- A lack of coordination between sister-chromatids segregation and cytokinesis in the oocytes of B6.Y(TIR) (XY) sex-reversed female mice. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2017 Apr 19; 7(1):960
- The B6.Y(TIR) (XY) mouse develops bilateral ovaries despite the expression of the testis-determining gene Sry during gonadal differentiation. We reported that the oocytes of the XY female are defecti...
The B6.Y(TIR) (XY) mouse develops bilateral ovaries despite the expression of the testis-determining gene Sry during gonadal differentiation. We reported that the oocytes of the XY female are defective in their cytoplasm, resulting in a failure in the second meiotic division after activation or fertilization in vitro. However, the mechanism of meiotic failure or the cause of infertility remained to be clarified. In the present study, we obtained mature oocytes from XY females by superovulation and confirmed that these oocytes also fail in zygotic development. By using confocal microscopy 3D-analysis, we demonstrated that meiotic spindles were properly positioned and oriented in the MII-oocytes from XY females. After parthenogenic activation, fewer oocytes from XY females extruded the second polar body, and in those oocytes, sister-chromatids were often separated but neither set entered the second polar body. ARP2, F-actin, and ORC4, known to play roles in asymmetric meiotic division, were initially localized along the ooplasmic membrane and concentrated over the MII-spindle but lost their cortical polarity after activation while the sister-chromatids moved away from the oolemma in the oocytes from XY females. Our results indicate that the second polar body extrusion is uncoupled from the sister-chromatids separation in the oocytes from XY female mouse.
- Subcutaneous Injection of Testosterone is an Effective and Preferred Alternative to Intramuscular Injection: Demonstration in Female-to-Male Transgender Patients. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Apr 03
- CONCLUSIONS: Our observations indicate that SC T injections are an effective, safe and well-accepted alternative to IM T injections.
- New and Old Genes Associated with Topotecan Resistance Development in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines. [Journal Article]
- ARAnticancer Res 2017; 37(4):1625-1636
- CONCLUSIONS: Expression of ABCG2 and ABCB1 genes plays the most important role in topotecan resistance. The role of other investigated genes seems to be complementary.
- A Review on Various Uses of N-Acetyl Cysteine. [Review]
- CJCell J 2017 Apr-Jun; 19(1):11-17
- N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), as a nutritional supplement, is a greatly applied antioxidant in vivo and in vitro. NAC is a precursor of L-cysteine that results in glutathione elevation biosynthesis. It ac...
N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), as a nutritional supplement, is a greatly applied antioxidant in vivo and in vitro. NAC is a precursor of L-cysteine that results in glutathione elevation biosynthesis. It acts directly as a scavenger of free radicals, especially oxygen radicals. NAC is a powerful antioxidant. It is also recommended as a potential treatment option for different disorders resulted from generation of free oxygen radicals. Additionally, it is a protected and endured mucolytic drug that mellows tenacious mucous discharges. It has been used for treatment of various diseases in a direct action or in a combination with some other medications. This paper presents a review on various applications of NAC in treatment of several diseases.
- Identification of Reproductive Education Needs of Infertile Clients Undergoing Assisted Reproduction Treatment Using Assessments of Their Knowledge and Attitude. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Fertil Steril 2017 Apr-Jun; 11(1):20-27
- CONCLUSIONS: Most participants in this study expressed awareness of factors that affect pregnancy and infertility treatment. It is imperative to educate and empower infertile individuals who seek reproduction treatment in terms of infertility causes and types of treatment, as well as diagnostic and laboratory procedures to enable them to make informed decisions about their assisted reproductive procedures.
- Introduction: Obesity and reproduction. [Journal Article]
- FSFertil Steril 2017; 107(4):831-832
- Women bear the predominant burden of our obesogenic environment, with a higher incidence of obesity than men, more impact on their fertility and success with treatment, and significant maternal and p...
Women bear the predominant burden of our obesogenic environment, with a higher incidence of obesity than men, more impact on their fertility and success with treatment, and significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. In this series, the causes, consequences, and solutions regarding the obesity pandemic, the mechanisms of the effect of obesity on the female and male, the epigenetic consequences of male obesity, the marked effects on perinatal outcomes, and the effects of weight loss before conception and during pregnancy are explored. Lifestyle modifications, in particular a healthy diet and exercise during the 3-6 months before conception and during treatment, should result in better outcomes than requiring weight loss before fertility treatments. Such fundamental changes toward a healthier lifestyle will achieve steady and sustainable weight loss and long-term benefits for general health. The role of bariatric surgery before pregnancy requires careful consideration.
- Testosterone in Women: Measurement and Therapeutic Use. [Review]
- JOJ Obstet Gynaecol Can 2017; 39(3):124-130
- Androgens, both in excessive and depleted states, have been implicated in female reproductive health disorders. As such, serum testosterone measurements are frequently ordered by physicians in cases ...
Androgens, both in excessive and depleted states, have been implicated in female reproductive health disorders. As such, serum testosterone measurements are frequently ordered by physicians in cases of sexual dysfunction and in women presenting with hirsutism. Commercially available androgen assays have significant limitations in the female population. Furthermore, the measurements themselves are not always informative in patient diagnosis, treatment, or prognosis. This article reviews the limitations of serum androgen measurements in women suspected to have elevated or reduced androgen action. Finally, we consider when therapeutic use of androgen replacement may be appropriate for women with sexual interest/arousal disorders.
- Metformin Ameliorates Uterine Defects in a Rat Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. [Journal Article]
- EEBioMedicine 2017 Mar 18
- Adult rats treated concomitantly with insulin and human chorionic gonadotropin exhibit endocrine, metabolic, and reproductive abnormalities that are very similar to those observed in polycystic ovary...
Adult rats treated concomitantly with insulin and human chorionic gonadotropin exhibit endocrine, metabolic, and reproductive abnormalities that are very similar to those observed in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. In this study, we used this rat model to assess the effects of metformin on PCOS-related uterine dysfunction. In addition to reducing androgen levels, improving insulin sensitivity, and correcting the reproductive cycle, metformin treatment induced morphological changes in the PCOS-like uterus. At the molecular and cellular levels, metformin normalized the androgen receptor-mediated transcriptional program and restored epithelial-stromal interactions. In contrast to glucose transport, uterine inflammatory gene expression was suppressed through the PI3K-Akt-NFκB network, but without affecting apoptosis. These effects appeared to be independent of AMPK subunit and autophagy-related protein regulation. We found that when metformin treatment partially restored implantation, several implantation-related genes were normalized in the PCOS-like rat uterus. These results improve our understanding of how metformin rescues the disruption of the implantation process due to the uterine defects that result from hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. Our data provide insights into the molecular and functional clues that might help explain, at least in part, the potential therapeutic options of metformin in PCOS patients with uterine dysfunction.
- The Wilms tumor protein Wt1 contributes to female fertility by regulating oviductal proteostasis. [Journal Article]
- HMHum Mol Genet 2017 Mar 01
- Although the zinc finger transcription factor Wt1 has been linked to female fertility, its precise role in this process has not yet been understood. We have sequenced the WT1 exons in a panel of pati...
Although the zinc finger transcription factor Wt1 has been linked to female fertility, its precise role in this process has not yet been understood. We have sequenced the WT1 exons in a panel of patients with idiopathic infertility and have identified a missense mutation in WT1 in one patient out of eight. This mutation leads to an amino acid change within the zinc finger domain and results in reduced DNA binding. We utilized Wt1+/- mice as a model to mechanistically pinpoint the consequences of reduced Wt1 levels for female fertility. Our results indicate that subfertility in Wt1+/- female mice is a maternal effect caused by the Wt1-dependent de-regulation of Prss29, encoding a serine protease. Notably, blocking Prss29 activity was sufficient to rescue subfertility in Wt1+/- mice indicating Prss29 as a critical factor in female fertility. Molecularly, Wt1 represses expression of Prss29. De-repression and precocious expression of Prss29 in the oviduct of Wt1+/- mice interferes with pre-implantation development. Our study reveals a novel role for Wt1 in early mammalian development and identifies proteases as critical mediators of the maternal-embryonic interaction. Our data also suggest that the role of Wt1 in regulating fertility is conserved in mammals.
New Search Next
- Gestational Protein Restriction Impairs Glucose Disposal in the Gastrocnemius Muscles of Female Rats. [Journal Article]
- EEndocrinology 2017 Apr 01; 158(4):756-767
- Gestational low-protein (LP) diet causes hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in adult offspring, but the mechanism is not clearly understood. In this study, we explored the role of insulin signaling...
Gestational low-protein (LP) diet causes hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in adult offspring, but the mechanism is not clearly understood. In this study, we explored the role of insulin signaling in gastrocnemius muscles of gestational LP-exposed female offspring. Pregnant rats were fed a control (20% protein) or an isocaloric LP (6%) diet from gestational day 4 until delivery. Normal diet was given to mothers after delivery and to pups after weaning until necropsy. Offspring were euthanized at 4 months, and gastrocnemius muscles were treated with insulin ex vivo for 30 minutes. Messenger RNA and protein levels of molecules involved in insulin signaling were assessed at 4 months. LP females were smaller at birth but showed rapid catchup growth by 4 weeks. Glucose tolerance test in LP offspring at 3 months showed elevated serum glucose levels (P < 0.01; glycemia Δ area under the curve 342 ± 28 in LP vs 155 ± 23 in controls, mmol/L * 120 minutes) without any change in insulin levels. In gastrocnemius muscles, LP rats showed reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 upon insulin stimulation due to the overexpression of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, but serine phosphorylation was unaffected. Furthermore, insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3α, and GSK-3β was diminished in LP rats, and they displayed an increased basal phosphorylation (inactive form) of glycogen synthase. Our study shows that gestational protein restriction causes peripheral insulin resistance by a series of phosphorylation defects in skeletal muscle in a mechanism involving insulin receptor substrate 1, SHP-2, Akt, GSK-3, and glycogen synthase causing dysfunctional GSK-3 signaling and increased stored glycogen, leading to distorted glucose homeostasis.