- Short view on origins of paediatric health care in Prague. [Historical Article]
- CLCas Lek Cesk Summer 2018; 157(3):113-116
- The first charity for protection of orphans in Prague was opened in the 16th century by Italian living in Prague. The first outpatient department for sick children in Prague was opened by Johann Meli…
The first charity for protection of orphans in Prague was opened in the 16th century by Italian living in Prague. The first outpatient department for sick children in Prague was opened by Johann Melitsch in 1790 in the Saint Lazare hospital in Charles Square. In the same hospital, the first paediatric department with 9 beds was opened by Eduard Kratzman in 1842. Relatively low mortality of hospitalized children that time must be explained. Sick infants were not admitted to hospitals but sent to the orphan institutes with mainly social care, therefore in middle of the 19th century the infant mortality in these establishments was extremely high, during some years nearly 100 %. The first hospital for children in Prague was built by Josef Löschner in Charles Square in 1853, where a number of distinguished paediatricians worked including Gottfried Ritter von Rittershain, who described dermatitis exfoliativa Ritter, Alois Epstein, who described Epsteins pearls by newborns, Adalbert Czerny, who studied glycogen and later became a head of Paediatric clinic in Berlin, Leopold Moll, who was an initiator of the care for mother and child and later became a head of Paediatric clinic in Vienna, Dusan Lambl, who described flagellate (nowadays Giardia lamblia) in the stool of children with diarrhoe, and Bohdan Neureutter, who after the splitting of the Charles-Ferdinand-University on the in German speaking and Czech speaking parts opened the Czech paediatric hospital at the corner of streets Benatska and Vinicna. Due to increasing requirement of paediatric beds in Prague, simultaneous constructions of two paediatric centres were started in Prague. The first, areal with four buildings for German paediatric clinic was opened in 1901, which still serve as the second largest paediatric department in Prague, of course with much lower number of beds than 100 years ago. The second one, the Czech paediatric Frantz Josef I. hospital was opened in 1902, but due to construction of the bridge across the Nusle valley was demolished in 1970 and it´s clinics were transferred to the hospital in Motol. Keywords: history of paediatric health care.
- StatPearls: Epstein Pearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Some transient benign oral mucosal conditions are often observed in newborns. These lesions exhibit a wide range of developmental abnormalities and morphologic variations. The identification and diff…
Some transient benign oral mucosal conditions are often observed in newborns. These lesions exhibit a wide range of developmental abnormalities and morphologic variations. The identification and differentiation of the lesions remain crucial to guide clinicians in prioritizing the management of these problems as well as in the education to anxious parents. In 1880, a Prague pediatrician Alois Epstein first described Epstein disease as the presence of small nodules in the oral cavity of newborns. Multiple investigators reported a high rate of occurrence of palatal mucosal cysts in fetuses and infants. However, it was not until 1967 when Alfred Fromm studied and classified them according to their location and composition as Epstein pearls, Bohn nodules, and dental lamina cysts based on his comprehensive study of 1367 newborn infants. This was one of the first and largest studies done on oral cysts. Fromm concluded that these lesions were commonly found among infants and there were distinct types based on their histology and clinical presentation. Some authors use these terms interchangeably. Epstein pearls have been labeled as epithelial debris of the tooth follicle, gingival glands of Serres, and as abortive enamel organs on the Palatine area. On the other hand, Bohn’s nodules are those found along the buccal and lingual aspects of the dental ridges. Dental lamina cysts are usually found on the crest of the alveolar mucosa. Currently, Palatal cysts of the newborn are the preferred term instead of Epstein’s pearls, Bohn’s nodules, or gingival cysts.
- A cross-sectional prospective study of cutaneous lesions in newborn. [Journal Article]
- IDISRN Dermatol 2014; 2014:360590
- CONCLUSIONS: The physiological and transient skin lesions are common in newborns particularly sebaceous gland hyperplasia, Epstein pearls, Mongolian spots, and erythema toxicum neonatorum. It is important to differentiate them from other more serious skin conditions to avoid unnecessary therapeutic interventions.
- Dental lamina cysts in a newborn infant. [Case Reports]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2012 Oct 09; 2012
- Cystic lesions of transient nature viz. Epstein pearls, Bohn's nodules and dental lamina cysts are frequently found in the oral cavities of newborn infants. These cysts arise from the developing dent…
Cystic lesions of transient nature viz. Epstein pearls, Bohn's nodules and dental lamina cysts are frequently found in the oral cavities of newborn infants. These cysts arise from the developing dental tissues or from their remnants. These cystic lesions are not commonly seen by the dental surgeons due to their self-limiting nature and ignorance of the parents to seek the professional opinion. However, when contacted by anxious parents seeking treatment, dental surgeons should be able to explain and reassure the parents about the transient nature of these lesions and need for no treatment but regular follow-up. The present case report was written with the purpose to increase the awareness in dental surgeons about the peculiar clinical presentation and self-limiting nature of these cystic lesions, so that unnecessary surgical intervention can be avoided in such young infants.
- Physiological skin manifestations in twins: association with maternal and neonatal factors. [Journal Article]
- PDPediatr Dermatol 2011 Jul-Aug; 28(4):387-92
- There is paucity of literature on the incidence and clinical associations of transient benign dermatological conditions in twin neonates. This prospective study evaluated 253 live-born twin babies (≥…
There is paucity of literature on the incidence and clinical associations of transient benign dermatological conditions in twin neonates. This prospective study evaluated 253 live-born twin babies (≥23 wks) at a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, India. All study subjects were observed for the first 7 days of life, and regular dermatological examination was performed. The primary focus was on palatine Epstein pearls (PEP), milia, erythema toxicum neonatorum (ETN), and physiological skin desquamation (PDS). Zygosity was determined with the help of sex combination of the pairs, chorionicity of the placentae, and seven blood group phenotypes. Chi-square test, Cohen's kappa test, and logistic regression analysis were done. PEP, milia, ETN, and PDS were seen in 88.1%, 83.4%, 2.4%, and 4.3% twin babies, respectively. Preputial Epstein pearls were not seen. Birth order, maternal anemia, route of delivery, meconium staining of amniotic fluid, gestational maturity, birth weight, and presence of intrauterine growth restriction were found to be associated with one or more of the studied skin conditions (p < 0.05), but maternal age, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and sex of the baby did not affect incidence of any (p > 0.05). The intrapair concordance was highly significant (p < 0.001) in mono- and dizygotic twins. PEP and milia were equally common in the evaluated twins as compared to reports in singletons, while ETN and PDS were less common in this twin cohort. Environmental and genetic factors may regulate physiological skin manifestations in newborns.
- Pearls in autoimmunity. [Review]
- AIAuto Immun Highlights 2011; 2(1):1-4
- This manuscript does a review of the more frequent issues published at Autoimmunity Reviews, Journal of Autoimmunity and Autoimmunity in the period of January-December 2009. The following topics were…
This manuscript does a review of the more frequent issues published at Autoimmunity Reviews, Journal of Autoimmunity and Autoimmunity in the period of January-December 2009. The following topics were commented: (1) multiple sclerosis (MS) and its relationships with Epstein Barr infection, with vitamin D polymorphism and the new modalities of MS treatment. (2) Type 1 diabetes and genetic discovers, studies with GAD 65 and IA-2 autoantigen and the association T1D and autoimmune organ-specific diseases. (3) Autoimmune thyroid disorders and its association with susceptibility genes and polymorphisms. (4) Multiplex autoantibody profiling approaches in MS and rheumatoid arthritis. (5) Th17 cytokine in primary biliary cirrhosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and celiac disease. (6) Vitamin D and experimental autoimmune prostatitis and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.
- Cutaneous lesions in Turkish neonates born in a teaching hospital. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2009 Nov-Dec; 75(6):638
- CONCLUSIONS: We found that 90.7% of the neonates had one or more cutaneous lesions. Maturity and type of delivery of the babies were important factors in their causation. In Turkey, this study is the first study performed on the skin lesions seen during the neonatal period. With this study, we want to increase the awareness about the skin findings in neonates.
- Cutaneous lesions in new born. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2002 Nov-Dec; 68(6):334-7
- Five hundred unselected newborn babies delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit II of SGBT Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar during April 2000 to Octobe…
Five hundred unselected newborn babies delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit II of SGBT Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar during April 2000 to October 2000 were examined for cutaneous lesions daily for the first five days after birth. Different cutaneous lesions were seen in 474(94.8%) newborns. The physiological skin changes observed in order of frequency were Epstein pearls in 305(61%), Mongolian spot in 301(60.2%), superficial cutaneous desquamation in 200(40%), icterus in 128(25.6%), milia in 119(23.8%), sebaceous gland hyperplasia in 107(21.4%), occipital alopecia in 94(18.8%), lanugo in 72(14.4%), peripheral cyanosis in 47(9.4%), breast hypertrophy in 29(5.8%) and miniature puberty in 28(5.6%) newborns. Of the transient non-infective skin diseases, erythema toxicum neonatorum was observed most commonly in 105(21%), followed by miliaria rubra in 103(20.6%) and acne neonatorum in 27(5.4%) newborns. The naevi and other developmental defects in the descending order were salmon patch in 69(13.8%), congenital melanocytic noevi in 10(2%), accessory tragi in 3(0.6%), spina bifida in 2(0.4%), hydrocephalus in 1(0.2%) and poliosis in 1(0.2%) newborns. Cradle cap was the only dermatitis observed in 50(10%) newborns. One (0.2%) case each of Harlequin ichthyosis and labial cyst was seen.
- Neuroimaging of herpesvirus infections in children. [Review]
- PRPediatr Radiol 2007; 37(10):949-63
- Six members of the herpesvirus family cause well-described neurologic disease in children: herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster (VZV), Epstein-Barr (EBV), …
Six members of the herpesvirus family cause well-described neurologic disease in children: herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster (VZV), Epstein-Barr (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6). When herpesviruses infect the central nervous system (CNS), the clinical presentation is non-specific and often confounding. The clinical urgency is often underscored by progressive neurologic deficits, seizures, or even death, and prompt diagnosis and treatment rely heavily on neuroimaging. This review focuses on the spectrum of cerebral manifestations caused by these viruses, particularly on non-congenital presentations. Recent advances in our understanding of these viruses are discussed, including new polymerase chain reaction techniques that allow parallel detection, which has improved our recognition that the herpesviruses are neurotropic and involve the CNS more often than previously thought. Evolving knowledge has also better elucidated viral neuropathology, particularly the role of VZV vasculitis in the brain, HHV-6 in febrile seizures, and herpesvirus reactivation in immunosuppressed patients. The virology, clinical course, and CNS manifestations of each virus are reviewed, followed by descriptions of neuroimaging findings when these agents infect the brain. Characteristic but often subtle imaging findings are discussed, as well as technical pearls covering appropriate use of MRI and MRI adjuncts to help differentiate viral infection from mimics.
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- One-year survey of cutaneous lesions in 1000 consecutive Iranian newborns. [Journal Article]
- PDPediatr Dermatol 2006 Jan-Feb; 23(1):61-3
- Our objective was to study skin disorders in neonates within the first 48 hours of life in Ahvaz, Iran. One thousand consecutive neonates were examined in a descriptional prospective cohort study for…
Our objective was to study skin disorders in neonates within the first 48 hours of life in Ahvaz, Iran. One thousand consecutive neonates were examined in a descriptional prospective cohort study for 1 year (2002-03). The rate of skin disorders and their relationship to age of gestation and sex were calculated and analyzed using the computerized program SPSS version 10 and chi-squared test (chi2). Our findings were Mongolian spots (71.3%), Epstein pearls (70.2%), sebaceous hyperplasia (43.7%), salmon patch (26.2%), hypertrichosis (25.7%), erythema toxicum (11.1%), milia (7.5%), desquamation (1.9%), hemangioma (1.3%), and miliaria (1.3%). The most frequent skin disorders were Mongolian spots, Epstein pearls, and sebaceous hyperplasia. Differences between our study findings and those of others may be based on racial differences and study method.