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(Drug abuse)
286,620 results
  • Screening emergency department patients for opioid drug use: A qualitative systematic review. [Review]
  • ABAddict Behav 2018 May 24; 85:139-146
  • Sahota PK, Shastry S, … Chakravarthy B
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of validity and reliability evidence in all six articles; and sensitivity, specificity and predictive values varied between the different instruments. These instruments cannot be validated for use in emergency medicine settings. There is no clear evidence to state which screening instruments are appropriate for use in detecting opioid use disorders in emergency medicine patients. There is a need for brief, reliable, valid and feasible opioid use screening instruments in the emergency medicine setting.
  • Transitions through stages of alcohol involvement: The potential role of mood disorders. [Journal Article]
  • DADrug Alcohol Depend 2018 Apr 10; 189:116-124
  • Crum RM, Green KM, … Reboussin BA
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence that mood disorders impact transition through stages of alcohol involvement and are most strongly associated with hindering remission among females. Findings advance our understanding of these comorbid relationships and have clinical implications for ongoing assessment of drinking patterns among individuals with mood disorders.
  • Activation and polarization of circulating monocytes in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. [Journal Article]
  • BPBMC Pulm Med 2018 Jun 15; 18(1):101
  • Cornwell WD, Kim V, … Rogers TJ
  • CONCLUSIONS: Blood monocytes in severe COPD patients undergo unexpected pre-differentiation that is largely characteristic of M2-macrophage polarization, leading to the emergence of an unusual M2-like monocyte population with very high levels of CCR5. These results show that circulating monocytes in patients with severe COPD possess a cellular phenotype which may permit greater mobilization to the lung, with a pre-existing bias toward a potentially destructive inflammatory phenotype.
  • Review: Adjunctive pharmacologic approaches for benzodiazepine tapers. [Review]
  • DADrug Alcohol Depend 2018 May 31; 189:96-107
  • Welsh JW, Tretyak V, … Bogunovic O
  • CONCLUSIONS: Studies were heterogeneous with respect to sample selection, sample size, and outcome measures. Medications targeting insomnia yielded mixed results. Similarly, studies of agents targeting anxiety symptoms demonstrated inconsistent findings in the reduction of anxiety, improvement in withdrawal symptoms, or enhancement of benzodiazepine completion rates. Anticonvulsants have supporting evidence from small case reports; carbamazepine shows some potential in assisting taper completion and reducing withdrawal severity. These conclusions should be considered in light of a number of inconsistencies across studies in the literature. The results of this review article highlight the need for additional research on optimal strategies for facilitating successful benzodiazepine tapers.
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