- Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured lipid-poloxamer organogels for enhanced skin local anesthesia. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharm Sci 2018 Dec 12
- The aim of this study was to synthesize a novel drug delivery system using organogels (ORGs) and characterize its physicochemical properties, in vitro and ex vivo permeation abilities, cytotoxicity a...
The aim of this study was to synthesize a novel drug delivery system using organogels (ORGs) and characterize its physicochemical properties, in vitro and ex vivo permeation abilities, cytotoxicity and in vivo local anesthetic effects. The ORG formulations contained a mixture of oleic acid-lanolin (OA-LAN), poloxamer (PL407), and the commonly used local anesthetic lidocaine (LDC). The main focus was to evaluate the impact of LAN and PL407 concentrations on the ORG structural features and their biopharmaceutical performance. Results revealed that LDC, OA, and LAN incorporation separately shifted the systems transitions phase temperatures and modified the elastic/viscous moduli relationships (G'/G″ = ~15×). Additionally, the formulation with the highest concentrations of LAN and PL407 reduced the LDC flux from ~17 to 12 μg·cm-2·h-1 and the permeability coefficients from 1.2 to 0.62 cm·h-1 through ex vivo skin. In vivo pharmacological evaluation showed that the ORG-based drug delivery system presented low cytotoxicity, increased and prolonged the local anesthetic effects compared to commercial alternatives. The data from this study indicate that ORG represent a promising new approach to effectively enhance the topical administration of local anesthetics.
- Revival of a Potent Therapeutic Maytansinoid Agent using a Strategy that Combines Covalent Drug Conjugation with Sequential Nanoparticle Assembly. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Pharm 2018 Dec 12
- Maytansine and its related analogues are a class of highly potent anti-proliferation agents that have failed to be exploited as clinical drugs for human therapy due to unacceptable systemic toxicity....
Maytansine and its related analogues are a class of highly potent anti-proliferation agents that have failed to be exploited as clinical drugs for human therapy due to unacceptable systemic toxicity. Here, we delineate a novel strategy that combines rational drug conjugation with subsequent nanoparticle assembly to systemically deliver this highly potent and toxic drug. To demonstrate this concept, we covalently coupled the thiolated maytansine derivative, the DM1 agent, to amphiphilic block co-polymers, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-block-polylactide (PLA), in varying molecular weights to generate two prodrug constructs (i.e., PEG2K-PLA2K-DM1 and PEG2K-PLA4K-DM1) via the maleimide-thiol reaction. The resulting two constructs are amenable to self-assembly in aqueous solutions and are systemically injectable for preclinical studies. In vivo evaluations indicate that PEG-PLA-DM1 conjugate-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) display substantially reduced drug toxicity compared to the free drug forms and NPs that physically encapsulate DM1. Furthermore, following systemic administration, these nanodrugs produced superior therapeutic efficacy over free DM1 in a colon tumor xenograft-bearing mouse model. Therefore, this study provides evidence that the conjugation of toxic drugs to assembling copolymers enables the alleviation of cancer drug toxicity and effective delivery of anticancer drugs. Thus, this DM1-formulated platform represents a new generation of nanotherapeutics that are available for further clinical evaluation.
- Supersaturated silica-lipid hybrid (super-SLH) oral drug delivery systems: Balancing drug loading and in vivo performance. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharmacol Exp Ther 2018 Dec 14
- Supersaturated silica-lipid hybrid (super-SLH) drug carriers are a recent strategy to improve the drug loading of oral solid lipid based formulations, however they are yet to be studied in vivo This ...
Supersaturated silica-lipid hybrid (super-SLH) drug carriers are a recent strategy to improve the drug loading of oral solid lipid based formulations, however they are yet to be studied in vivo This study investigates the in vivo pharmacokinetics (PK) of super-SLH containing ibuprofen (IBU) as a model drug, analysing the influence of supersaturated drug loading on oral bioavailability and assessing in vitro -- in vivo correlation (IVIVC). In addition, super-SLH was directly compared to spray dried SLH and Nurofen, to explore its potential advantages over the well-established and commercial formulations. Fasted male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered formulation suspensions (10 mg/kg IBU) via oral gavage and blood samples were acquired and analysed for drug content over 24 hours. In vivo, super-SLH with drug loads of 9.5 (99.5% saturated) and 19.3% w/w (227% saturated) achieved bioavailabilities equal to spray dried SLH and 2.2-fold greater than Nurofen. This effect diminished for super-SLH with a drug load of 29.1% w/w (389% saturated), which exhibited a bioavailability of less than Nurofen due to its greater extent of supersaturation and larger content of crystalline IBU. The super-SLH containing 19.3% w/w IBU provided an optimal PK performance, achieving the same degree of bioavailability enhancement as spray-dried SLH and requiring 63% less formulation. IVIVC was not observed due to the large improvement in performance by super-SLH in vivo compared to in vitro. These findings indicate the potential of super-SLH as an improved oral solid lipid based formulation strategy for enhancing oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs.
- Optimization of Quality Attributes and Atomic Force Microscopy Imaging of Reconstituted Nanodroplets in Baicalin Loaded Self-Nanoemulsifying Formulations. [Journal Article]
- PPharmaceutics 2018 Dec 13; 10(4)
- The objective of the study was to develop baicalin loaded liquid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (BSNEDDS) and to characterize them by physicochemical methods in order to optimize the comp...
The objective of the study was to develop baicalin loaded liquid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (BSNEDDS) and to characterize them by physicochemical methods in order to optimize the composition and quality attributes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was utilized to evaluate the morphological characteristics and size distribution of reconstituted nanoemulsion droplets with a new sample preparation method for the elucidation of individual nanodroplets without any signs of coalescence. Response surface methodology and desirability approach was used to select the optimized composition related to droplet size, zeta-potential, polydispersity index (PDI), and turbidity characteristics. Droplet size distribution measured by dynamic light scattering method was highly desirable with 52.87 ± 0.5322 nm, which was confirmed by AFM imaging. The optimized formula contains Peceol® (14.29%, w/w), Kolliphor® EL (57.14%, w/w), and Transcutol® P (28.57%, w/w). Long-term stability analysis did not show any significant change in droplet size or PDI over the investigated period. More than 40.5-times solubility improvement was achieved with the optimized BSNEDDS correlated to solubility of baicalin in distilled water. In vitro dissolution studies at pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 were performed and revealed that the optimized BSNEDDS formula showed pH independent drug dissolution, and 100% of incorporated baicalin dissolved within five minutes in rapidly dispersing nanodroplets.
- SPC Liposomes as Possible Delivery Systems for Improving Bioavailability of the Natural Sesquiterpene β-Caryophyllene: Lamellarity and Drug-Loading as Key Features for a Rational Drug Delivery Design. [Journal Article]
- PPharmaceutics 2018 Dec 13; 10(4)
- The natural sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene (CRY) has been highlighted to possess interesting pharmacological potentials, particularly due to its chemopreventive and analgesic properties. However, the ...
The natural sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene (CRY) has been highlighted to possess interesting pharmacological potentials, particularly due to its chemopreventive and analgesic properties. However, the poor solubility of this sesquiterpene in aqueous fluids can hinder its uptake into cells, resulting in inconstant responses of biological systems, thus limiting its application. Therefore, identifying a suitable pharmaceutical form for increasing CRY bioavailability represents an important requirement for exploiting its pharmacological potential. In the present study, the ability of soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC) liposomes to improve bioavailability and absorption of CRY in cancer cells has been evaluated. Liposomal formulations of CRY, differing for lamellarity (i.e., unilamellar and multilamellar vesicles or ULV and MLV) and for the drug loading (i.e., 1:0.1, 1:0.3 and 1:0.5 mol/mol between SPC and CRY) were designed with the aim of maximizing CRY amount in the liposome bilayer, while avoiding its leakage during storage. The low-loaded formulations significantly potentiated the antiproliferative activity of CRY in both HepG2 and MDA-MB-468 cells, reaching a maximum IC50 lowering (from two to five folds) with 1:0.3 and 1:0.1 SPC/CRY MLV. Conversely, increasing liposome drug-loading reduced the ability for CRY release, likely due to a possible interaction between SPC and CRY that affects the membrane properties, as confirmed by physical measures.
- Drug-Loaded Biomimetic Ceramics for Tissue Engineering. [Review]
- PPharmaceutics 2018 Dec 13; 10(4)
- The mimesis of biological systems has been demonstrated to be an adequate approach to obtain tissue engineering scaffolds able to promote cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation abilities...
The mimesis of biological systems has been demonstrated to be an adequate approach to obtain tissue engineering scaffolds able to promote cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation abilities similar to those of autologous tissues. Bioceramics are commonly used for this purpose due to their similarities to the mineral component of hard tissues as bone. Furthermore, biomimetic scaffolds are frequently loaded with diverse therapeutic molecules to enhance their biological performance, leading to final products with advanced functionalities. In this review, we aim to describe the already developed bioceramic-based biomimetic systems for drug loading and local controlled release. We will discuss the mechanisms used for the inclusion of therapeutic molecules on the designed systems, paying special attention to the identification of critical parameters that modulate drug loading and release kinetics on these scaffolds.
- Applications of Noble Metal-Based Nanoparticles in Medicine. [Review]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 13; 19(12)
- Nanoparticles have unique, size-dependent properties, which means they are widely used in various branches of industry. The ability to control the properties of nanoparticles makes these nanomaterial...
Nanoparticles have unique, size-dependent properties, which means they are widely used in various branches of industry. The ability to control the properties of nanoparticles makes these nanomaterials very interesting for medicine and pharmacology. The application of nanoparticles in medicine is associated with the design of specific nanostructures, which can be used as novel diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. There are a lot of applications of nanoparticles, e.g., as drug delivery systems, radiosensitizers in radiation or proton therapy, in bioimaging, or as bactericides/fungicides. This paper aims to introduce the characteristics of noble metal-based nanoparticles with particular emphasis on their applications in medicine and related sciences.
- Cardiac and pulmonary toxicity of mesoporous silica nanoparticles is associated with excessive ROS production and redox imbalance in Wistar rats. [Journal Article]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2019; 109:2527-2538
- Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) represent one of the most promising drug delivery systems. MSNs have attracted considerable attention in recent years both in industry and biomedicine due to th...
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) represent one of the most promising drug delivery systems. MSNs have attracted considerable attention in recent years both in industry and biomedicine due to their unique properties. Thus, evaluation of the toxic effects of MSNs is necessary before the biomedical and clinical applications. We investigated the in vivo effect of MSNs on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant defenses and histology of the heart and lung. Rats received 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of synthesized MSNs intraperitoneally for 30 days and samples were collected for analysis. MSNs induced significant increase in serum cardiac function markers, tumor necrosis factor alpha and lipids. MSNs-induced rats exhibited anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis, significantly increased ROS, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, and declined antioxidant defenses in the heart and lung of rats. In addition, MSNs induced histological alterations in the heart and lung of rats. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that MSNs induce cardiotoxicity and pulmonary toxicity via excessive generation of ROS, suppressed antioxidants, inflammation and histological alterations. Further investigations are recommended to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the toxic effects of MSNs and to improve the performance of nanomedicine.
- Microfluidics-based self-assembly of peptide-loaded microgels: Effect of three dimensional (3D) printed micromixer design. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Colloid Interface Sci 2018 Dec 04; 538:559-568
- In an effort to contribute to research in scalable production systems for polymeric delivery systems loaded with antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), we here investigate effects of hydrodynamic flow condit...
In an effort to contribute to research in scalable production systems for polymeric delivery systems loaded with antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), we here investigate effects of hydrodynamic flow conditions on microfluidic particle generation. For this purpose, rapid prototyping using 3D printing was applied to prepare micromixers with three different geometric designs, which were used to prepare Ca2+-cross-linked alginate microgels loaded with the AMP polymyxin B in a continuous process. Based on fluid dynamic simulations, the hydrodynamic flow patterns in the micromixers were designed to be either (i) turbulent with chaotic disruption, (ii) laminar with convective mixing, or (iii) convective with microvortex formation. The physicochemical properties of the microgels prepared with these micromixers were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser-Doppler micro-electrophoresis, small-angle x-ray scattering, and ellipsometry. The particle size and compactness were found to depend on the micromixer geometry: From such studies, particle size and compactness were found to depend on micromixer geometry, the smallest and most compact particles were obtained by preparation involving microvortex flows, while larger and more diffuse microgels were formed upon laminar mixing. Polymyxin B was found to be localized in the particle interior and to cause particle growth with increasing peptide loading. Ca2+-induced cross-linking of alginate, in turn, results in particle contraction. The peptide encapsulation efficiency was found to be higher than 80% for all investigated micromixer designs; the highest encapsulation efficiency observed for the smallest particles generated by microvortex-mediated self-assembly. Ellipsometry results for surface-immobilized microgels, as well as results on peptide encapsulation, demonstrated electrolyte-induced peptide release. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that rapid prototyping of microfluidics using 3D-printed micromixers offers promises for continuous manufacturing of AMP-loaded microgels. Although the micromixer combining turbulent flow and microvortexes was demonstrated to be the most efficient, all three micromixer designs were found to mediate self-assembly of small microgels displaying efficient peptide encapsulation. This demonstrates the robustness of employing 3D-printed micromixers for microfluidic assembly of AMP-loaded microgels during continuous production.
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- Near-infrared AIEgens as transformers to enhance tumor treatment efficacy with controllable self-assembled redox-responsive carrier-free nanodrug. [Journal Article]
- BBiomaterials 2018 Dec 10; 193:12-21
- Nanosized drug delivery systems (nDDS) have been extensively exploited to achieve improved therapeutic performance of chemotherapeutic drugs in cancer treatment. Carrier-free nanodrugs have recently ...
Nanosized drug delivery systems (nDDS) have been extensively exploited to achieve improved therapeutic performance of chemotherapeutic drugs in cancer treatment. Carrier-free nanodrugs have recently emerged as a promising generation of nDDS. In this work, a carrier-free theranostic nanodrug was fabricated by incorporating near-infrared (NIR) emission AIEgens (NPAPF) with redox responsive camptothecin-gemcitabine amphiphilic prodrug (CPT-ss-GEM) to form self-assembled nanoparticles (NCssG NPs). The introducing of AIEgens is designed to not only endow the nDDS with NIR imaging ability but also to act as transformers to modulate the geometry of the self-assembled nanostructures from nanowires to spherical nanoparticles. Interestingly, this unique geometric effect is further demonstrated to be very crucial to the anticancer performance of the nDDS in vitro and in vivo. The AIEgens-doped spherical nanoparticles NCssG NPs showed much higher cellular uptake efficiency and tumor penetration ability, therefor achieving much stronger anticancer efficacy than free CPT/GEM mixture and CPT-ss-GEM nanowires (CssG NWs). The theranostic features of NCssG NPs were fully utilized to evaluate the redox-triggered drug release process, in vivo biodistribution and tumor targeted accumulation of NCssG NPs. This work provides a novel strategy and some useful information for the optimization of the design of theranostic nDDS to benefit for the clinic application of nanodrugs in the future.