- Efficacy and safety of using topical cyclosporine A for treatment of moderate to severe dry eye disease. [Journal Article]
- SJSaudi J Ophthalmol 2018 Jul-Sep; 32(3):217-221
- CONCLUSIONS: Cyclosporine A ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% has been demonstrated to be effective and safe in human clinical trials. It reduces signs and symptoms of dry eye disease, with the fact that its effect continued to occur significantly within the treatment periods as well as improvement of ocular condition kept on, actually more slowly towards stability, despite the drug has already stopped.
- Severity of Sjögren's Syndrome Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca Increases with Increased Percentage of Conjunctival Antigen-Presenting Cells. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2018 Sep 14; 19(9)
- This study investigated the relationship between clinical severity and percentage of conjunctival antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in Sjögren's syndrome (SS)-associated keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS...
This study investigated the relationship between clinical severity and percentage of conjunctival antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in Sjögren's syndrome (SS)-associated keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). KCS clinical severity was based on symptom severity, tear volume, tear break-up time, and ocular surface dye staining. Conjunctival goblet cell density (GCD) was measured in periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-stained membranes. Conjunctival cells obtained by impression cytology were used for flow cytometry to measure percentages of CD45⁺HLA-DR⁺ APCs and mature CD11c⁺CD86⁺ dendritic cells (DCs). Compared to normal conjunctiva, the percentages of HLA-DR⁺ and CD11c⁺CD86⁺ cells were higher in the conjunctiva of the KCS group (p < 0.05). The percentage of CD45⁺HLA-DR⁺ cells positively correlated with clinical severity (r = 0.71, p < 0.05) and negatively correlated with GCD (r = -0.61, p < 0.05). Clinical severity also negatively correlated with GCD (r = -0.54, p < 0.05). These findings indicate that a higher percentage of APCs and mature DCs in the conjunctiva is associated with more severe KCS in SS. These APCs may contribute to the generation of the pathogenic Th1 cells that cause goblet cell loss in KCS.
- Oral omega 3 in different proportions of EPA, DHA, and antioxidants as adjuvant in treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca in dogs. [Journal Article]
- ABArq Bras Oftalmol 2018 Sep-Oct; 81(5):421-428
- CONCLUSIONS: Oral treatment with ω-3 containing a higher proportion of EPA than DHA increased the effectiveness of topical tacrolimus 0.03% in the treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca in dogs.
- Current concepts on Sjögren's syndrome - classification criteria and biomarkers. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Oral Sci 2018; 126 Suppl 1:37-48
- Sjögren's syndrome is a lymphoproliferative disease with autoimmune features characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration of exocrine glands, notably the lacrimal and salivary glands. These lymphoi...
Sjögren's syndrome is a lymphoproliferative disease with autoimmune features characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration of exocrine glands, notably the lacrimal and salivary glands. These lymphoid infiltrations lead to dryness of the eyes (keratoconjunctivitis sicca), dryness of the mouth (xerostomia), and, frequently, dryness of other surfaces connected to exocrine glands. Sjögren's syndrome is associated with the production of autoantibodies because B-cell activation is a consistent immunoregulatory abnormality. The spectrum of the disease extends from an organ-specific autoimmune disorder to a systemic process and is also associated with an increased risk of B-cell lymphoma. Current treatments are mainly symptomatic. As a result of the diverse presentation of the syndrome, a major challenge remains to improve diagnosis and therapy. For this purpose an international set of classification criteria for primary Sjögren's syndrome has recently been developed and validated and seems well suited for enrolment in clinical trials. Salivary gland biopsies have been examined and histopathology standards have been developed, to be used in clinical trials and patient stratification. Finally, ultrasonography and saliva meet the need of non-invasive imaging and sampling methods for discovery and validation of disease biomarkers in Sjögren's syndrome.
- MicroPulse™ transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in the treatment of canine glaucoma: Preliminary results (12 dogs). [Journal Article]
- VOVet Ophthalmol 2018 Aug 15
- CONCLUSIONS: MP-TSCPC is a viable tool for managing canine glaucoma, although further studies are required to improve the long-term effect and reduce the complication rate.
- Clinical and immunological parameters of Sjögren's syndrome. [Review]
- ARAutoimmun Rev 2018 Aug 10
- Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that primarily affects the exocrine glands, resulting in their functional impairment. In SS, lymphocytic infiltration of salivary and lacrimal ...
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that primarily affects the exocrine glands, resulting in their functional impairment. In SS, lymphocytic infiltration of salivary and lacrimal glands, and deposition of several types of autoantibodies, mainly anti-SS-A (anti-Ro) and anti-SS-B (anti-La), lead to chronic inflammation, with xerostomia and keratoconjunctivitis sicca. In its primary form (pSS), SS does not involve additional connective tissue diseases, whereas in its secondary and more common form (sSS), SS presents in association with other rheumatic autoimmune diseases, mainly rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and systemic sclerosis (SSc). As in most autoimmune diseases, environmental, hormonal and genetic factors are implicated in SS pathogenesis. In SS T cells predominate in mild lesions, whereas B cells predominate in advanced lesions. Th1, Th2, Th17, follicular helper T (Tfh) cells and regulatory cells (Tregs/Bregs), with their characteristic cytokine profiles, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of SS. It has been suggested that Th1 and Th17 cells initiate SS and, as the disease progresses, Th2 and Tfh cells predominate. It is assumed that, as in all autoimmune and inflammatory conditions, tolerance defects contribute to SS pathogenesis. It is intriguing that in SS it remains unclear which types of regulatory cells are functional and whether they ameliorate or worsen the disease. In this review we present a comprehensive update on SS with emphasis on immune system involvement, and suggest new insights into SS immunopathogenesis.
- Ocular Involvement in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: The Experience of Two Tertiary Referral Centers. [Journal Article]
- OIOcul Immunol Inflamm 2018 Aug 10; :1-12
- CONCLUSIONS: It is advised that a multidisciplinary team for the diagnosis and treatment of SLE should regularly include the presence of an ophthalmologist.
- Retrospective analysis of ocular neuropathies in diabetic dogs following cataract surgery. [Journal Article]
- VOVet Ophthalmol 2018 Aug 10
- CONCLUSIONS: The odds of developing an ocular neuropathy, specifically Horner's syndrome and NKCS, are statistically higher in diabetic patients compared to nondiabetic patients. Neuropathies were observed as a long-term complication in this group of diabetic patients, and complete resolution of the neuropathy was observed in less than half of the affected population.
- Active agents, biomaterials, and technologies to improve biolubrication and strengthen soft tissues. [Review]
- BBiomaterials 2018 Jul 26; 181:210-226
- Normal functioning of articulating tissues is required for many physiological processes occurring across length scales from the molecular to whole organism. Lubricating biopolymers are present native...
Normal functioning of articulating tissues is required for many physiological processes occurring across length scales from the molecular to whole organism. Lubricating biopolymers are present natively on tissue surfaces at various sites of biological articulation, including eyelid, mouth, and synovial joints. The range of operating conditions at these disparate interfaces yields a variety of tribological mechanisms through which compressive and shear forces are dissipated to protect tissues from material wear and fatigue. This review focuses on recent advances in active agents and biomaterials for therapeutic augmentation of friction, lubrication, and wear in disease and injured states. Various small-molecule, biological, and gene delivery therapies are described, as are tribosupplementation with naturally-occurring and synthetic biolubricants and polymer reinforcements. While reintroduction of a diseased tissue's native lubricant received significant attention in the past, recent discoveries and pre-clinical research are capitalizing on concurrent advances in the molecular sciences and bioengineering fields, with an understanding of the underlying tissue structure and physiology, to afford a desired, and potentially patient-specific, tissue mechanical response for restoration of normal function. Small and large molecule drugs targeting recently elucidated pathways as well as synthetic and hybrid natural/synthetic biomaterials for restoring a desired tissue mechanical response are being investigated for treatment of, for example, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, xeroderma, and osteoarthritis.
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- Factors influencing the long-term results of autologous microvascular submandibular gland transplantation for severe dry eye disease. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2018 Jul 26
- We assessed long-term outcomes of autologous microvascular submandibular gland (SMG) transplantation for severe dry eye disease and investigated factors influencing long-term results. From August 199...
We assessed long-term outcomes of autologous microvascular submandibular gland (SMG) transplantation for severe dry eye disease and investigated factors influencing long-term results. From August 1999 to January 2015, 185 patients (200 eyes) with severe dry eye received SMG transplantation. Subjective assessments and ophthalmologic evaluations were performed before and after transplantation. Follow-up results showed successful transplantation in 180 of 200 eyes (success rate: 90%), resulting in marked symptomatic relief of xerophthalmia. Surgery failed due to vascular thrombosis (15 glands) and duct obstruction (5 glands). Follow-up data were available for 163 eyes. Epiphora occurred in 98 (60.1%) eyes and was effectively managed by surgical reduction of graft, topical atropine gel and botulinum toxin injection. Wharton's duct obstruction occurred in 16 (10.6%) eyes and was treated by duct reconstruction. Subjective satisfaction was achieved in 143 (87.7%) eyes. Mean score of fluorescent staining reduced from 11.25±1.42 to 7.25±3.37. Postoperative best-corrected visual acuity improved in 85 (56.3%) eyes. Our clinical experience proved that SMG transplantation is effective and grants long-term improvement in severe dry eye. Secretory function of transplanted SMGs remains active and stable. Blood vessel thrombosis, Wharton's duct obstruction, and epiphora are primary factors influencing results.