion, limb stiffness, incoordination and trismus ("lock jaw"). There were wounds and scabs in most livestock where ear tags had been attached 1 week prior. Clinical examination revealed tachycardia, dyspnoea with dilated nostrils, mild fever, erected ear pinnae, teeth grinding, mild bloat, muscles rigidity, prolapse of third eyelid and anxiety. According to the history stated by the owner, the case fatality rate of the disease from the beginning was 50% during the outbreak. Necropsy did not reveal any significant finding. Gram-positive bacilli with terminal spores representing C. tetani were isolated in anaerobic cultures which were taken from ear wounds. Procaine penicillin G was administrated at 20 000 IU/kg BW for 5 days, but antiglobulin was not available to treat affected animals. Mortality significantly declined one day after onset of treatment. In this report, the organism was probably introduced by contaminated instruments which were used for ear tagging of sheep. Wound exudation and adhesion following rubbing, created a favourable anaerobic condition for the spores to germinate with production of neurotoxin. Vaccination can protect animals against tetanus, but it does not preclude the need to apply standard hygienic principles when performing management procedures causing wounds. In pasture holding system, many pathogens are present in environment, so tetanus should be considered important in farm animals, because of its high fatality rate and the long course of convalescence.
- The use of open source GIS algorithms, big geographic data, and cluster computing techniques to compile a geospatial database that can be used to evaluate upstream bathing and sanitation behaviours on downstream health outcomes in Indonesia, 2000-2008. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Health Geogr 2018 Dec 14; 17(1):44
- CONCLUSIONS: Advances in big-data availability, particularly high-resolution elevation data, the lowering of the cost of parallel computing options, mass survey data, and open source GIS algorithms that can utilize parallel processing and big-data, open new opportunities for the study of human health at micro granularities but across entire nations. The database generated has already been used by health researchers to compute the influence of upstream behaviors on downstream diarrhea outbreaks and to monitor avoidance behaviors to upstream water behaviors across all downstream 250,000 Indonesian villages over 4 years, and further waterborne health analyses are underway.
- Tracking virus outbreaks in the twenty-first century. [Review]
- NMNat Microbiol 2019; 4(1):10-19
- Emerging viruses have the potential to impose substantial mortality, morbidity and economic burdens on human populations. Tracking the spread of infectious diseases to assist in their control has tra...
Emerging viruses have the potential to impose substantial mortality, morbidity and economic burdens on human populations. Tracking the spread of infectious diseases to assist in their control has traditionally relied on the analysis of case data gathered as the outbreak proceeds. Here, we describe how many of the key questions in infectious disease epidemiology, from the initial detection and characterization of outbreak viruses, to transmission chain tracking and outbreak mapping, can now be much more accurately addressed using recent advances in virus sequencing and phylogenetics. We highlight the utility of this approach with the hypothetical outbreak of an unknown pathogen, 'Disease X', suggested by the World Health Organization to be a potential cause of a future major epidemic. We also outline the requirements and challenges, including the need for flexible platforms that generate sequence data in real-time, and for these data to be shared as widely and openly as possible.
- Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Transmission: A Comparison of Incriminated Vectors. [Review]
- IInsects 2018 Dec 11; 9(4)
- Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is a viral disease of veterinary importance, enzootic in tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas. In the U.S., VS produces devastating economic losses, particularly...
Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is a viral disease of veterinary importance, enzootic in tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas. In the U.S., VS produces devastating economic losses, particularly in the southwestern states where the outbreaks display an occurrence pattern of 10-year intervals. To date, the mechanisms of the geographic spread and maintenance cycles during epizootics remain unclear. This is due, in part, to the fact that VS epidemiology has a complex of variables to consider, including a broad range of vertebrate hosts, multiple routes of transmission, and an extensive diversity of suspected vector species acting as both mechanical and biological vectors. Infection and viral progression within vector species are highly influenced by virus serotype, as well as environmental factors, including temperature and seasonality; however, the mechanisms of viral transmission, including non-conventional pathways, are yet to be fully studied. Here, we review VS epidemiology and transmission mechanisms, with comparisons of transmission evidence for the four most incriminated hematophagous dipteran taxa: Aedes mosquitoes, Lutzomyia sand flies, Simulium black flies, and Culicoides biting midges.
- A Review of Scabies: An Infestation More than Skin Deep. [Review]
- DDermatology 2018 Dec 13; :1-12
- Human scabies, a common infestation, has a worldwide distribution with a variable impact and presentation depending on the clinical situation. In developed, high-income settings, health institution a...
Human scabies, a common infestation, has a worldwide distribution with a variable impact and presentation depending on the clinical situation. In developed, high-income settings, health institution and residential home outbreaks challenge health and social care services. In resource-poor settings, it is the downstream sequelae of staphylococcal and streptococcal bacteraemia, induced by scratching, which have a significant impact on the long-term health of communities. Over the past decade scabies has been recognised as a "neglected tropical disease" (NTD) by the World Health Organisation, has an accepted practical system of global diagnostic criteria and is being adopted into integrated programmes of mass drug administration for NTDs in field settings. This review seeks to summarise the recent advances in the understanding of scabies and highlight the advocacy and research headlines with their implication for diagnosis and management of outbreaks and individuals. In addition, it will indicate the priorities and questions that remain.
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- Preliminary investigation of ixodid ticks in Jiangxi Province of Eastern China. [Journal Article]
- EAExp Appl Acarol 2018 Dec 12
- In recent years, a large effort has been made for tick surveys for public health importance around China, especially after outbreaks of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) occurred in ...
In recent years, a large effort has been made for tick surveys for public health importance around China, especially after outbreaks of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) occurred in humans in 2009. In this paper, the preliminary species composition and population distribution of ticks in Jiangxi Province of Eastern China is reported. Ticks were collected in three habitats (grassland, shrubs and woodland) and from nine host groups in 12 sampling sites throughout Jiangxi Province between 2011 and 2018. Six tick species including Haemaphysalis longicornis, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, Haemaphysalis yeni, Haemaphysalis kitaoka, Ixodes sinensis and Dermacentor auratus were collected from the vegetation. Haemaphysalis longicornis was most abundant tick species, accounting for 90.6% of the total ticks. Haemaphysalis yeni and H. kitaoka were newly recorded tick species in Jiangxi Province. Tick presence was remarkably greater in grassland (89.4%) than in woodland (9.4%) and shrubs (1.2%), and nymphs (68.2%) and larvae (19.1%) were more frequently found than adult females (6.6%) and males (6.0%). On hosts, a total of 1513 ticks, from 13 species and four genera, were collected. These were H. longicornis, Haemaphysalis campanulata, Haemaphysalis flava, Haemaphysalis phasiana, H. yeni, H. kitaoka, Haemaphysalis hystricis, R. sanguineus (s.l.), Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides, Rhipicephalus microplus, Ixodes granulatus, I. sinensis and Amblyomma testudinarium. Amblyomma testudinarium was a newly recorded tick species in Jiangxi Province. Based on this investigation, H. longicornis was the most frequently collected species (30.5%) and widely distributed tick species of the total collection ticks (in 11 sampling sites). Haemaphysalis longicornis had a broad host range and its presence (hosts with at least one tick) was significantly greater on Lepus sinensis (33.3%) than on Canis familiaris (2.3%) (χ2 = 23.68, p = 0.0013). In addition, the number of H. longicornis collected on L. sinensis (64.0%) was higher than on other host groups. Of all ticks collected on hosts, different developmental stages were obtained, which included 347 larvae (22.9%), 249 nymphs (16.5%), 404 adult males (26.7%) and 513 females (33.9%) and sex distribution was relatively uniform. These data indicate that a broad range of tick species is widely distributed throughout Jiangxi Province in Eastern China.