- StatPearls: Erb Palsy [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Erb palsy, or Erb-Duchenne paralysis, is one of most common neurological birth injuries. It is caused by injury to brachial plexus which form of C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1. These nerves network from the …
Erb palsy, or Erb-Duchenne paralysis, is one of most common neurological birth injuries. It is caused by injury to brachial plexus which form of C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1. These nerves network from the spine and pass through the cervicoaxillary canal in the neck and the ribs and emerge into the axilla. Brachial plexus is a musculocutaneous nerve that innervates all muscles of the upper limb except the trapezius muscle which is supplied by accessory nerve CN XI.
- Customized device for pediatric upper limb rehabilitation in obstetric brachial palsy. [Case Reports]
- AJAm J Phys Med Rehabil 2014; 93(3):263-6
- A 12-yr-old child, with a history of gestational Erb-Duchenne palsy and, later, musculoskeletal injuries in the left arm caused by a car accident, inspired the design of a customized exoskeleton-like…
A 12-yr-old child, with a history of gestational Erb-Duchenne palsy and, later, musculoskeletal injuries in the left arm caused by a car accident, inspired the design of a customized exoskeleton-like device. Such piece, intended for rehabilitation, has one degree of freedom because the exercise routine involves elbow flexion-extension, which was indicated for the damaged muscular group. The device has two functioning modes, passive and assisted, in which the patient can trigger the movement by a biceps contraction, thus promoting the active role of the user in the rehabilitation process. The results were evaluated in terms of qualitative measures of the biceps and the triceps performed by the medical staff and by a questionnaire related to functional activities of the upper limb. A significant improvement in the arm movement and elbow angle was observed after 3 mos of assisted therapy, complementary to conventional exercises. In conclusion, a simple and low-cost device was designed and tested to complement the rehabilitation process of a pediatric patient with physical impairment.
- A five-year retrospective review of infants with Erb-Duchenne's palsy at a teaching hospital in North Trinidad. [Journal Article]
- WIWest Indian Med J 2013; 62(1):45-7
- Birth injuries are devastating to parents and carers alike. They carry the possibility of residual loss of function to the infant and thus the potential for litigation. The aim of this study was to d…
Birth injuries are devastating to parents and carers alike. They carry the possibility of residual loss of function to the infant and thus the potential for litigation. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of Erb-Duchenne's palsy and the identification of any contributing factors. A retrospective review over a five-year period, 2005-2009, was performed and an incidence of 0.94 per 1000 live births was noted. An association between both macrosomia and shoulder dystocia and the development of Erb-Duchenne palsy in the newborn was noted. The authors recommended the use of partograms and improved note documentation in the management of labour.
- Humeral internal rotation osteotomy for the treatment of Erb-Duchenne-type obstetric palsy: clinical and radiographic results. [Journal Article]
- CClinics (Sao Paulo) 2013; 68(7):928-33
- CONCLUSIONS: Internal rotation osteotomy in association with the stretching of anterior soft tissues of the shoulder in patients under the age of 7 years provided improvements in the function, retroversion, and subluxation of the glenohumeral joint.
- [Obstetric brachial palsy, a historical review]. [Historical Article]
- RNRev Neurol 2012 Nov 16; 55(10):619-25
- CONCLUSIONS: Since the first clinical description of obstetric brachial palsy by Smellie and the reports of the different types of brachial palsy by Duchenne, Erb and Klumpke, many pathophysiological studies have been conducted. Notable developments have been made in conservative and surgical treatments, with very favourable recoveries being observed in children with obstetric brachial palsy.
- Bypass coaptation for cervical root avulsion: indications for optimal outcome. [Case Reports]
- NNeurosurgery 2009; 65(4 Suppl):A203-11
- CONCLUSIONS: We recommend the bypass coaptation as a useful procedure for the following categories: Erb-Duchenne palsy due to C5 and C6 root avulsion in all ages, Klumpke palsy due to the C8 and T1 avulsion, and the flail arm due to C5 through T1 avulsion in young children. However, bypass procedures for the flail limb in adults require additional innovative methods to facilitate the growth rate of regenerating nerves.
- Are all brachial plexus injuries caused by shoulder dystocia? [Review]
- OGObstet Gynecol Surv 2009; 64(9):615-23
- Obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP), is an injury of the brachial plexus at childbirth affecting the nerve roots of C5-6 (Erb-Duchenne palsy-nearly 80% of cases) or less frequently the C8-T1 nerve…
Obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP), is an injury of the brachial plexus at childbirth affecting the nerve roots of C5-6 (Erb-Duchenne palsy-nearly 80% of cases) or less frequently the C8-T1 nerve roots (Klumpke palsy). OBPP often has medicolegal implications. In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland the incidence is 0.42, in the United States 1.5, and in other western countries 1 to 3 per 1000 live births. Most infants with OBPP have no known risk factors. Shoulder dystocia increases the risk for OBPP 100-fold. The reported incidence of OBPP after shoulder dystocia varies widely from 4% to 40%. Other risk factors include birth weight >4 kg, maternal diabetes mellitus, obesity or excessive weight gain, prolonged pregnancy, prolonged second stage of labor, persistent fetal malposition, operative delivery, and breech extraction of a small baby. OBPP after caesarean section accounts for 1% to 4% of cases. Historically, OBPPs have been considered to result from excessive lateral traction and forceful deviation of the fetal head from the axial plane of the fetal body, usually in association with shoulder dystocia, which increases the necessary applied peak force and time to deliver the fetal shoulders. Direct compression of the fetal shoulder on the symphysis pubis may also cause injury. However a significant proportion of OBPPs occurs in utero, as according to some studies more than half of the cases are not associated with shoulder dystocia. Possible mechanisms of intrauterine injury include the endogenous propulsive forces of labor, intrauterine maladaptation, or failure of the shoulders to rotate, and impaction of the posterior shoulder behind the sacral promontory. Uterine anomalies, such as fibroids, an intrauterine septum, or a bicornuate uterus may also result in OBPP. It is not possible to reliably predict which fetuses will experience OBPP. Future research should be directed in prospective evaluation of the mechanisms of injury, to enable obstetricians, midwives, and other health care professionals to identify modifiable risk factors, develop preventive strategies, and improve perinatal outcomes.
- Comparison of electrical stimulation and conventional physiotherapy in functional rehabilitation in Erb's palsy. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- NQNig Q J Hosp Med 2008 Oct-Dec; 18(4):202-5
- CONCLUSIONS: The outcome of this study suggests that functional electrical stimulation may be preferred to conventional approach in the course of rehabilitation for an early resolution of function in Erbs paralysis.
- Hyphenated history: Erb-Duchenne brachial plexus palsy. [Historical Article]
- AJAm J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ) 2008; 37(7):356-8
- Throughout history, the discoveries of their predecessors have led physicians to revolutionary advances in the understanding and practice of medicine. The result is a plethora of hyphenated eponyms p…
Throughout history, the discoveries of their predecessors have led physicians to revolutionary advances in the understanding and practice of medicine. The result is a plethora of hyphenated eponyms paying tribute to individuals connected through time by a common interest. The history of Guillaume Duchenne de Boulogne, the "father of electrotherapy and electrodiagnosis," and Wilhelm Heinrich Erb, the "father of neurology," offers insight into the personal and professional lives of these astute clinicians and their collaborative medical breakthrough in the area of neurologic paralysis affecting the upper limbs.
New Search Next
- The birth of Kaiser William II (1859-1941) and his birth injury. [Historical Article]
- JMJ Med Biogr 2008; 16(3):178-83
- This paper describes the events leading up to the birth of Kaiser William II in 1859. There is a full description of the clinical aspects of his breech delivery that resulted in an Erb-Duchenne palsy…
This paper describes the events leading up to the birth of Kaiser William II in 1859. There is a full description of the clinical aspects of his breech delivery that resulted in an Erb-Duchenne palsy. The later physical and psychological effects of his paralysed left arm are discussed fully, as are the comments about Dr Eduard Arnold Martin (1799-1875), the obstetrician who delivered him.