- Hydrogen-rich saline improves non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease by alleviating oxidative stress and activating hepatic PPARα and PPARγ. [Journal Article]
- MMMol Med Rep 2017 Jan 13
- Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a range of liver diseases, between steatosis and non‑alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver cirrhosis, which are closely associated with diabetes mell...
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a range of liver diseases, between steatosis and non‑alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver cirrhosis, which are closely associated with diabetes mellitus. Previous studies have indicated that oxidative stress is a key factor in the development of NAFLD. Molecular hydrogen (H2) may ameliorate oxidative stress injuries by selectively neutralizing peroxynitrite and hydroxyl radicals. The present study evaluated the effects of H2 on NAFLD in rats and concluded that H2‑rich saline had significant therapeutic effects on NAFLD induced by hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, as demonstrated by hematoxylin and eosin and terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining. H2‑rich saline improved fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, and lowered the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin‑1 beta, 3‑nitrotyrosine and 8‑hydroxy‑2'‑deoxyguanosine in the liver. In addition, the present study revealed that H2‑rich saline could significantly increase peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor (PPAR) α and PPARγ expression in hepatocytes. In conclusion, H2‑rich saline may significantly improve NAFLD, possibly by reducing oxidative stress and activating hepatic PPARα and PPARγ expression.
- Nutrients as novel therapeutic approaches for metabolic disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome. [Review]
- EJEXCLI J 2016; 15:551-564
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders among women. This disease is characterized by infertility, menstrual dysfunction, and hyperandrogenism. Also, PCOS is of...
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders among women. This disease is characterized by infertility, menstrual dysfunction, and hyperandrogenism. Also, PCOS is often associated with hyperlipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance, conditions that are associated with cardiovascular disorder, type 2 diabetes, cancer and hypertension. Evidence supports that some nutrients may affect the hormonal and metabolic disturbances of PCOS. Here in this study, we aimed to review the available literature that assessed the nutrients such as inostol, isoflavonids, resveratrol, vitamin D, and PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids), known to influence the hormonal and metabolic disturbances of PCOS, along with the strategies and future directions of nutrient supplementations in such patients.
- The selective PPARα modulator K-877 efficiently activates the PPARα pathway and improves lipid metabolism in mice. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Diabetes Investig 2017 Jan 13
- CONCLUSIONS: The present data indicate that K-877 is an attractive PPARα modulating drug and can efficiently reduce plasma triglyceride levels, thereby alleviating the dysregulation of lipid metabolism. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- PPARs modulate cardiac metabolism and mitochondrial function in diabetes. [Review]
- JBJ Biomed Sci 2017 Jan 10; 24(1):5
- Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a major complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Currently, effective treatments for diabetic cardiomyopathy are limited. The pathophysiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy is c...
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a major complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Currently, effective treatments for diabetic cardiomyopathy are limited. The pathophysiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy is complex, whereas mitochondrial dysfunction plays a vital role in the genesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Metabolic regulation targeting mitochondrial dysfunction is expected to be a reasonable strategy for treating diabetic cardiomyopathy. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are master executors in regulating glucose and lipid homeostasis and also modulate mitochondrial function. However, synthetic PPAR agonists used for treating hyperlipidemia and DM have shown controversial effects on cardiovascular regulation. This article reviews our updated understanding of the beneficial and detrimental effects of PPARs on mitochondria in diabetic hearts.
- Comparison of self-perceived cardiovascular disease risk among smokers with Framingham and PROCAM scores: a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a randomised controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- BOBMJ Open 2017 Jan 06; 7(1):e012063
- CONCLUSIONS: Among smokers, misperception of their 10-year cardiovascular risk is common, with one-fifth underestimating it. These findings may help physicians target patients with such characteristics to help them change their health behaviour and adherence to risk-reduction therapy.
- Anti-Diabetic Effects of Jiang Tang Xiao Ke Granule via PI3K/Akt Signalling Pathway in Type 2 Diabetes KKAy Mice. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2017; 12(1):e0168980
- Jiang Tang Xiao Ke (JTXK) granule, a Chinese herbal formula, has been used clinically to treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM) for decades. Our previous studies showed that JTXK granule exhibited anti-diabeti...
Jiang Tang Xiao Ke (JTXK) granule, a Chinese herbal formula, has been used clinically to treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM) for decades. Our previous studies showed that JTXK granule exhibited anti-diabetic and anti-oxidative functions in experimental diabetic rats induced by a high fat diet and streptozotocin. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Herein, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of JTXK granule on T2DM KKAy mice and the possible associations with skeletal muscle in the current study. Our results showed that JTXK granule significantly reduced food intake and body weight in T2DM KKAy mice. JTXK granule treatment also decreased the blood glucose and HbA1c levels and increased the insulin sensitivity in a time-dependent manner. Additionally, it ameliorated hyperlipidaemia and induced a lower free fatty acid level, displaying an effect on disorders of lipid metabolism. JTXK granule significantly increased the expression of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) and decreased the expression of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). We concluded that JTXK granule is an effective drug for T2DM through regulating the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway in skeletal muscle.
- Accuracy of Non-Fasting Lipid Profile for the Assessment of Lipoprotein Coronary Risk. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2016; 26(12):954-957
- CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic accuracy of non-fasting lipid profile was found significantly higher than fasting lipid profile (p=0.004) for the assessment of lipoprotein coronary risk on the basis of non-HDL-C, which seemed to be significant test for ruling out hyperlipidemia.
- Management of Retinal Vein Occlusion, Who Is Responsible? [Journal Article]
- AMActa Med Iran 2016; 54(11):731-736
- Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a common retinal vascular occlusive disorder and is associated with a variety of systemic risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the underlying...
Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a common retinal vascular occlusive disorder and is associated with a variety of systemic risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the underlying diseases were evaluated and managed appropriately by ophthalmologists. We performed a study of 1344 patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Patients were evaluated with a questionnaire including ten closed questions to determine whether ophthalmologists evaluated and informed their patients about the underlying systemic diseases. None of the patients' homocysteine levels were measured. Only a small percentage of the patients were asked about the history of thrombotic diseases or family history of thrombotic diseases. We believe that most ophthalmologists are still not entirely convinced of their responsibility of managing the underlying predisposing factors of RVO. Ophthalmologists should either manage or engage other healthcare providers in the management of RVO to guarantee the patient the best care.
- Endoscopic Sleeve Gastroplasty Significantly Reduces Body Mass Index and Metabolic Complications in Obese Patients. [Journal Article]
- CGClin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016 Dec 22
- Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG) is an incisionless, minimally invasive bariatric procedure that reduces the length and width of the gastric cavity to facilitate weight loss. We performed a prosp...
Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG) is an incisionless, minimally invasive bariatric procedure that reduces the length and width of the gastric cavity to facilitate weight loss. We performed a prospective study to evaluate the effects of ESG on total body weight loss and obesity-related comorbidities.
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- A nutraceutical approach (Armolipid Plus) to reduce total and LDL cholesterol in individuals with mild to moderate dyslipidemia: Review of the clinical evidence. [Journal Article]
- ASAtheroscler Suppl 2017; 24:1-15
- Compelling evidence supports the effectiveness of the reduction of total and LDL cholesterol (TC and LDL-C) in primarily preventing cardiovascular events, within the framework of life-long prevention...
Compelling evidence supports the effectiveness of the reduction of total and LDL cholesterol (TC and LDL-C) in primarily preventing cardiovascular events, within the framework of life-long prevention programs mainly consisting in lifestyle changes. Pharmacological treatment should be introduced when lifestyle changes, including use of nutraceuticals, have failed. ESC/EAS guidelines list a number of nutraceutical compounds and functional foods which have been individually studied in randomized, controlled clinical trials (RCTs). To date only a proprietary formulation of three naturally occurring substances with putative complementary lipid-lowering properties - red yeast rice, policosanol and berberine - combined with folic acid, astaxanthin, and coenzyme Q10 (Armolipid Plus(®)) has been extensively investigated in several RCTs, 7 of which were placebo-controlled, 2 were ezetimibe comparators and 4 were "real life" studies comparing diet and Armolipid Plus to diet alone. The trials included mostly patients with mild to moderate dyslipidemia, treated for 6-48 weeks. The trials also included special populations and patients in whom statins were contraindicated or who could not tolerate them. Armolipid Plus has proved to be able to achieve significant reductions in TC (11-21%) and in LDL-C (15-31%) levels, which is equivalent to expectations from low dose statins. In patients intolerant to statins, who do not achieve their therapeutic target with ezetimibe, Armolipid Plus can achieve a further 10% improvement in TC and LDL-C. The safety and tolerability of Armolipid Plus were excellent, thought likely due to the intentional combination of low doses of its active ingredients: low enough not to be associated with untoward effects, but high enough to exert therapeutic effects in combination with other complementary substances. Consequently, in the event of intolerance to statins, Armolipid Plus offers an effective alternative, which is devoid of the safety risks associated with synthetic pharmacological therapy. In conclusion Armolipid Plus, in addition to dietary measures, could be a rational choice for individuals with mild to moderate hyperlipidemia and for all dyslipidemic patients in whom statins are not indicated or who cannot tolerate them.