- Mepacrine-induced interstitial lung disease in discoid lupus erythematosus? [Letter]
- BJBr J Dermatol 2018 Jul 19
- After commencing mepacrine for discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE), 2 women (aged 39 and 58 years) developed interstitial lung disease (ILD) confirmed on high resolution CT and full lung function testi...
After commencing mepacrine for discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE), 2 women (aged 39 and 58 years) developed interstitial lung disease (ILD) confirmed on high resolution CT and full lung function testing. The ILD resolved completely in one case and nearly completely in the second individual after both stopping mepacrine and treating with a course of oral corticosteroids (and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in the second case). Differential diagnoses for this presentation include infection, drug reaction and ILD related to a systemic connective tissue disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Discrete evolution of the crystal structure during the growth of Ba-hexaferrite nanoplatelets. [Journal Article]
- NNanoscale 2018 Jul 19
- An understanding of the adaptation of the crystal structure of materials confined at the nanoscale, the influences of their specific structures on the evolution of their morphologies and, finally, th...
An understanding of the adaptation of the crystal structure of materials confined at the nanoscale, the influences of their specific structures on the evolution of their morphologies and, finally, their functional properties is essential not only for expanding fundamental knowledge, but also for facilitating the designs of novel nanostructures for diverse technological and medical applications. Here we describe how the distinct structure of barium-hexaferrite nanoplatelets evolves in a stepwise manner in parallel with the development of their size and morphology during hydrothermal synthesis. The nanoplatelets are formed by reactions between Ba- and Fe-hydroxides in an aqueous suspension at temperatures below 80 °C. Scanning-transmission electron microscopy showed that the structure of the as-synthesized, discoid nanoplatelets (∼2.3 nm thick, ∼10 nm wide) terminates at the basal surfaces with Ba-containing planes. However, after subsequent washing of the nanoplatelets with water the top two atomic layers dissolve from the surfaces. The final structure can be represented by a SRS* sequence of the barium-hexaferrite SRS*R* unit cell, where S and R represent a hexagonal (BaFe6O11)2- and a cubic (Fe6O8)2+ structural block, respectively. Due to the stable SRS* structure, the thickness of the primary nanoplatelets remains unchanged up to approximately 150 °C, when some of the primary nanoplatelets start to grow exaggeratedly and their thicknesses increase discretely with the addition of the RS segments to their structure. The SRS* structure of the primary nanoplatelets is too thin for the complete development of magnetic ordering. However, the addition of just one RS segment (SRS*R*S structure) gives the nanoplatelets hard magnetic properties.
- Nummular eczema of the breast following surgery and reconstruction in breast cancer patients. [Journal Article]
- AOActa Oncol 2018 Jul 17; :1-3
- Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [BOOK]
- BOOKNational Library of Medicine (US): Bethesda (MD)
- Because little information is available on the use of furosemide during breastfeeding and because intense diuresis might decrease lactation, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursi...
Because little information is available on the use of furosemide during breastfeeding and because intense diuresis might decrease lactation, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
- Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee: Etiology and Pathogenetic Mechanisms. A Systematic Review. [Journal Article]
- CCartilage 2018 Jul 01; :1947603518786557
- Objective The purpose of this manuscript is to analyze the evidence regarding etiopathogenesis of knee osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions through a systematic review, so to summate the current u...
Objective The purpose of this manuscript is to analyze the evidence regarding etiopathogenesis of knee osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions through a systematic review, so to summate the current understanding of the origin and progression of this pathologic articular processes. Design A systematic review of the literature was performed on the PubMed and Cochrane databases on October 2017 by 2 independent authors and included all levels of evidence. This included all English language literature, pertaining specifically to etiopathology of knee OCD with exclusions for review articles and expert opinion. Of 965 identified records, 154 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and 86 studies met the inclusion criteria. Results According to these studies, the etiology of OCD can be of a biological or mechanical origin: 40 articles proposed a biological hypothesis, including genetic causes (27), ossification center deficit (12), and endocrine disorders (9); conversely, 52 articles supported a mechanical hypothesis, including injury/overuse (18), tibial spine impingement (5), discoid meniscus (16), and biomechanical alterations (20) as the cause of the onset of OCD. The pathogenic processes were investigated by 36 of these articles, with a focus on subchondral bone fracture and ischemia as the ultimate events leading to OCD. Conclusions Biological and mechanical factors are found to result in subchondral bone remodeling alterations, acting independently or more likely synergically in the progression of knee OCD. The former includes genetic causes, deficit of ossification centers and endocrine disorders; the latter, tibial spine impingement, discoid meniscus, and biomechanical alterations, together with injuries and overuse. The resultant subchondral bone ischemia and/or fracturing appears to determine the onset and progression of OCD. Level of Evidence Systematic review of level II-IV studies, level IV.
- Self-assembly of multi-stranded perylene dye J-aggregates in columnar liquid-crystalline phases. [Journal Article]
- NCNat Commun 2018 Jul 06; 9(1):2646
- Many discoid dyes self-assemble into columnar liquid-crystalline (LC) phases with packing arrangements that are undesired for photonic applications due to H-type exciton coupling. Here, we report a s...
Many discoid dyes self-assemble into columnar liquid-crystalline (LC) phases with packing arrangements that are undesired for photonic applications due to H-type exciton coupling. Here, we report a series of crystalline and LC perylene bisimides (PBIs) self-assembling into single or multi-stranded (two, three, and four strands) aggregates with predominant J-type exciton coupling. These differences in the supramolecular packing and optical properties are achieved by molecular design variations of tetra-bay phenoxy-dendronized PBIs with two N-H groups at the imide positions. The self-assembly is driven by hydrogen bonding, slipped π-π stacking, nanosegregation, and steric requirements of the peripheral building blocks. We could determine the impact of the packing motifs on the spectroscopic properties and demonstrate different J- and H-type coupling contributions between the chromophores. Our findings on structure-property relationships and strong J-couplings in bulk LC materials open a new avenue in the molecular engineering of PBI J-aggregates with prospective applications in photonics.
- Does discoid lateral meniscus have inborn peripheral rim instability? Comparison between intact discoid lateral meniscus and normal lateral meniscus. [Journal Article]
- AOArch Orthop Trauma Surg 2018 Jul 05
- CONCLUSIONS: Both iDLM and tDLM had greater PRI of the AH and PH than the iLM in adult patients. Thus, the DLM is prone to tear and careful inspection is needed not to overlook PRI of a DLM even if the peripheral attachment is intact.
- Treating lupus patients with antimalarials: analysis of safety profile in a single-center cohort. [Journal Article]
- LLupus 2018 Jan 01; :961203318781008
- This longitudinal retrospective study aims at describing the safety profile and the reasons for discontinuation of antimalarials in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and discoid lupus ...
This longitudinal retrospective study aims at describing the safety profile and the reasons for discontinuation of antimalarials in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE), focusing on ocular toxicity. We analyzed the clinical data of 845 SLE and DLE patients; 59% of them were taking antimalarials: 1.4% chloroquine (CQ), 88.5% hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and 10.1% both. The mean therapy duration was 82.5 ± 77.4 months. At least one side effect was reported by 19.4% of patients, leading to temporary or permanent withdrawal in 9.1% and 10.3% of cases, respectively; 19.3% of patients experienced side effects with HCQ and 8.6% with CQ. In 55.1% of cases, the adverse event was mild or moderate. Ophthalmological alterations were reported by 8.5% but were confirmed by the ophthalmological examination in 5.5% of cases. Retinal alterations were associated with age, disease duration and duration of the antimalarial therapy, but not to drug dose and comorbidities or lupus nephritis. This is the largest monocentric longitudinal study confirming the good safety profile of antimalarials in DLE and SLE patients. The main adverse events during the therapy were mild or moderate, but maculopathy-reported in a low percentage of patients-remains the main cause of treatment withdrawal.
- Hair and Scalp Changes in Cutaneous and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. [Review]
- AJAm J Clin Dermatol 2018 Jun 09
- Cutaneous and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) commonly involves the hair and scalp. Alopecia can result from direct activity of disease on the scalp or from the state of physical stress in the for...
Cutaneous and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) commonly involves the hair and scalp. Alopecia can result from direct activity of disease on the scalp or from the state of physical stress in the form of telogen effluvium. Discoid lupus erythematosus and lupus panniculitis/profundus are known to cause scarring alopecia, while accumulation of recent studies has shown that non-scarring alopecia in SLE may have different subtypes, comprising lupus erythematosus-specific and lupus erythematosus-nonspecific changes on histology. This review aims to summarize the clinical pattern, trichoscopic, histopathological, and direct immunofluorescence features of different types of alopecia in cutaneous and systemic lupus erythematosus, as well as exploring their relationship with SLE disease activity.
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- Echinococcus multilocularis (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Taeniidae): functional ultrastructure of the penetration glands and nerve cells within the oncosphere. [Journal Article]
- PRParasitol Res 2018 Jun 09
- The fine structure of the infective hexacanths of Echinococcus multilocularis was examined with particular emphasis on the functional ultrastructure of penetration glands and nerve cells directly inv...
The fine structure of the infective hexacanths of Echinococcus multilocularis was examined with particular emphasis on the functional ultrastructure of penetration glands and nerve cells directly involved in the mechanism of initial host infection. The oncosphere contains two types of penetration glands, PG1 and PG2, that differ slightly in size and form a large U-shaped bi-nucleated syncytial structure. The arms of each gland at each end of the U, directed towards the hook region, exit into the tegument peripheral layer between the median and lateral hook pairs. The lobate nuclei of PG1 and PG2 contain prominent spherical nucleoli surrounded by several large electron-dense islands of heterochromatin. The syncytial cytoplasm of both types of glands is rich in free ribosomes, polysomes, several mitochondria, and heavy accumulations of discoid secretory granules of moderate to high electron density. The secretory granules, sg1 and sg2, differ in their ultrastructure and electron density; the sg2 are much smaller and more flattened in shape. A common characteristic for sg1 and sg2, evident under high magnification, is their high electron density and discoidal shape, with two bi-concave surfaces. Both sg1 and sg2 are frequently grouped in characteristic parallel stacks, the "rouleau"-shaped assemblages with sometimes six to ten granules. Two nerve cells of neurosecretory type are situated in the central part of the hexacanth, each one in a deep U-shaped invagination between the two penetration glands. The nuclei of nerve cells contain several large heterochromatin islands closely adjacent to their nuclear membranes. Their cytoplasm is characterized by having membrane-bound, dense-cored neurosecretory-like granules not only in nerve cell perikarya but also in the elongated nerve processes frequently adjacent to gland arms and to both somatic or body musculature, including the complex system of hook muscles. The results of the present study, when supported with literature data on oncospheres of other cestode species, allow for a better understanding of the important role and coordinated functions of three structural components, i.e., oncospheral hooks, penetration glands, and nerve cells, in the mechanism of intermediate host infection. Presence or absence of nerve cells in oncospheres of various cestodes is reviewed, and perspectives on the value and application of research on functional morphology of oncospheres are discussed.