- Shedding new light on female fertility: The role of vitamin D. [Review]
- RERev Endocr Metab Disord 2017 Jan 19
- In the last decades several studies suggested that vitamin D is involved in the modulation of the reproductive process in women due to the expression of VDR and 1α-hydroxylase in reproductive tissues...
In the last decades several studies suggested that vitamin D is involved in the modulation of the reproductive process in women due to the expression of VDR and 1α-hydroxylase in reproductive tissues such as ovary, uterus, placenta, pituitary and hypothalamus. Vitamin D has also a role in the regulation of sex hormone steroidogenesis. Increasing evidence suggests that vitamin D might have a regulatory role in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-associated symptoms, including ovulatory dysfunction, insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. Vitamin D deficiency also has been reported to contribute to the pathogenesis of endometriosis due to its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Although most of the studies supported a role of vitamin D in the onset of these diseases, randomized controlled trials to assess the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation have never been performed. In this review we critically discuss the role of vitamin D in female fertility, starting from in vitro and in vivo studies, focusing our attention on the two most frequent causes of female infertility: PCOS and endometriosis.
- Developmental tracing of oocyte development in gonadal soma-derived factor deficiency medaka (Oryzias latipes) using a transgenic approach. [Journal Article]
- MDMech Dev 2017 Jan 13
- Gonadal soma-derived factor (gsdf) is reported to be a male initiator in medaka based on loss- and gain- of function via targeted disruption, or transgenic over-expression. However, little is known a...
Gonadal soma-derived factor (gsdf) is reported to be a male initiator in medaka based on loss- and gain- of function via targeted disruption, or transgenic over-expression. However, little is known about how gsdf promotes undifferentiated gonad entry into male pathways or prevents entry into the female pathway. We utilized a visible folliculogenesis system with a reporter cassette of dual-color fluorescence expression to identify difference between oocyte development from wildtype and gsdf deficiency medaka. A red fluorescent protein (RFP) is driven by a major component of the synaptonemal complex (SYCP3) promoter which enables RFP expression solely in oocytes after the onset of meiosis, and a histone 2b-EGFP fused protein (H2BEGFP) under the control of an elongation factor (EF1α) promoter, wildly used as a mitotic reporter of cell cycle. This mitosis-meiosis visible switch revealed that early meiotic oocytes present in gsdf deficiency were more than those in wildtype ovaries, corresponding to the decrease of inhibin expression detected by real-time qPCR analysis, suggesting gsdf is tightly involved in the process of medaka oocyte development at early stage.
- Effects of maternal age on embryo quality and pregnancy outcomes using testicular sperm with intracytoplasmic sperm injection. [Journal Article]
- CEClin Exp Reprod Med 2016; 43(4):221-227
- CONCLUSIONS: In couples using testicular sperm from male partners with azoospermia, pregnancy and delivery outcomes were not affected by maternal age. However, women older than 37 years using testicular sperm from partners with azoospermia should be advised of the increased incidence of pregnancy failure.
- Subspecialty Influence on Scientific Peer Review for an Obstetrics and Gynecology Journal With a High Impact Factor. [Journal Article]
- OGObstet Gynecol 2017 Jan 09
- CONCLUSIONS: Peer review quality differs based on obstetrics and gynecology subspecialty. Obstetrics and gynecology subspecialty and reviewer experience have implications for manuscript rejection recommendation. Reviewer assignment is pivotal to maintaining a rigorous manuscript selection process.
- A Comparison of Sexual Function in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Whose Mothers Had PCOS During Their Pregnancy Period with Those Without PCOS. [Journal Article]
- ASArch Sex Behav 2017 Jan 09
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women during reproductive ages. Clinical symptoms associated with PCOS, such as hirsutism, acne, alopecia, obesity, and infer...
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women during reproductive ages. Clinical symptoms associated with PCOS, such as hirsutism, acne, alopecia, obesity, and infertility, may lead to emotional morbidity and then impaired sexual function in those affected. During intrauterine development, the fetus may program the development of diseases during adulthood. In this study, we aimed to examine sexual function in women with PCOS, exposed to maternal androgen excess during their prenatal life compared to non-exposed PCOS patients. In this cross-sectional study, 768 married women with PCOS, aged 18-49 years, were subdivided into two groups, based on their mothers' PCOS status: women whose mothers had PCOS (N = 94) and women whose mothers did not have PCOS (N = 674). Data were collected using a questionnaire including information on demographics, anthropometric and reproductive characteristics, and the Female Sexual Function Index. Blood serum samples were collected from patients for assessment of total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin levels. Results revealed that sexual dysfunction was significantly higher in PCOS women whose mothers also had PCOS, compared to those whose mothers did not (38.6 vs. 25.3%, p = .01). After adjusting for confounding variables, logistic regression analysis showed that odds ratios for sexual dysfunction (total) and sexual dysfunction in the pain domain were significantly higher in the exposed PCOS women versus the non-exposed women (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.06-3.07, p = .02 and 1.68, 95% CI 1.01-2.77, p = .04, respectively). Our study demonstrates increased sexual dysfunction in PCOS women whose mothers also had PCOS.
- A comparative study on the results of agonist and antagonist protocols based on serum AMH levels in patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Reprod Biomed (Yazd) 2016; 14(12):769-776
- CONCLUSIONS: Findings of this study suggested that the ART results are predictable, taking into account the AMH levels. The protocol specific to each patient can be used given the AMH level in each individual. This is because the results of each protocol depend on individual conditions.
- Clinically Relevant Female Genital Tract Anomalies. [Journal Article]
- COClin Obstet Gynecol 2017 Jan 04
- Müllerian anomalies are defined as congenital uterine malformations that arise from improperly developing Müllerian ducts. These malformations have a variety of presentations ranging from asymptomati...
Müllerian anomalies are defined as congenital uterine malformations that arise from improperly developing Müllerian ducts. These malformations have a variety of presentations ranging from asymptomatic to amenorrhea, dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, chronic pelvic pain, pregnancy loss, fetal malpresentation, placental abruption, and intrauterine growth restriction. In this review, we discuss the clinical implications, diagnosis, and treatment of the various Müllerian anomalies focusing on the ones for which clinical intervention is amenable to improve pregnancy outcomes.
- Fertility-preservation in endometrial cancer: is it safe? Review of the literature. [Review]
- JAJBRA Assist Reprod 2016 Dec 01; 20(4):232-239
- Almost 5% of women with endometrial cancer are under age 40, and they often have well-differentiated endometrioid estrogen-dependent tumors. Cancer survival rates have improved over the last decades ...
Almost 5% of women with endometrial cancer are under age 40, and they often have well-differentiated endometrioid estrogen-dependent tumors. Cancer survival rates have improved over the last decades so strategies to avoid or reduce the reproductive damage caused by oncologic treatment are needed. We reviewed the published literature to find evidence to answer the following questions: How should we manage women in reproductive age with endometrial cancer? How safe is fertility preservation in endometrial cancer? Can pregnancy influence endometrial cancer recurrence? What are the fertility sparing options available? Progestins may be prescribed after careful evaluation and counseling. Suitable patients should be selected using imaging methods and endometrial sampling since surgical staging will not be performed. Conservative treatment should only be offered to patients with grade 1 well-differentiated tumors, absence of lymph vascular space invasion, no evidence of myometrial invasion, metastatic disease or suspicious adnexal masses, and expression of progesterone receptors in the endometrium. The presence of co-existing ovarian metastatic of synchronous cancer should be investigated and ruled out before the decision to preserve the ovaries. The availability of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) has made it possible for women with endometrial cancer to give birth to a child without compromising their prognoses. Gamete, embryo or ovarian tissue cryopreservation techniques can be employed, although the latter remains experimental. Unfortunately, fertility preservation is rarely considered. Current recommendations for conservative management are based on the overall favorable prognosis of grade 1 minimally invasive tumors. Selected patients with endometrial cancer may be candidates to a safe fertility-preserving management.
- Three-Dimensional High-Frequency Ultrasonography for Early Detection and Characterization of Embryo Implantation Site Development in the Mouse. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2017; 12(1):e0169312
- Ultrasonography is a powerful tool to non-invasively monitor in real time the development of the human fetus in utero. Although genetically engineered mice have served as valuable in vivo models to s...
Ultrasonography is a powerful tool to non-invasively monitor in real time the development of the human fetus in utero. Although genetically engineered mice have served as valuable in vivo models to study both embryo implantation and pregnancy progression, such studies usually require sacrifice of parous mice for subsequent phenotypic analysis. To address this issue, we used three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction in silico of high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) imaging data for early detection and characterization of murine embryo implantation sites and their development in utero. With HFUS imaging followed by 3-D reconstruction, we were able to precisely quantify embryo implantation site number and embryonic developmental progression in pregnant C57BL6J/129S mice from as early as 5.5 days post coitus (d.p.c.) through to 9.5 d.p.c. using a VisualSonics Vevo 2100 (MS550S) transducer. In addition to measurements of implantation site number, location, volume and spacing, embryo viability via cardiac activity monitoring was also achieved. A total of 12 dams were imaged with HFUS with approximately 100 embryos examined per embryonic day. For the post-implantation period (5.5 to 8.5 d.p.c.), 3-D reconstruction of the gravid uterus in mesh or solid overlay format enabled visual representation in silico of implantation site location, number, spacing distances, and site volume within each uterine horn. Therefore, this short technical report describes the feasibility of using 3-D HFUS imaging for early detection and analysis of post-implantation events in the pregnant mouse with the ability to longitudinally monitor the development of these early pregnancy events in a non-invasive manner. As genetically engineered mice continue to be used to characterize female reproductive phenotypes, we believe this reliable and non-invasive method to detect, quantify, and characterize early implantation events will prove to be an invaluable investigative tool for the study of female infertility and subfertility phenotypes based on a defective uterus.
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- Oxidative Stress Statues in Serum and Follicular Fluid of Women with Endometriosis. [Journal Article]
- CJCell J 2017; 18(4):582-587
- CONCLUSIONS: It has observed that FF of women with endometriosis, regardless of disease stage, increases the proliferation power of endometrial cells in vitro, we presume that inflammatory reactions-induced OS in ovary may be responsible for proliferation induction ability in FF obtained from women with endometriosis.