- Delivery of Sonic Hedgehog Gene Repressed Irradiation-induced Cellular Senescence in Salivary Glands by Promoting DNA Repair and Reducing Oxidative Stress. [Journal Article]
- TTheranostics 2018; 8(4):1159-1167
- Rationale: Irreversible hypofunction of salivary glands or xerostomia is common in head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy even when various new techniques are ap...
Rationale: Irreversible hypofunction of salivary glands or xerostomia is common in head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy even when various new techniques are applied to minimize the irradiation (IR) damage. This condition severely impairs the quality of life of patients and can only be temporarily relieved with current treatments. We found recently that transient expression of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) in salivary glands after IR rescued salivary function, but the underlying mechanisms are not totally clear.Methods:We generated a mouse model of IR-induced hyposalivation, and delivered adenoviral vectors carrying Shh or control GFP gene into submandibular glands (SMGs) via retrograde ductal instillation 3 days after IR. The cellular senescence was evaluated by senescence-associated beta-galactosidase assay and the expression of senescence markers. The underlying mechanisms were explored by examining DNA damage, oxidative stress, and the expression of related genes by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescent staining.Results:Shh gene transfer repressed IR-induced cellular senescence by promoting DNA repair and decreasing oxidative stress, which is mediated through upregulating expression of genes related to DNA repair such as survivin and miR-21 and repressing expression of pro-senescence gene Gdf15 likely downstream of miR-21.Conclusion:Repressing cellular senescence contributes to the rescue of IR-induced hyposalivation by transient activation of Hh signaling, which is related to enhanced DNA repair and decreased oxidative stress in SMGs.
- Single-Arm Phase 2 Trial of Elective Nodal Dose Reduction for Patients With Locoregionally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2017 Dec 28
- CONCLUSIONS: This CRT regimen for patients with advanced SCCHN demonstrated the potential feasibility of reducing the elective dose to the neck, a topic that requires additional study in future clinical trials.
- Short-term use of alcohol-containing mouthrinse does not worsen xerostomia compared with alcohol-free mouthrinse. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Dent Assoc 2018 Feb 09
- Mucocutaneous Manifestations in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Cross-sectional Study. [Journal Article]
- IDIndian Dermatol Online J 2018 Jan-Feb; 9(1):20-26
- CONCLUSIONS: Xerosis, pruritus, skin pallor/pigmentary changes, nail pallor, absent lunula, nail discoloration, sparse hairs, coated tongue, xerostomia, macroglossia, and infections were the most common mucocutaneous manifestations in the studied patients irrespective of hemodialysis status. Cold and dry climates might be additional aggravators for xerosis/pruritus. Lifelong follow-up may be needed to reduce the morbidity associated with CKD/hemodialysis specific dermatoses appearing over a period.
- Hyposalivation and Poor Dental Health Status Are Potential Correlates of Age-Related Cognitive Decline in Late Midlife in Danish Men. [Journal Article]
- FAFront Aging Neurosci 2018; 10:10
- Introduction:Peripheral correlates of age-associated cognitive decline are important tools in the screening for potentially abnormal courses of cognitive aging. Since salivary gla...
Introduction:Peripheral correlates of age-associated cognitive decline are important tools in the screening for potentially abnormal courses of cognitive aging. Since salivary gland function is controlled by the autonomic and central nervous system, associations between cognitive changes and salivary gland hypofunction were tested in two groups of middle-aged men in late midlife, who differed substantially with respect to their midlife performance in verbal intelligence when compared with their performance in young adulthood.Materials and Methods:Participants (n= 193) were recruited from the Danish Metropolit Cohort of men born in 1953. Based on their individual change in performance in two previously administered intelligence tests, they were allocated to one group of positive and one group of negative outliers in midlife cognition scores, indicating no decline versus decline in test performance. All participants underwent a clinical oral examination including assessments of their dental, periodontal, and mucosal conditions. Whole and parotid saliva flow rates were measured, and the number of systemic diseases and medication intake as well as daytime and nocturnal xerostomia were registered.Results:Participants with decline in cognitive test performance in midlife had significantly lower unstimulated whole saliva flow rates, higher prevalence of hyposalivation and daytime xerostomia and a higher caries experience than participants with no decline in midlife performance. Daytime and nocturnal xerostomia were associated with daily intake of medication and alcohol.Discussion:Overall, hyposalivation, xerostomia and poor dental status distinguished a group of men displaying relative decline in cognitive performance from a group of men without evidence of cognitive decline. Thus, hyposalivation and poor dental health status may represent potential correlates of age-related cognitive decline in late midlife, provided that other causes can be excluded.
- A systematic review of the effects of acupuncture on xerostomia and hyposalivation. [Journal Article]
- BCBMC Complement Altern Med 2018 Feb 13; 18(1):57
- CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient evidence is available to conclude whether acupuncture is an evidence-based treatment option for xerostomia/hyposalivation. Further well-designed, larger, double blinded trials are required to determine the potential benefit of acupuncture. Sample size calculations should be performed before before initiating these studies.
- Nutrition Management for the Head and Neck Cancer Patient. [Journal Article]
- CTCancer Treat Res 2018; 174:187-208
- Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients often face multiple nutritional challenges before, during, and after treatment due to the close proximity of the cancer to organs that are vital for normal eating ...
Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients often face multiple nutritional challenges before, during, and after treatment due to the close proximity of the cancer to organs that are vital for normal eating function. Common treatment-related side effects, such as dysphagia, odynophagia, dysgeusia, xerostomia, thick saliva, mucositis, nausea, and vomiting, all further impair the patient's ability to maintain adequate oral intake. Malnutrition and unintentional weight loss in HNC patients during and after treatment are associated with poorer treatment outcomes, increased morbidity and mortality, and poor quality of life, even in overweight and obese patients whose Body Mass Index (BMI) is not suggestive of malnutrition. The main nutrition goal for HNC patients is thus to maximize nutrition intake either orally or through nutrition support therapy in order to prevent or limit weight loss, preserve lean body mass, minimize treatment delays and unplanned hospitalizations, and improve treatment outcomes. This chapter will discuss nutrition interventions to manage common symptoms before, during, and after treatment for HNC. Guidelines will be provided for patients that require enteral nutrition or less commonly, parenteral nutrition.
- Dietary nitrate protects submandibular gland from hyposalivation in ovariectomized rats via suppressing cell apoptosis. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Feb 09
- Xerostomia, a major oral symptom of menopause, is a subjective feeling of dry mouth associated with oral pain and difficulties in deglutition and speech, which significantly reduces patient's quality...
Xerostomia, a major oral symptom of menopause, is a subjective feeling of dry mouth associated with oral pain and difficulties in deglutition and speech, which significantly reduces patient's quality of life. Dietary nitrate, which can be converted to nitric oxide, has multiple physiological functions in the body, including antioxidant activity and vasodilatation; however, its protective effect against xerostomia remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary nitrate on estrogen deficiency-induced xerostomia. We established an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model, which included five groups: sham-operated, OVX, OVX + 0.4 mM nitrate, OVX + 2 mM nitrate, and OVX + 4 mM nitrate (n = 6). After ovariectomy, animals in the nitrate treatment groups received appropriate amounts of sodium nitrate dissolved in distilled water for 3 months. The results showed that nitrate treatment reduced body weight and water intake, and increased serum nitrate and nitrite levels. Furthermore, nitrate uptake increased saliva secretion as evidenced by saliva flow rates and aquaporin 5 expression, and alleviated histological lesions as evidenced by reduction of the fibrotic area and cell atrophy in the salivary glands. Although protective effects of nitrate against estrogen deficiency-induced xerostomia were observed at all doses, treatment with 2 mM nitrate was more effective than that with 0.4 mM and 4 mM nitrate. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and caspase-3 expression analyses showed that nitrate also protected cells from apoptosis, possibly through upregulation of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD) known to inhibit oxidative stress-related apoptosis. Our findings indicate that nitrate could improve functional activity of the salivary glands in OVX rats by suppressing apoptosis and upregulating Cu-Zn SOD expression, suggesting that dietary nitrate may potentially prevent hyposalivation in menopausal women.
- Pilocarpine and Artificial Saliva for the Treatment of Xerostomia and Xerophthalmia of Sjögren's Syndrome: A double blind control trial. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Dermatol 2018 Feb 12
- CONCLUSIONS: As the pilocarpine was in solution (drops), it was possible for the dosage to become inaccurate.Pilocarpine is more effective than artificial saliva for enhancing salivary and lachrymal secretion in patients with SS. This is the first study comparing the efficacy of pilocarpine and artificial saliva as treatments for xerostomia and xerophthalmia in SS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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- The imprint of salivary secretion in autoimmune disorders and related pathological conditions. [Review]
- ARAutoimmun Rev 2018 Feb 09
- Xerostomia is a state of oral dryness associated with salivary gland dysfunction and is induced by stress, radiation and chemical therapy, various systemic and autoimmune diseases, and specific medic...
Xerostomia is a state of oral dryness associated with salivary gland dysfunction and is induced by stress, radiation and chemical therapy, various systemic and autoimmune diseases, and specific medications. Fluid secretion is interrupted by the stimulation of neurotransmitter-induced increase in cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) in salivary gland acinar cells, prompting the mobilization of ion channels and their transporters. Salivary fluid and protein secretion are principally dependent on parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves. Various inflammatory cytokines allied with lymphocytic infiltration cause glandular damage and Sjogren's syndrome, an autoimmune exocrinopathy associated with hyposalivation. A defect in IP3Rs, a major calcium release channel, prompts inadequate agonist-induced [Ca2+]iin acinar cells and deters salivary flow. The store-operated calcium entry-mediated Ca2+movement into the acini activates K+and Cl-channels, which further opens a water channel protein, aquaporin-5, and triggers the release of fluid secretion from the salivary glands. The cellular mechanism of salivary gland dysfunction and hyposalivation has not yet been elucidated. In this review, we focused mainly on the proteins responsible for deficient saliva, the correlation between inflammation and salivation, autoimmune disorders and other ailments or complications associated with hyposalivation.