- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Loeffler endocarditis is restrictive cardiomyopathy, defined as an impaired relaxation of the heart with impaired diastolic filling. Diffuse eosinophil infiltration of the heart causes it First de...
Loeffler endocarditis is restrictive cardiomyopathy, defined as an impaired relaxation of the heart with impaired diastolic filling. Diffuse eosinophil infiltration of the heart causes it First described by the W Loeffler in 1936. The condition is associated with peripheral eosinophilia which lasts for 6 months. It is one of the rare complications of Hyper-eosinophilic syndrome, which is the eosinophilic infiltration of the tissues with no obvious etiology. Eosinophilic endomyocardial disease or fibroblastic endocarditis can be used interchangeably for Loeffler endocarditis. The patient may present with an intracardiac thrombus, arrhythmias, and/or acute heart failure which can be life-threatening, if not treated early.
- Antiasthmatic potential of Zizyphus jujuba Mill and Jujuboside B. - Possible role in the treatment of asthma. [Journal Article]
- RPRespir Physiol Neurobiol 2018 Dec 03
- Zizyphus jujuba Mill, a famous oriental traditional medicine, has been reported to exhibit diverse activities in biological systems including the respiratory system. However, a little information is ...
Zizyphus jujuba Mill, a famous oriental traditional medicine, has been reported to exhibit diverse activities in biological systems including the respiratory system. However, a little information is available on its antiasthmatic activity. Jujuboside B (JB) is a natural saponin and one of the active constituent of fruits of Zizyphus jujuba. In the present investigation, JB was isolated from ethanolic extracts of fruits of Zizyphus jujuba (EZJF). EZJF and JB were then evaluated for anti-asthmatic activity using various screening methods. JB was additionally evaluated using ovalbumin (OVA) -induced allergic asthma in mice. Results obtained in the present study showed that EZJF and JB significantly inhibited clonidine-induced catalepsy, milk-induced leucocytosis and eosinophilia, clonidine-induced mast cell degranulation, and passive paw anaphylaxis. The number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was considerably lowered and the severity of pulmonary inflammation was alleviated in the mice pretreated with JB. The high-level expression of T-helper type 2 (TH2) cytokines was markedly reduced in the serum, BAL fluid, and lung homogenates. Thus EZJF and JB showed potent anti-asthmatic activity. Hence EZJF and JB possess a potential role in the treatment of asthma.
- Novel roles for nasal epithelium in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. [Journal Article]
- RRhinology 2018 Dec 01
- CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest new roles for nasal epithelium in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP.
- Hypereosinophilic syndrome: approach to treatment in the era of precision medicine. [Review]
- HAHematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2018 Nov 30; 2018(1):326-331
- Hypereosinophilic syndromes (HESs) are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders characterized by peripheral eosinophilia and eosinophilic end organ complications. Conventional therapies, including glu...
Hypereosinophilic syndromes (HESs) are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders characterized by peripheral eosinophilia and eosinophilic end organ complications. Conventional therapies, including glucocorticoids and cytotoxic and immunomodulatory agents, have variable efficacy and significant toxicity. Although the recent development of agents that target eosinophils, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, provides the possibility of more effective, less toxic approaches to treatment of HES, there are little available data to guide their use in these conditions. In the following review, the controversies regarding the definition and classification of HES will be discussed, and a pragmatic approach to treatment based on clinically defined HES variants will be presented. An illustrative case will be used to highlight the complexities of treatment selection in HES patients.
- Duodenal and rectal eosinophilia are new biomarkers of non-celiac gluten sensitivity. [Editorial]
- CGClin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Nov 28
- Transient receptor potential ion channels mediate adherens junctions dysfunction in a toluene diisocyanate-induced murine asthma model. [Journal Article]
- TSToxicol Sci 2018 Dec 04
- Disruption of epithelial cell-cell junctions is essential for the initiation and perpetuation of airway inflammation in asthma. We've previously reported compromised epithelial barrier integrity in a...
Disruption of epithelial cell-cell junctions is essential for the initiation and perpetuation of airway inflammation in asthma. We've previously reported compromised epithelial barrier integrity in a toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-induced occupational asthma model. This study is aimed to explore the role of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) in the dysfunction of adherens junctions in TDI-induced asthma. Mice were sensitized and challenged with TDI for a chemical-induced asthma model. Selective blockers of TRPV4 (GSK2193874, 5 and 10 mg/kg) and TRPA1 (HC030031, 10 and 20 mg/kg) were intraperitoneally given to the mice. Immunohistochemistry revealed different expression pattern of TRPV4 and TRPA1 in lung. TDI exposure increased TRPV4 expression in the airway, which can be suppressed by GSK2193874, while treatment with neither TDI alone nor TDI together with HC030031 led to changes of TRPA1 expression in the lung. Blocking either TRPV4 or TRPA1 blunted TDI-induced airway hyperreactivity, airway neutrophilia and eosinophilia, as well as Th2 responses in a dose-dependent manner. At the same time, membrane levels of E-cadherin and β-catenin were significantly decreased after TDI inhalation, which were inhibited by GSK2193874 or HC030031. Moreover, GSK2193874 and HC030031 also suppressed serine phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β, tyrosine phosphorylation of β-catenin, as well as activation and nuclear transport of β-catenin in mice sensitized and challenged with TDI. Our study suggested that both TRPV4 and TRPA1 contribute critically to E-cadherin and β-catenin dysfunction in TDI-induced asthma, proposing novel therapeutic targets for asthma.
- Drug-induced liver injury with skin reactions: Drugs and host risk factors, clinical phenotypes and prognosis. [Review]
- LILiver Int 2018 Dec 04
- While dermatologic manifestations of adverse drug reactions are frequent, drug-induced liver injury is rare. Numerous drugs are implicated in either Drug-Induced Liver Injury or Drug-Induced Skin Inj...
While dermatologic manifestations of adverse drug reactions are frequent, drug-induced liver injury is rare. Numerous drugs are implicated in either Drug-Induced Liver Injury or Drug-Induced Skin Injury. However, concomitant Drug-Induced Liver Injury and Drug-Induced Skin Injury are uncommon, not well characterized and appear to be caused by a limited number of drugs. These are often associated with immuno-allergic or hypersensitivity features such as fever, skin rash, blisters or peeling of skin, eosinophilia, lymphadenopathy and mucositis. Liver injury can range from asymptomatic elevation of liver biochemical tests to severe hepatitis and acute liver failure needing liver transplantation. Severe cutaneous adverse reaction, particularly drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms is commonly associated with internal organ involvement, the liver being the most frequently involved in approximately 90% of the cases. In Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis, abnormalities in liver biochemistry tests are common but severe liver disease is rare. There is a strong association of Human Leukocyte Antigen genotype with both drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis. It is likely that the delayed immune-mediated reaction triggering skin reaction is also responsible for hepatitis. Drug-specific lymphocytes are found in the organs involved and also in circulating blood, which along with the cytokines and chemokines play a role in pathogenesis. Anti-epileptic drugs, allopurinol, sulfonamides, antibiotics and nevirapine are the top five causes of concomitant liver and skin injury. This review will focus on drug and host factors causing concomitant Drug-Induced Skin Injury and Drug-Induced Liver Injury and discuss the characteristics of liver involvement in patients with severe cutaneous adverse reaction.
- Eosinophilic asthma, according to a blood eosinophil criterion, is associated with disease severity and lack of control among underprivileged urban Brazilians. [Journal Article]
- RMRespir Med 2018; 145:95-100
- CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the blood eosinophilia is a biomarker associated with asthma severity and poor symptom control, but we found no association with reduced lung function.
- Asthma features in severe COPD: Identifying treatable traits. [Journal Article]
- RMRespir Med 2018; 145:89-94
- CONCLUSIONS: We detected asthma features in a substantial subset of stable patients with severe COPD. Asthma features were associated with more severe exacerbation despite optimal COPD therapy, representing potential candidates for targeted therapy with anti- IgE or anti-IL5.
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- How I investigate Eosinophilia. [Review]
- IJInt J Lab Hematol 2018 Nov 30
- Eosinophilia is typically secondary, that is, reactive, in nature and is associated with a wide variety of neoplastic and non-neoplastic disorders. Clonal eosinophilia is also seen in a wide variety ...
Eosinophilia is typically secondary, that is, reactive, in nature and is associated with a wide variety of neoplastic and non-neoplastic disorders. Clonal eosinophilia is also seen in a wide variety of hematopoietic neoplasms, and sub-classification can be diagnostically challenging. A proper evaluation of persistent eosinophilia involves correlation of clinical history, laboratory data, cellular morphology, and ancillary testing. Knowledge of appropriate ancillary testing is necessary for a timely diagnosis. We present a review of the literature regarding eosinophilia, including the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) update of WHO-defined eosinophilic disorders. We also present a review of eosinophilia in a case-based format including guidelines for evaluation of both routine and challenging cases. The purpose of this guideline is not to provide an in-depth discussion of each diagnosis, but rather a practical method that all pathologists can utilize to investigate eosinophilia.