- Case Reports of Fatalities Involving Tianeptine in the United States. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anal Toxicol 2018 Mar 16
- Tianeptine is a tricyclic anti-depressant that is also known to have opioid receptor activity. We present two fatal cases of tianeptine intoxication in Texas in which tianeptine was used recreational...
Tianeptine is a tricyclic anti-depressant that is also known to have opioid receptor activity. We present two fatal cases of tianeptine intoxication in Texas in which tianeptine was used recreationally. The first case involved a 28-year-old white male found alone on the floor of his locked residence. He had a history of drug abuse but no other toxicological findings. The second case involved a 30-year-old white male found on the floor of the bathroom in his home. Drug paraphernalia and bags labeled as tianeptine powder were found at both scenes. In response to the first case, our laboratory developed a method for quantitation of tianeptine by LC-MS-MS. This method was then validated according to SWGTOX guidelines for specificity, calibration model, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, ion suppression, and carryover. This method was successfully used to determine tianeptine concentrations in postmortem blood in two cases. In these cases, tianeptine was measured at 2.1 mg/L and 8.9 mg/L. These represent the first known tianeptine fatalities in Texas and in the United States.
- Drug- and/or trauma-induced hyperthermia? Characterization of HSP70 and myoglobin expression. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(3):e0194442
- CONCLUSIONS: In sum, the immunohistochemical characteristics presented can be supportive for determining final death circumstances and minimal trauma survival times but are not isolated usefully for the detection of drug- or trauma-induced hyperthermia.
- Identifying Levorphanol Ingestion Using Urine Biomarkers in Health Care Patients. [Journal Article]
- PPPain Physician 2018; 21(2):E167-E171
- CONCLUSIONS: An enantiomeric analysis was not utilized with the LC-MS/MS testing method; therefore, levorphanol could not be differentiated from dextrorphan, and (-)-3-hydroxymorphinan could not be differentiated from (+)-3-hydroxymorphinan. The hepatic and renal function for these patients was unknown; however, both could impact the metabolism, distribution, and excretion of levorphanol biomarkers in urine. The dextromethorphan and/or levorphanol dose and timing of last ingestion was also not assessed.It may be impossible to distinguish between levorphanol and dextromethorphan ingestion based on urine biomarkers, unless dextromethorphan or 3-methoxymorphinan is present or an enantiomeric analysis is performed. Therefore, the potential exists for patients prescribed levorphanol to ingest dextromethorphan and appear compliant with levorphanol therapy. This should prompt clinicians to consider the parameters of their laboratory's testing method when interpreting levorphanol drug test results.
- Assessment of Pregabalin Use by Hair Testing. [Journal Article]
- SUSubst Use Misuse 2018 Mar 22; :1-6
- CONCLUSIONS: This new method was found suitable to monitor both patients under pregabalin therapy and dependent subjects.
- The Role of Religious Socialization and Religiosity in African American and Caribbean Black Adolescents' Sexual Initiation. [Journal Article]
- JRJ Relig Health 2018 Mar 21
- This study determined the nature of the associations between religious socialization, religiosity, and adolescent sexual initiation. Data originated from the National Survey of American Life-Adolesce...
This study determined the nature of the associations between religious socialization, religiosity, and adolescent sexual initiation. Data originated from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent (n = 1170), a nationally representative study of black adolescents. Factor analysis, structural equation modeling, and logistic regression were used to evaluate hypotheses. Results indicated that as black adolescents received more messages about religious beliefs and practices, their religiosity was greater and, in turn, they were less likely to report sexual initiation; findings varied by ethnicity, gender, and age. Findings contribute to understanding religious socialization and its association with sexual initiation.
- Sports psychiatry: mental health and mental disorders in athletes and exercise treatment of mental disorders. [Review]
- EAEur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2018 Mar 21
- Sports psychiatry has developed for the past 3 decades as an emerging field within psychiatry and sports medicine. An International society has been established in 1994 and also national interest gro...
Sports psychiatry has developed for the past 3 decades as an emerging field within psychiatry and sports medicine. An International society has been established in 1994 and also national interest groups were implemented, mostly within the national organizations for psychiatry, some also containing the topic of exercise treatment of mental disorders. Where are we now 30 years later? We systematically but also selectively review the medical literature on exercise, sport, psychiatry, mental health and mental disorders and related topics. The number of publications in the field has increased exponentially. Most topics keep remaining on the agenda, e.g., head trauma and concussion, drug abuse and doping, performance enhancement, overtraining, ADHD or eating disorders. Supported by the growing literature, evidence-based recommendations have become available now in many clinical areas. A relatively new phenomenon is muscle dysmorphia, observed in weightlifters, bodybuilders but also in college students and gym users. Further, sports therapy of mental disorders has been studied by more and more high-quality randomized controlled clinical trials. Mostly as a complementary treatment, however, for some disorders already with a 1a evidence level, e.g., depression, dementia or MCI but also post-traumatic stress disorder. Being grown up and accepted nowadays, sports psychiatry still represents a fast-developing field. The reverse side of the coin, sport therapy of mental disorders has received a scientific basis now. Who else than sports psychiatry could advance sport therapy of mental disorders? We need this enthusiasm for sports and psychiatry for our patients with mental disorders and it is time now for a broadening of the scope. Optimized psychiatric prevention and treatment of athletes and ideal sport-related support for individuals with mental disorders should be our main purpose and goal.
- Meth Mouth-A Growing Epidemic in Dentistry? [Case Reports]
- DJDent J (Basel) 2017 Oct 30; 5(4)
- In the past two decades, the synthetic style and fashion drug "crystal meth" ("crystal", "meth"), chemically representing the crystalline form of the methamphetamine hydrochloride, has become more an...
In the past two decades, the synthetic style and fashion drug "crystal meth" ("crystal", "meth"), chemically representing the crystalline form of the methamphetamine hydrochloride, has become more and more popular in the United States, in Eastern Europe, and just recently in Central and Western Europe. "Meth" is cheap, easy to synthesize and to market, and has an extremely high potential for abuse and dependence. As a strong sympathomimetic, "meth" has the potency to switch off hunger, fatigue and, pain while simultaneously increasing physical and mental performance. The most relevant side effects are heart and circulatory complaints, severe psychotic attacks, personality changes, and progressive neurodegeneration. Another effect is "meth mouth", defined as serious tooth and oral health damage after long-standing "meth" abuse; this condition may become increasingly relevant in dentistry and oral- and maxillofacial surgery. There might be an association between general methamphetamine abuse and the development of osteonecrosis, similar to the medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ). Several case reports concerning "meth" patients after tooth extractions or oral surgery have presented clinical pictures similar to MRONJ. This overview summarizes the most relevant aspect concerning "crystal meth" abuse and "meth mouth".
- Disparities in Access to Early Psychosis Intervention Services: Comparison of Service Users and Nonusers in Health Administrative Data. [Journal Article]
- CJCan J Psychiatry 2018 Jan 01; :706743718762101
- CONCLUSIONS: We need a greater consideration of patients with first-episode psychosis who are not accessing EPI services. Our findings suggest that this group is sizable, and there may be sociodemographic and clinical disparities in access. Nonpsychiatric health professionals could be targeted with interventions aimed at increasing detection and referral rates.
- Model-Free Temporal-Difference Learning and Dopamine in Alcohol Dependence: Examining Concepts From Theory and Animals in Human Imaging. [Review]
- BPBiol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2016; 1(5):401-410
- Dopamine potentially unites two important roles: one in addiction, being involved in most substances of abuse including alcohol, and a second one in a specific type of learning, namely model-free tem...
Dopamine potentially unites two important roles: one in addiction, being involved in most substances of abuse including alcohol, and a second one in a specific type of learning, namely model-free temporal-difference reinforcement learning. Theories of addiction have long suggested that drugs of abuse may usurp dopamine's role in learning. Here, we briefly review the preclinical literature to motivate specific hypotheses about model-free temporal-difference learning and then review the imaging evidence in the drug of abuse with the most substantial societal consequences: alcohol. Despite the breadth of the literature, only a few studies have examined the predictions directly, and these provide at best inconclusive evidence for the involvement of temporal-difference learning alterations in alcohol dependence. We discuss the difficulties of testing the theory in humans, make specific suggestions, and close with a focus on the interaction with other learning mechanisms.
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- Drug exposure during pregnancy: analytical methods and toxicological findings. [Journal Article]
- BBioanalysis 2018 Mar 21
- Drug use during pregnancy constitutes a major preventable worldwide public health issue. Birth defects, growth retardation and neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with tobacco, alcohol or dru...
Drug use during pregnancy constitutes a major preventable worldwide public health issue. Birth defects, growth retardation and neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with tobacco, alcohol or drugs of abuse exposure during pregnancy. Besides these adverse health effects, drug use during pregnancy also raises legal and social concerns. Identification and quantification of drug markers in maternal and newborn biological samples offers objective evidence of exposure and complements maternal questionnaires. We reviewed the most recent analytical methods for quantifying drugs of abuse, tobacco, alcohol and psychotropic drugs in maternal, newborn and maternal-fetal unit biological samples by gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. In addition, manuscripts comparing the usefulness of different biological samples to detect drug exposure during pregnancy were reviewed.