- Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography: Impact of Abnormal Blood Potassium Levels on Cardiac Arrhythmias. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Soc Echocardiogr 2017 Apr 07
- CONCLUSIONS: DSE is safe even in the setting of abnormalities in blood potassium concentrations, and hence cancellation of DSE in patients with potassium abnormalities does not appear warranted. Elevated potassium levels are associated with lower rates of clinically significant supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. While remaining at relatively low risk, patients with very low potassium levels (≤3.1 mmol/L) at the time of DSE have a modestly increased risk of arrhythmia. Consideration could be given to correcting severe hypokalemia prior to DSE.
- An Unusual Case of Resistant Hypokalaemia in a Patient with Large Bowel Obstruction Secondary to Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Prostate. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Surg 2017; 2017:2394365
- Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Prostate (NECP) is rare and only few cases have been reported, constituting less than 0.5% of prostatic malignancies. We report a rare case of large bowel obstruction ...
Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Prostate (NECP) is rare and only few cases have been reported, constituting less than 0.5% of prostatic malignancies. We report a rare case of large bowel obstruction from NECP posing a further challenge in management due to resistant hypokalaemia. A 70-year-old man presented with clinical signs of large bowel obstruction who was known to have prostatic carcinoma three years ago, treated initially with hormone therapy then chemoradiation. The blood profile showed a severe hypokalaemia and CT scan revealed liver and lung metastases apart from confirming large bowel obstruction from local invasion of NECP. Severe hypokalaemia was believed to be caused by paraneoplastic syndrome from tumor burden or by recent administration of Etoposide. Intensive potassium correction through a central venous access in maximal doses of 150 mmol/24 hours under cardiac monitoring finally raised serum potassium to 3.8 mmol/L. This safe period allowed us to perform a trephine colostomy at the left iliac fossa. The postoperative period was relatively uneventful. This first case report is presenting a rare cause of large bowel obstruction from a neuroendocrine carcinoma of prostate and highlights the importance of an early, intensive correction of electrolytes in patients with large tumor burden from NECP.
- Usefulness of laboratory and radiological investigations in the management of supraventricular tachycardia. [Journal Article]
- EMEmerg Med Australas 2017 Mar 20
- CONCLUSIONS: Patients with uncomplicated SVT are over-investigated. Guidelines for ED SVT investigation are recommended. Further research is recommended to determine the indications for each investigation in the setting of SVT.
- Polyuria in a Patient with Aspergillus Infection. [Journal Article]
- CJClin J Am Soc Nephrol 2017 Mar 13
- Diuretic, natriuretic and potassium-sparing effect of nothofagin isolated from Leandra dasytricha (A. Gray) Cogn. leaves in normotensive and hypertensive rats. [Journal Article]
- CBChem Biol Interact 2017 Apr 25; 268:103-110
- Active constituents from natural origin have long been used for the treatment of patients suffering from cardiovascular and renal diseases. This study therefore aimed to investigate the diuretic and ...
Active constituents from natural origin have long been used for the treatment of patients suffering from cardiovascular and renal diseases. This study therefore aimed to investigate the diuretic and natriuretic properties of nothofagin, a dihydrochalcone isolated from Leandra dasytricha (A. Gray) Cogn. leaves in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Male Wistar normotensive rats were orally treated with vehicle (1 ml/kg); hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ; 25 mg/kg); ethyl acetate fraction from L. dasytricha (EALD; 3-30 mg/kg) and nothofagin (NOT; 0.3-3 mg/kg). Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) received NOT (1 mg/kg), HCTZ (25 mg/kg) or vehicle. The cumulative diuretic index, urinary electrolytes excretion (Na(+) and K(+)), pH, density and conductivity were measured at the end of the experiment (after 8 h). A7r5 and L929 cell lines were used to measure cell viability after exposure to NOT. Nitric oxide generation was quantified in A7r5 cell supernatant, and DPPH assay was used for evaluating the antioxidant properties of NOT. The urinary volume of normotensive rats were increased after the treatment with EALD, without any changes in Na(+) or K(+) excretion. NOT was able to induce diuresis and natriuresis, but not kaliuresis, in both normotensive and hypertensive rats. The reduction in prostanoids generation through cyclooxygenase inhibition, as well as the muscarinic receptor antagonism, fully avoided NOT-induced increases in diuretic index. NOT, which did not interfere with L929 or A7r5 cell viability, was able to stimulate nitric oxide generation in A7r5 cell, besides showing an antioxidant effect in scavenging the free-radical DPPH. Taken together, our study shows, for the first time, the diuretic, natriuretic and potassium-sparing effect of nothofagin in rats, which was associated with prostanoids generation, muscarinic receptor activation and antioxidant properties.
- Identification of the Causes for Chronic Hypokalemia: Importance of Urinary Sodium and Chloride Excretion. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Med 2017 Feb 14
- CONCLUSIONS: Besides body mass index, sex, and blood acid-base status, integrated interpretation of the urine Na(+):Cl(-) excretion and their ratio is important to make an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan for patients with chronic normotensive hypokalemia.
- Experiences with Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration using 18mmol/L predilution Citrate anticoagulation and a Phosphate Containing Replacement Solution. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Crit Care Med 2017; 21(1):11-16
- CONCLUSIONS: This new CVVH regime is safe and easy to administer for critically ill patients.
- Successful Management of Refractory Type 1 Renal Tubular Acidosis with Amiloride. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Nephrol 2017; 2017:8596169
- A 28-year-old female with history of hypothyroidism, Sjögren's Syndrome, and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) presented with complaints of severe generalized weakness, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting...
A 28-year-old female with history of hypothyroidism, Sjögren's Syndrome, and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) presented with complaints of severe generalized weakness, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, and anorexia. Physical examination was unremarkable. Laboratory test showed hypokalemia at 1.6 mmol/l, nonanion metabolic acidosis with HCO3 of 11 mmol/l, random urine pH of 7.0, and urine anion gap of 8 mmol/l. CT scan of the abdomen revealed bilateral nephrocalcinosis. A diagnosis of type 1 RTA likely secondary to Sjögren's Syndrome was made. She was started on citric acid potassium citrate with escalating dosages to a maximum dose of 60 mEq daily and potassium chloride over 5 years without significant improvement in serum K(+) and HCO3 levels. She had multiple emergency room visits for persistent muscle pain, generalized weakness, and cardiac arrhythmias. Citric acid potassium citrate was then replaced with sodium bicarbonate at 15.5 mEq every 6 hours which was continued for 2 years without significant improvement in her symptoms and electrolytes. Amiloride 5 mg daily was added to her regimen as a potassium sparing treatment with dramatic improvement in her symptoms and electrolyte levels (as shown in the figures). Amiloride was increased to 10 mg daily and potassium supplementation was discontinued without affecting her electrolytes. Her sodium bicarbonate was weaned to 7.7 mEq daily.
- Renal Infiltration by Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma as a Rare Cause of Fanconi's Syndrome: A Case Report. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2016 Nov 30; 8(11):e904
- We report the case of a 16-year-old female patient with a known history of coeliac disease, who presented with the complaints of diarrhea, vomiting and generalized body weakness. On examination, she ...
We report the case of a 16-year-old female patient with a known history of coeliac disease, who presented with the complaints of diarrhea, vomiting and generalized body weakness. On examination, she was found to have dehydration, decreased power in all her limbs, cervical lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. Investigations showed severe hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypomagnesemia, hypoglycemia and mildly enlarged kidneys on ultrasonography. Biopsy of the duodenum confirmed the flare up of coeliac disease, while cervical lymph node biopsy was positive for atypical lymphoid infiltrate and a morphology suggestive of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The immune profile performed on this sample confirmed the presence of activated/non-germinal center type of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), which was morphologically aggressive in type. The bone marrow biopsy was hypocellular and was negative for any infiltration. The patient was suspected to have developed infiltration of one or both kidneys leading to a rare presentation of Fanconi's syndrome. She was given first dose of rituximab on the 14th day of her admission. Unfortunately, she developed cardiopulmonary arrest and expired on the next day. We recommend screening for a possible renal involvement in patients with DLBCL and in patients with unusually deranged serum electrolytes as seen in Fanconi's syndrome. Renal biopsy is considered the gold standard modality for diagnosis and if possible, an earlier sample in a patient with newly developed acute kidney injury can save future complications.
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- Hypokalemia associated with acute colonic pseudo-obstruction in an ESRD patient. [Journal Article]
- CNClin Nephrol 2017; 87 (2017)(3):152-156
- Ogilvie's syndrome, or acute colonic pseudo-obstruction, is characterized by massive dilation of the colon without mechanical obstruction. Water and electrolytes often can be sequestered in the dilat...
Ogilvie's syndrome, or acute colonic pseudo-obstruction, is characterized by massive dilation of the colon without mechanical obstruction. Water and electrolytes often can be sequestered in the dilated intestinal loops resulting in profuse and watery diarrhea as well as hypokalemia. We report an anuric, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) who developed acute colonic pseudo-obstruction causing a prolonged hospitalization. He also developed severe hypokalemia with a serum potassium (K+) as low as 2.4 mEq/L and required 180 - 240 mEq of potassium chloride per day for more than a month to correct it. While PD K+ losses often contribute to hypokalemia, the PD K+ loss was estimated to be only 39 mEq/day. Therefore, PD could only contribute modestly to the recalcitrant hypokalemia observed during the episode of pseudo-obstruction. It has been shown, however, that patients with colonic pseudo-obstruction have enhanced colonic K+ secretion. In addition, experimental studies in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have demonstrated that colonic K+ excretion can be up to 3 times greater than in individuals with normal renal function. This increase may involve an upregulation of the large conductance K+ channel (maxi-K), also known as the BK channel, in the apical border of the colonocytes. We suggest that ESRD may have placed our patient at a greater risk of developing hypokalemia as his colon may have already adapted to secrete more K+. Clinicians should be aware of this extrarenal K+ wasting etiology in patients with colonic pseudo-obstruction, particularly in those with CKD where such a severe K+ deficit is not anticipated and, therefore, may inhibit more rigorous K+ replacement.