- Attitudes and beliefs toward the use of stereotactic body radiotherapy in oligometastatic breast cancer: A commentary on a survey of Canadian Medical Oncologists. [Journal Article]
- BJBreast J 2019 Jul 01
- Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a highly ablative local therapy which has emerged as part of the treatment paradigm for patients with oligometastatic (OM) breast cancer (defined by 5 or fewe…
Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a highly ablative local therapy which has emerged as part of the treatment paradigm for patients with oligometastatic (OM) breast cancer (defined by 5 or fewer sites). This patient group has demonstrated improved prognosis in some cases and may therefore, benefit from aggressive local treatment. The role of upfront SBRT in newly diagnosed OM breast cancer in addition to systemic therapy is not clear, yet it is being increasingly utilized within the oncology community. The Canadian medical system is an ideal platform in which to investigate SBRT into the OM breast cancer setting, as it is not routinely implemented across centers at this time, as there is potential for robust collaboration between oncologists in the small community to investigate SBRT, and there is limited financial or industry motivation for early SBRT uptake compared with other countries. It is critical therefore to define the optimal patient population and scenarios for which SBRT should be investigated, as well as offered in the interim to Canadian patients. We therefore conducted a survey of Canadian Medical Oncologists, the primary physicians and gatekeepers of patients with OM breast cancer, to characterize their beliefs, opinions, and areas of controversy in the use of SBRT for OM breast cancer.
- A Perceptual Framework for Conservative Treatment and Rehabilitation of Ankle Sprains: An Evidence-Based Paradigm Shift. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Athl Train 2019; 54(6):628-638
- Lateral ankle sprains are the most common injuries sustained during physical activity. The epidemiologic trends associated with chronic ankle instability (CAI) suggest that current rehabilitation app…
Lateral ankle sprains are the most common injuries sustained during physical activity. The epidemiologic trends associated with chronic ankle instability (CAI) suggest that current rehabilitation approaches may be inadequate. We sought to synthesize best-practices evidence for the rehabilitation of patients with acute ankle sprains and CAI through the integration of emerging paradigms in perception, the dynamics of skill acquisition, and the biopsychosocial model of function, disability, and health. From the best available evidence, 4 key factors emerged for effective treatment and rehabilitation strategies: pain reduction, external ankle support for up to 1 year, progressive return to motion, and coordination training. We combined these factors into a meta-theoretical framework that centers on the perceptual interdependence of the cellular, local, and global functioning levels by linking insights from the body-self neuromatrix, the dynamics of skill acquisition, and the biopsychosocial model. Based on the best-practice recommendations from systematic reviews, ankle-sprain rehabilitation represents a multidimensional phenomenon governed by perception. The impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions associated with CAI may be linked to perceptual-interdependence alterations. Pain and edema reduction, the use of external ankle support for up to 1 year, progressive return to motion, and coordination training foster enhanced perceptual interdependence from cells to society. Using the perceptual-interdependence framework for ankle-sprain rehabilitation, we offer new insights for charting the course of effective strategies for enhancing function, reducing disability, and preventing the long-term sequelae associated with CAI.
- Ethnic and racial diversity in eating disorder prevention trials. [Journal Article]
- EDEat Disord 2019 Mar-Apr; 27(2):168-182
- Recruiting diverse samples for prevention trials is challenging, but essential. This paper provides baseline data for four racial/ethnic groups from a randomized controlled trial of a mobile-based pr…
Recruiting diverse samples for prevention trials is challenging, but essential. This paper provides baseline data for four racial/ethnic groups from a randomized controlled trial of a mobile-based prevention intervention and systematically reviews recruitment trends in diversity across technology-based prevention studies. Female emerging adults completed measures of appearance esteem, body image flexibility, appearance comparison, and self-compassion. White participants reported lower body esteem and body image flexibility, and higher appearance comparison compared to Black and Asian participants. Latina participants evidenced higher appearance comparison compared to Black participants. The literature review revealed that while rates of diversity in previous trials vary, the majority of the participants were White. Efforts are needed to increase diversity in prevention trials.
- Larger omental adipocytes correlate with greater Fetuin-A reduction following sleeve gastrectomy. [Journal Article]
- BOBMC Obes 2019; 6:15
- CONCLUSIONS: FetA began to decrease during the preoperative diet. Greater FetA reduction during this time was associated with smaller adipocytes on DOS. Therefore, immediate, post-bariatric improvements in glucose homeostasis may be partly explained by dietary changes. The preoperative diet protocol significantly reduced insulin resistance, a modifiable risk factor for other non-bariatric procedures. Therefore, this dietary protocol may also be used preoperatively for procedures beyond bariatric surgery.
- TLR4 Promotes and DAP12 Limits Obesity-Induced Osteoarthritis in Aged Female Mice. [Journal Article]
- JPJBMR Plus 2019; 3(4):e10079
- Aging and female sex are the strongest risk factors for nontraumatic osteoarthritis (OA); whereas obesity is a modifiable risk factor accelerating OA. Prior studies indicate that the innate immune re…
Aging and female sex are the strongest risk factors for nontraumatic osteoarthritis (OA); whereas obesity is a modifiable risk factor accelerating OA. Prior studies indicate that the innate immune receptor toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediates obesity-induced metabolic inflammation and cartilage catabolism via recognition of damage-associated molecular patterns and is increased with aging in OA joints. TLR4 responses are limited by innate immunoreceptor adapter protein DNAX-activating protein of 12kDA (DAP12). We undertook this study to test the hypothesis that TLR4 promotes, whereas DAP12 limits, obesity-accelerated OA in aged female mice. We fed 13- to 15-month-old female WT, TLR4 KO, and DAP12 KO mice a high-fat diet (HFD) or a control diet for 12 weeks, and changes in body composition, glucose tolerance, serum cytokines, and insulin levels were compared. Knee OA was evaluated by histopathology and μCT. Infrapatellar fat pads (IFPs) were analyzed by histomorphometry and F4/80+ crown-like structures were quantified. IFPs and synovium gene expression were analyzed using a targeted insulin resistance and inflammation array. All HFD-treated mice became obese, but only WT and TLR4 KO mice developed glucose intolerance. HFD induced cartilage catabolism in WT and DAP12 KO female mice, but not in TLR4 KO mice. Gene-expression analysis of IFPs and synovium showed significant differences in insulin signaling, adipokines, and inflammation between genotypes and diets. Unlike young mice, systemic inflammation was not induced by HFD in the older female mice independent of genotype. Our findings support the conclusion that TLR4 promotes and DAP12 limits HFD-induced cartilage catabolism in middle-aged female mice.
- Low-carbohydrate, healthy-fat eating: A cost comparison with national dietary guidelines. [Journal Article]
- NDNutr Diet 2019 Apr 24
- CONCLUSIONS: We consider this increased cost for an LCHF approach to be negligible. In practice, less costly food items with similar nutrition qualities can be substituted to reduce costs further should this be a goal. The LCHF approach should therefore not be disregarded as a viable dietary approach for improving health outcomes, based on its perceived expense.
- Development and validation of a clinical model for preconception and early pregnancy risk prediction of gestational diabetes mellitus in nulliparous women. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(4):e0215173
- Implementation of dietary and lifestyle interventions prior to and early in pregnancy in high risk women has been shown to reduce the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) development later in …
Implementation of dietary and lifestyle interventions prior to and early in pregnancy in high risk women has been shown to reduce the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) development later in pregnancy. Although numerous risk factors for GDM have been identified, the ability to accurately identify women before or early in pregnancy who could benefit most from these interventions remains limited. As nulliparous women are an under-screened population with risk profiles that differ from their multiparous counterparts, development of a prediction model tailored to nulliparous women may facilitate timely preventive intervention and improve maternal and infant outcomes. We aimed to develop and validate a model for preconception and early pregnancy prediction of gestational diabetes mellitus based on clinical risk factors for nulliparous women. A risk prediction model was built within a large California birth cohort including singleton live birth records from 2007-2012. Model accuracy was assessed both internally and externally, within a cohort of women who delivered at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics between 2009-2017, using discrimination and calibration. Differences in predictive accuracy of the model were assessed within specific racial/ethnic groups. The prediction model included five risk factors: race/ethnicity, age at delivery, pre-pregnancy body mass index, family history of diabetes, and pre-existing hypertension. The area under the curve (AUC) for the California internal validation cohort was 0.732 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.728, 0.735), and 0.710 (95% CI 0.672, 0.749) for the Iowa external validation cohort. The model performed particularly well in Hispanic (AUC 0.739) and Black women (AUC 0.719). Our findings suggest that estimation of a woman's risk for GDM through model-based incorporation of risk factors accurately identifies those at high risk (i.e., predicted risk >6%) who could benefit from preventive intervention encouraging prompt incorporation of this tool into preconception and prenatal care.
- Genetic risk scores demonstrate the cumulative association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in gut microbiome-related genes with obesity phenotypes in preschool age children. [Journal Article]
- POPediatr Obes 2019 Apr 10; :e12530
- CONCLUSIONS: This analysis supports the cumulative association of several candidate genetic variants selected for their role in SCFA signalling, transport, and metabolism with early-onset obesity. These data strengthen the concept that microbiome influences obesity development through host genes interacting with SCFA.
- A Mobile-Based Mindfulness and Social Support Program for Adolescents and Young Adults With Sarcoma: Development and Pilot Testing. [Journal Article]
- JMJMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2019 Mar 18; 7(3):e10921
- CONCLUSIONS: This study offers preliminary support for the feasibility and acceptability of a mobile-based mindfulness and Facebook-based social support program for AYA with sarcoma. The feedback from AYA and health care providers will assist in creating a fully developed intervention.
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- The associations of anthropometric, behavioural and sociodemographic factors with circulating concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 in a pooled analysis of 16,024 men from 22 studies. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Cancer 2019 Mar 15
- Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) have been implicated in the aetiology of several cancers. To better understand whether anthropometric, beha…
Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) have been implicated in the aetiology of several cancers. To better understand whether anthropometric, behavioural and sociodemographic factors may play a role in cancer risk via IGF signalling, we examined the cross-sectional associations of these exposures with circulating concentrations of IGFs (IGF-I and IGF-II) and IGFBPs (IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3). The Endogenous Hormones, Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group dataset includes individual participant data from 16,024 male controls (i.e. without prostate cancer) aged 22-89 years from 22 prospective studies. Geometric means of protein concentrations were estimated using analysis of variance, adjusted for relevant covariates. Older age was associated with higher concentrations of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 and lower concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3. Higher body mass index was associated with lower concentrations of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2. Taller height was associated with higher concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and lower concentrations of IGFBP-1. Smokers had higher concentrations of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 and lower concentrations of IGFBP-3 than nonsmokers. Higher alcohol consumption was associated with higher concentrations of IGF-II and lower concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-2. African Americans had lower concentrations of IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 and Hispanics had lower IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3 than non-Hispanic whites. These findings indicate that a range of anthropometric, behavioural and sociodemographic factors are associated with circulating concentrations of IGFs and IGFBPs in men, which will lead to a greater understanding of the mechanisms through which these factors influence cancer risk.