- Correlation between upper and lower airway inflammations in patients with combined allergic rhinitis and asthma syndrome: A comparison of patients initially presenting with allergic rhinitis and those initially presenting with asthma. [Journal Article]
- ETExp Ther Med 2018; 15(2):1761-1767
- Allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma often coexist. The terminology combined allergic rhinitis and asthma syndrome (CARAS) was introduced to describe patients with combined AR and asthma. The aim of the...
Allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma often coexist. The terminology combined allergic rhinitis and asthma syndrome (CARAS) was introduced to describe patients with combined AR and asthma. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between eosinophilic inflammation in the upper and lower airways of patients with CARAS. Stable patients with CARAS initially presenting with AR or asthma were recruited. Healthy subjects and patients with AR alone were recruited as controls. Clinical characteristics, including disease history, lung function, nasal airway inspiratory resistance and upper and lower airway eosinophilic inflammation were evaluated and compared. A total of 73 subjects (22 patients with CARAS initially presenting with AR, 15 patients with CARAS initially presenting with asthma, 25 patients with AR alone and 11 healthy subjects) were studied. The nasal symptoms visual analogue scale scores at the week prior to enrollment and nasal airway inspiratory resistances were comparable among the groups. The percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and percentage of predicted maximal middle expiratory flow in patients with CARAS initially presenting with asthma were significantly lower compared with the other three groups (P<0.05). No significant different in the percentage of eosinophils in the nasal lavage was observed between patients with CARAS and those with AR only; however, it was significantly increased compared with healthy subjects (P<0.05). The fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide and percentage of eosinophils in the sputum were significantly increased in patients with CARAS compared with those in the AR only and healthy subject groups (P<0.05). The difference in the percentage of eosinophils in the nasal lavage and sputum between patients with CARAS initially presenting with AR and initially presenting with asthma was not significant; however, a positive correlation between the percentage of eosinophils in the upper and lower airways was present in patients with CARAS initially presenting with AR only (r=0.526, P=0.030).
- Non-astmatic Eosinophilic Bronchitis. [Review]
- TTTurk Thorac J 2018; 19(1):41-45
- Non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (NAEB) is eosinophilic inflammation of the respiratory tract, without any bronchospasm. In this article, we want to draw attention to the NAEB. It should also be...
Non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (NAEB) is eosinophilic inflammation of the respiratory tract, without any bronchospasm. In this article, we want to draw attention to the NAEB. It should also be considered in differential diagnosis of chronic cough. Eosinophilia is present in all induced or spontaneous sputum samples of NAEB patients. NAEB patients and asthmatic patients have similar airway inflammation. Remarkably, NAEB mainly occurs in the lower airways. Unlike asthma, mast cells in NAEB are active in the bronchial epithelium. Diagnosis is based on the clinical, radiological, and spirometric measurements of other causes of chronic cough (Post-nasal discharge syndrome, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux etc.) and the assessment of inflammation in the lower respiratory tract. Airway inflammation can be assessed by sputum induction. The main treatment is anti-inflammatory therapy with inhaled corticosteroids and taking protective measures if inflammation is due to occupational exposure or allergen inhalation. If NAEB is untreated, it may be transient, episodic, or persistent; rarely, long-term oral steroid treatment may be required in patients. There is a requirement for studies that investigate the role of non-invasive markers of chronic inflammation associated with NAEB and the effectiveness of other treatments.
- Clinical and Serological Features of Eosinophilic and Vasculitic Phases of Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Poliangiitis: a Case Series of 15 Patients. [Journal Article]
- TTTurk Thorac J 2017; 18(3):72-77
- CONCLUSIONS: Patients with eosinophilic phase or vasculitic phase EGPA had similar clinical onset. However, higher ESR, ANCA positivity, and extrapulmonary organ involvement were only found in patients in the vasculitic phase. Corticosteroid responsiveness was very good in all patients in the eosinophilic phase, and the disease could be controlled with a very low maintenance dose of a corticosteroid.
- Chronic Pancreatitis Associated Acute Respiratory Failure. [Journal Article]
- MIMOJ Immunol 2017; 5(2)
- Pancreatitis is a condition characterized by parenchymal inflammation of the pancreas, which is often associated with lung injury due to low level of oxygen and the condition is termed as acute pancr...
Pancreatitis is a condition characterized by parenchymal inflammation of the pancreas, which is often associated with lung injury due to low level of oxygen and the condition is termed as acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury (APALI). Clinical reports indicated that ~ 20% to 50% of patients from low oxygen levels in blood with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ARDS is a severe form of acute lung injury (ALI), a pulmonary disease with impaired airflow making patients difficult to breathe. ALI is frequently observed in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Approximately one third of severe pancreatitis patients develop acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome that account for 60% of all deaths within the first week. The major causes of ALI and ARDS are sepsis, trauma, aspiration, multiple blood transfusion, and most importantly acute pancreatitis. The molecular mechanisms of ALI and ARDS are still not well explored, but available reports indicate the involvement of several pro-inflammatory mediators including cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) and chemokines [like interleukin-8 (IL-8) and macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF)], as well as macrophage polarization regulating the migration and pulmonary infiltration of neutrophils into the pulmonary interstitial tissue, causing injury to the pulmonary parenchyma. Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome in acute pancreatitis remains an unsolved issue and needs more research and resources to develop effective treatments and therapies. However, recent efforts have tested several molecules in an experimental model and showed promising results as a treatment option. The current review summarized the mechanism that is operational in pancreatitis-associated acute respiratory failure and respiratory distress syndrome in patients and current treatment options.
- Drug-induced eosinophilic pneumonia: A review of 196 case reports. [Review]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(4):e9688
- CONCLUSIONS: AEP is a much more fulminant and severe disease than the gradual onset and slowly progressive nature of CEP. The pathogenesis of AEP and CEP remains unclear. However, there is significant clinical overlap among AEP and CEP that are associated with drug toxicity, suggesting the possibility that AEP and CEP are distinct clinical presentations that share a common pathogenic pathway.
- CHARACTERISTICS OF ARTICULAR SYNDROME IN SYSTEMIC VASCULITIS. [Journal Article]
- GMGeorgian Med News 2017; (273):69-75
- The purpose of the study - investigation the separate joint lesion in systemic vasculitis, their X-ray sonographic characteristics, the correlation of the articular syndrome severity with extra-artic...
The purpose of the study - investigation the separate joint lesion in systemic vasculitis, their X-ray sonographic characteristics, the correlation of the articular syndrome severity with extra-articular manifestations of the diseases, as well as aspects of the arthritis pathogenesis in this category of patients. The study included 525 patients in the ratio of the examined with Henoch-Schonlen purpura, microscopic polyangiitis, cryoglobulinemic vasculitis, polyarteritis nodosa, Takayasu's arteritis, Wegener's granulomatosis with polyangiitis and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis Churg-Strauss as a 7:4:3:1:1:1:1. Joint's damage in the form of arthritis or arthralgia observed in 32-67% different groups of patients, that depending on the disease duration, the degree of the pathological process's activity, extraarticular signs severity, lung parenchyma involving and hemodynamic status in the pulmonary circulation. The frequency of the certain bone lesions, existence of tenosynovitis and enthesopathies, X-ray sonographic signs of articular syndrome in different kind of vasculitis has its own gender dimorphism. The immune system malfunction, the rheological properties of blood and endothelial function of vessels collaborate in pathogenetic constructions of arthropathy. What is more, the high value of rheumatoid factor in blood associates with severe course of joint damage. Joint syndrome at different variants of systemic vasculitis is progressing in 1/3-2/3 of cases, this syndrome has definite features of clinical course and pathogenesis.
- House dust mite allergen causes certain features of steroid resistant asthma in high fat fed obese mice. [Journal Article]
- IIInt Immunopharmacol 2017 Dec 04; 55:20-27
- Obesity is a high risk factor for diseases such as cardiovascular, metabolic syndrome and asthma. Obese-asthma is another emerging phenotype in asthma which is typically refractive to steroid treatme...
Obesity is a high risk factor for diseases such as cardiovascular, metabolic syndrome and asthma. Obese-asthma is another emerging phenotype in asthma which is typically refractive to steroid treatment due to its non-classical features such as non-eosinophilic cellular inflammation. The overall increased morbidity, mortality and economical burden in asthma is mainly due to steroid resistant asthma. In the present study, we used high fat diet induced obese mice which when sensitized with house dust mite (HDM) showed steroid resistant features. While the steroid, dexamethasone (DEX), treatment to high fat fed naïve mice could not reduce the airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) induced by high fat, DEX treatment to high fat fed allergic mice could not reduce the HDM allergen induced airway remodeling features though it reduced airway inflammation. Further, these HDM induced high fat fed mice with or without DEX treatment had shown the increased activity and expression of arginase as well as the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. However, DEX treatment had reduced the expressions of high iNOS and arginase I in control chow diet fed mice. Thus, we speculate that the steroid resistance seen in human obese asthmatics could be stemming from altered NO metabolism and its induced airway remodeling and with further investigations, it would encourage new treatments specific to obese-asthma phenotype.
- Recurrent Malignancy-Associated Atypical Neutrophilic Dermatosis With Noninfectious Shock. [Case Reports]
- AJAm J Med Sci 2017; 354(6):626-632
- Sweet syndrome (SS) or acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis presents with the sudden onset of fever, leukocytosis and tender, erythematous, edematous, well-demarcated papules and plaques that histop...
Sweet syndrome (SS) or acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis presents with the sudden onset of fever, leukocytosis and tender, erythematous, edematous, well-demarcated papules and plaques that histopathologically demonstrate a dense neutrophilic infiltrate. A total of 20% of patients with SS have malignancy-associated disease that can present with bullous or atypical skin lesions that mimic pyoderma gangrenosum, another neutrophilic dermatosis. Both entities exist on a spectrum, and in the context of underlying malignancy, these neutrophilic diseases become less clinically distinct. The literature also describes life-threatening cases of neutrophilic dermatoses that mimic severe sepsis. We present a fatal case of a patient with chronic eosinophilic leukemia with recurrent episodes of malignancy-associated atypical neutrophilic dermatosis characterized by necrotic skin lesions, pulmonary infiltrates and noninfectious shock and we also summarize the clinical presentations of an additional 10 patients reported in the literature. We conducted a PubMed search of articles published up to and in 2015, focusing on the English and Spanish literature with SS cross-referenced with the following search terms: neutrophilic dermatosis, pyoderma gangrenosum, shock, multiorgan failure and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The articles were reviewed and the patients׳ clinical and laboratory findings were summarized. Cases of atypical neutrophilic dermatosis presenting with noninfectious shock syndrome are likely underrecognized clinically and underreported in the literature. Patients with malignancy-associated atypical neutrophilic dermatoses associated with noninfectious shock syndrome typically have multisystem disease characterized by recurrent episodes and typically have poor prognoses.
- Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia: Causes, Diagnosis and Management. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Dec 05
- Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is an uncommon acute respiratory illness of varying severity that includes presentation as acute respiratory distress syndrome with fatal outcome. Acute eosinophilic pneu...
Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is an uncommon acute respiratory illness of varying severity that includes presentation as acute respiratory distress syndrome with fatal outcome. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia may be idiopathic but identifiable causes include smoking and other inhalational exposures, medications and infections. The pathogenesis of acute eosinophilic pneumonia is poorly understood but likely varies depending on the underlying cause. Airway epithelial injury, endothelial injury and release of interleukin-33 are early events that subsequently promote eosinophil recruitment to the lung; eosinophilic infiltration and degranulation appear to mediate subsequent lung inflammation and associated clinical manifestations. Crucial for the diagnosis are the demonstration of pulmonary eosinophilia in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the exclusion of other disease processes that can present with acute pulmonary infiltrates. Although peripheral blood eosinophilia at initial presentation may be a clue in suggesting the diagnosis of acute eosinophilic pneumonia, it may be absent or delayed, especially in smoking-related acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Optimal management of acute eosinophilic pneumonia depends on the recognition and elimination of the underlying cause when identifiable. The cessation of the exposure to the inciting agent, e.g., smoking, and glucocorticoids represent the mainstay of treating acute eosinophilic pneumonia of non-infectious origin. If acute eosinophilic pneumonia is timely recognized and treated, the prognosis is generally excellent with prompt and complete clinical recovery, even in those patients manifesting acute respiratory failure.
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- Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis without respiratory symptoms or asthma in an adolescent: case report and literature review. [Review]
- RIRheumatol Int 2017 Nov 30
- Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), also known as Churg-Strauss syndrome, is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis of the small and medium vessels. It is primarily associated with respi...
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), also known as Churg-Strauss syndrome, is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis of the small and medium vessels. It is primarily associated with respiratory conditions such as asthma and sinusitis as well as eosinophilia, neuropathy, pulmonary infiltrates, and vasculitis. EGPA is extremely rare in the pediatric age group, and respiratory system disorders are usually predominant in EGPA patients. A 14-year-old boy presented with rash and severe extremity pain. He had eosinophilia, and electroneuromyography demonstrated sensorimotor polyneuropathy. His skin biopsy revealed necrotizing eosinophilic vasculitis and eosinophilic panniculitis. Although he had no respiratory symptoms or history of asthma, prominent pulmonary involvement was evident on thoracic MRI. After treatment, his complaints of pain improved but mild neuropathy persisted. After 4 years of follow-up, he had minimal hypoesthesia in his right hand but had not experienced any relapses. This case highlights the fact that in cases suspected of EGPA, even without respiratory symptoms or asthma, detailed imaging should be performed for a definitive diagnosis. In addition, mild neurological findings may persist despite treatment in EGPA. The relevant literature on EGPA, with specific reference to pediatric cases, is reviewed.