- Facial muscle activity contaminates EEG signal at rest: evidence from frontalis and temporalis motor units. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neural Eng 2019 Jul 15
- Network substrates of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's Disease. [Journal Article]
- CNClin Neurophysiol 2019 Jun 27; 130(9):1581-1595
- CONCLUSIONS: Temporal lobe disconnection plays a key role in cognitive impairment in AD.We combine electrophysiology, neuropsychological scores, and computational modelling to provide novel insight into the relationships between the disconnection hypothesis and cognitive decline in AD.
- Applicability of subcortical EEG metrics of synaptopathy to older listeners with impaired audiograms. [Journal Article]
- HRHear Res 2019 Jul 02; 380:150-165
- Emerging evidence suggests that cochlear synaptopathy is a common feature of sensorineural hearing loss, but it is not known to what extent electrophysiological metrics targeting synaptopathy in anim…
Emerging evidence suggests that cochlear synaptopathy is a common feature of sensorineural hearing loss, but it is not known to what extent electrophysiological metrics targeting synaptopathy in animals can be applied to people, such as those with impaired audiograms. This study investigates the applicability of subcortical electrophysiological measures associated with synaptopathy, i.e., auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and envelope following responses (EFRs), to older participants with high-frequency sloping audiograms. The outcomes of this study are important for the development of reliable and sensitive synaptopathy diagnostics in people with normal or impaired outer-hair-cell function. Click-ABRs at different sound pressure levels and EFRs to amplitude-modulated stimuli were recorded, as well as relative EFR and ABR metrics which reduce the influence of individual factors such as head size and noise floor level on the measures. Most tested metrics showed significant differences between the groups and did not always follow the trends expected from synaptopathy. Age was not a reliable predictor for the electrophysiological metrics in the older hearing-impaired group or young normal-hearing control group. This study contributes to a better understanding of how electrophysiological synaptopathy metrics differ in ears with healthy and impaired audiograms, which is an important first step towards unravelling the perceptual consequences of synaptopathy.
- Dynamic hospital competition under rationing by waiting times. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Health Econ 2019 Jun 19; 66:260-282
- We develop a dynamic model of hospital competition where (i) waiting times increase if demand exceeds supply; (ii) patients choose a hospital based in part on waiting times; and (iii) hospitals incur…
We develop a dynamic model of hospital competition where (i) waiting times increase if demand exceeds supply; (ii) patients choose a hospital based in part on waiting times; and (iii) hospitals incur waiting time penalties. We show that, whereas policies based on penalties will lead to lower waiting times, policies that promote patient choice will instead lead to higher waiting times. These results are robust to different game-theoretic solution concepts, designs of the hospital penalty structure, and patient utility specifications. Furthermore, waiting time penalties are likely to be more effective in reducing waiting times if they are designed with a linear penalty structure, but the counterproductive effect of patient choice policies is smaller when penalties are convex. These conclusions are partly derived by calibration of our model based on waiting times and elasticities observed in the English NHS for a common treatment (cataract surgery).
- From neuronal to psychological noise - Long-range temporal correlations in EEG intrinsic activity reduce noise in internally-guided decision making. [Journal Article]
- NNeuroimage 2019 Jul 12; :116015
- Our personal internal preferences while making decisions are usually consistent. Recent psychological studies, however, show observable variability of internal criteria occurs by random noise. The ne…
Our personal internal preferences while making decisions are usually consistent. Recent psychological studies, however, show observable variability of internal criteria occurs by random noise. The neural correlates of said random noise - an instance of 'psychological noise' - yet remain unclear. Combining simulation, behavioral, and neural approaches, our study investigated the psychological and neural correlates of such random noise in our internal criteria during decision making. We applied well-established decision-making tasks which relied on either internal criteria - occupation choice task as internally-guided decision making (IDM) - or external criteria - salary judgment task as externally-guided decision making (EDM). Subjects underwent EEG for resting state and task-evoked activity during IDM and EDM. We measured resting state long-range temporal correlation (LRTC) in the alpha frequency range as the index of neuronal noise. Based on our simulation, we identified a measure of psychological noise (as distinguished from true preference change) in IDM. The main finding shows that the indices for psychological noise are directly related to frontocentral LRTC in the alpha range. Higher degrees of frontocentral LRTC, which index lower neuronal noise, were related to lower degrees of psychological noise during IDM. This was not found during EDM. Resting state LRTC was also related to task-evoked activity, such as conflict-related negativity, during IDM only. Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, the direct relationship between neuronal noise in the brain's intrinsic activity and psychological noise in the internal criteria of our decision making.
- Altered individual behavioral and EEG parameters are related to the EDSS score in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(7):e0219594
- Functional neuroanatomy of cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis is currently still a challenge. During the progression of the disease, several cognitive mechanisms deteriorate thus diminishing …
Functional neuroanatomy of cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis is currently still a challenge. During the progression of the disease, several cognitive mechanisms deteriorate thus diminishing the patient's quality of life. A primary objective in the cognitive assessment of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is to find reliable measures utilizing diverse neuroimaging techniques. Moreover, especially relevant in the clinical environment is finding technical approaches that could be applied to individual participants and not only for group analysis. A 64-channel electroencephalographic recording (EEG) was made with thirty participants divided into three groups of equivalent size (N = 10) (healthy control, low-EDSS (1-2.5) and moderate-EDSS (4-6)). Correlation analysis was applied to multiple measures: behavior, neuropsychological tests (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, 3 seconds (PASAT-3s) and the Symbol Digit Modality Test (SDMT)), Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), even-related potential (P3) and event-related desynchronization (ERD) parameters and the correlation scores between individual participant's P3/ERD maps and the healthy grand average P3/ERDmaps. Statistical analysis showed that diverse parameters exhibited significant correlations. A remarkable correlation was the moderate score found between SDMT and EDSS (r = -0.679, p = 0.0009). However, the strongest correlation was between the value of integrated measures (reaction time, P3 and ERD latency) and EDSS (r = 0.699, p = 0.0006). In regard to correlations for grand average maps between groups, the P3 component exhibited a lower score according to a more deteriorated condition (higher EDSS). In contrast, ERD maps remained stable with an increase of EDSS. Lastly, a Z-transformation of individual values of all variables included in the study exhibited heterogeneity in cognitive alterations in the multiple sclerosis participants.
- Spontaneous remission of West syndrome following a human herpesvirus 7 infection in a Chinese infant: A case report. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2019; 98(28):e16441
- CONCLUSIONS: Spontaneous remission of epileptic seizures can occur following viral infection of HHV-7 in children with WS. The mechanism behind this spontaneous remission warrants further research.
- Effectiveness of deep general anesthesia compared to the standard depth of general anesthesia on acute postoperative pain and patient safety: a systematic review protocol. [Journal Article]
- JDJBI Database System Rev Implement Rep 2019 Jul 11
- The objective of this systematic review is to synthesize the best available evidence related to the effectiveness of deep general anesthesia on acute postoperative pain and patient safety in adult pa…
The objective of this systematic review is to synthesize the best available evidence related to the effectiveness of deep general anesthesia on acute postoperative pain and patient safety in adult patients.
- Psychological and physiological effects of viewing a money plant by older adults. [Journal Article]
- BBBrain Behav 2019 Jul 15; :e01359
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that viewing a money plant for 5 min may enhance both psychological and physiological relaxation in older adults.
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- Predictive Value of Slow and Fast EEG Oscillations for Methylphenidate Response in ADHD. [Journal Article]
- CEClin EEG Neurosci 2019 Jul 15; :1550059419863206
- Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder and is characterized by symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. In the current stu…
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder and is characterized by symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. In the current study, we obtained quantitative EEG (QEEG) recordings of 51 children aged between 6 and 12 years before the initiation of methylphenidate treatment. The relationship between changes in the scores of ADHD symptoms and initial QEEG features (power/power ratios values) were assessed. In addition, the children were classified as responder and nonresponder according to the ratio of their response to the medication (>25% improvement after medication). Logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze the accuracy of QEEG features for predicting responders. The findings indicate that patients with increased delta power at F8, theta power at Fz, F4, C3, Cz, T5, and gamma power at T6 and decreased beta powers at F8 and P3 showed more improvement in ADHD hyperactivity symptoms. In addition, increased delta/beta power ratio at F8 and theta/beta power ratio at F8, F3, Fz, F4, C3, Cz, P3, and T5 showed negative correlations with Conners' score difference of hyperactivity as well. This means, those with greater theta/beta and delta/beta powers showed more improvement in hyperactivity following medication. Theta power at Cz and T5 and theta/beta power ratios at C3, Cz, and T5 have significantly classified responders and nonresponders according to the logistic binary regression analysis. The results show that slow and fast oscillations may have predictive value for treatment response in ADHD. Future studies should seek for more sensitive biomarkers.