- Standard values for gas-perfusion manometry of the esophagus. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(8):e9910
- The manometry with water-perfused or solid-state catheters is the predominant diagnostic procedure to detect motility disorders of the esophagus. Another method is the manometry using gas-perfused ca...
The manometry with water-perfused or solid-state catheters is the predominant diagnostic procedure to detect motility disorders of the esophagus. Another method is the manometry using gas-perfused catheters. Although the high-resolution manometry is the method of first choice, the conventional manometry with helium has some advantages: the simple and hygienically unproblematic use and the absence of any artefacts by the perfusion medium compared with water-perfusion, and the considerably lower costs compared with the solid-state catheters. Every method has own normal values because of the specific pressure transmission and the design of the catheter probes. To our knowledge, normal values for gas-perfusion manometry of the esophagus have not yet been published.The esophageal manometry with helium-perfused catheters was performed in 30 healthy volunteers. The main parameters of the esophageal motility and the lower esophageal sphincter were analyzed by liquid and bolus-like swallows and compared with the previous published values in other manometric procedures.The values of the motility in the distal esophagus are consistent; the pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter is generally lower than with other methods. The distal wave amplitude and the propagation velocity are significant higher in the distal esophagus than in the middle. The perfusion medium is well tolerated by the investigated volunteers.
- Endoscopic Myotomy for Foregut Motility Disorders. [Journal Article]
- GGastroenterology 2018 Feb 15
- Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is an advanced endoscopic procedure classically performed for the treatment of achalasia. The procedure is based on principles of submucosal endoscopy and is compris...
Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is an advanced endoscopic procedure classically performed for the treatment of achalasia. The procedure is based on principles of submucosal endoscopy and is comprised of a mucosal incision, submucosal tunneling, myotomy and mucosal closure. Multiple published studies that collectively include more than 6000 patients reported clinical success in more than 80-90% of patients. Recent literature also suggested durability of response over a medium-term follow-up. POEM is associated with a low rate of adverse events when performed by experienced operators. Gastroesophageal reflux is not infrequent after POEM but does not seem significantly different from reflux which occurs after Heller myotomy. POEM also seems to be effective in the treatment of spastic esophageal disorders (e.g. Jackhammer and diffuse esophageal spasm). Lastly, the role of gastric POEM (G-POEM) in the treatment of gastroparesis has been investigated in recent studies with promising results.
- Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms are not sufficient to guide esophageal function testing in lung transplant candidates. [Journal Article]
- DEDis Esophagus 2018 Feb 09
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease and esophageal dysmotility are prevalent in patients with advanced lung disease and are associated with graft dysfunction following lung transplantation. As a result, ...
Gastroesophageal reflux disease and esophageal dysmotility are prevalent in patients with advanced lung disease and are associated with graft dysfunction following lung transplantation. As a result, many transplant centers perform esophageal function testing as part of the wait-listing process but guidelines for testing in this population are lacking. The aim of this study is to describe whether symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux correlate with abnormal results on pH-metry and high-resolution manometry and can be used to identify those who require testing. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 226 lung transplant candidates referred for high-resolution manometry and pH-metry over a 12-month period in 2015. Demographic data, results of a standard symptom questionnaire and details of esophageal function testing were obtained. Associations between the presence of symptoms and test results were analyzed using Fisher's exact tests and multivariable logistic regression. The most common lung disease diagnosis was interstitial lung disease (N = 131, 58%). Abnormal pH-metry was seen in 116 (51%) patients and the presence of symptoms was significantly associated with an abnormal study (p < 0.01). Dysmotility was found in 98 (43%) patients, with major peristaltic or esophageal outflow disorders in 45 (20%) patients. Symptoms were not correlated with findings on esophageal high-resolution manometry. Fifteen of 25 (60%) asymptomatic patients had an abnormal manometry or pH-metry. These results demonstrate that in patients with advanced lung disease, symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux increase the likelihood of elevated acid exposure on pH-metry but were not associated with dysmotility. Given the proportion of asymptomatic patients with abnormal studies and associated post-transplant risks, a practice of universal high-resolution manometry and pH-metry testing in this population is justifiable.
- High-resolution esophageal manometry in a Mexican population: diagnostic outcome. [Journal Article]
- DEDis Esophagus 2018 Feb 09
- High-resolution esophageal manometry (HREM) has become the method of choice for evaluation of esophageal motility disorders. There is a paucity of data with this technique from Hispanic countries. Th...
High-resolution esophageal manometry (HREM) has become the method of choice for evaluation of esophageal motility disorders. There is a paucity of data with this technique from Hispanic countries. This study aims to characterize the diagnostic outcome of HREM in a large cohort of consecutive patients in Mexico.This study was conducted in Monterrey, Mexico from March 1, 2013 to March 31, 2015. Our diverse study population included patients from a major academic institution and the community. HREM was done applying the Chicago Classification 3. Diagnostic outcome was grouped as weak peristaltic disorders, gastroesophageal junction disorders, and hypertensive/uncoordinated peristalsis.We studied 670 consecutive patients, 57% were women, mean age was 43.8 years. The majority (465 [69%]) were referred for preoperative evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), 365 (78%) of whom had a normal study. Overall, 193 (29%) patients had abnormal motility, the most common disorder being weak peristalsis (104 [54%]). In patients with dysphagia, the most frequent finding was achalasia (23/46 [50%]).To our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize the diagnostic outcome of HREM in a large cohort of Hispanic patients in Latin America. At our open access center, 69% of patients were referred for preoperative evaluation of GERD, reflecting the popularity of antireflux surgery. This study confirms the high prevalence of weak peristalsis and highlights the importance of addressing its pathophysiology and management. The finding of achalasia in 50% of our patients with dysphagia is consistent with recent reports regarding the rising incidence of this disorder and underscores the need of prompt motility testing in this population.
- Cardiovascular safety of prokinetic agents: A focus on drug-induced arrhythmias. [Review]
- NMNeurogastroenterol Motil 2018 Feb 14
- Gastrointestinal sensorimotor dysfunction underlies a wide range of esophageal, gastric, and intestinal motility and functional disorders that collectively constitute nearly half of all referrals to ...
Gastrointestinal sensorimotor dysfunction underlies a wide range of esophageal, gastric, and intestinal motility and functional disorders that collectively constitute nearly half of all referrals to gastroenterologists. As a result, substantial effort has been dedicated toward the development of prokinetic agents intended to augment or restore normal gastrointestinal motility. However, the use of several clinically efficacious gastroprokinetic agents, such as cisapride, domperidone, erythromycin, and tegaserod, is associated with unfavorable cardiovascular safety profiles, leading to restrictions in their use.
- Focal achalasia - case report and review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- CMClujul Med 2018; 91(1):120-128
- Esophageal achalasia is a primary smooth muscle motility disorder specified by aperistalsis of the tubular esophagus in combination with a poorly relaxing and occasionally hypertensive lower esophage...
Esophageal achalasia is a primary smooth muscle motility disorder specified by aperistalsis of the tubular esophagus in combination with a poorly relaxing and occasionally hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter (LES). These changes occur secondary to the destruction of the neural network coordinating esophageal peristalsis and LES relaxation (plexus myentericus). There are limited data on segmental involvement of the esophagus in adults. We report on the case of a 54-year-old man who presented initially with complete aperistalsis limited to the distal esophagus. After a primary good response to BoTox-infiltration of the distal esophagus the patient relapsed two years later. The manometric recordings documented now a progression of the disease with a poorly relaxing hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter and complete aperistalsis of the tubular esophagus (type III achalasia according to the Chicago 3.0 classification system). This paper also reviews diagnostic findings (including high resolution manometry, CT scan, barium esophagram, upper endoscopy and upper endoscopic ultrasound data) in patients with achalasia and summarizes the therapeutic options (including pneumatic balloon dilatation, botulinum toxin injection, surgical or endoscopic myotomy).
- Expanding Role of Third Space Endoscopy in the Management of Esophageal Diseases. [Review]
- CTCurr Treat Options Gastroenterol 2018 Feb 12
- OPINION STATEMENT: "Third space" endoscopy, also commonly referred as submucosal endoscopy, is founded on the principle that the deeper layers of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can be accessed by tu...
OPINION STATEMENT: "Third space" endoscopy, also commonly referred as submucosal endoscopy, is founded on the principle that the deeper layers of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can be accessed by tunneling in the submucosal space without compromising the integrity of the overlying mucosa. Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), and submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection (STER) are innovative techniques within the field of third space endoscopy in the management of esophageal disorders. POEM has become an accepted minimally invasive therapy for achalasia and related motility disorders with excellent short-term results, with early studies yielding similar efficacy to surgical myotomy and increased durability when compared to pneumatic balloon dilation (PBD). Data are needed to establish long-term outcomes with POEM, with particular interest on the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux, which appears to be higher than initially anticipated. ESD, a mature endoscopic resection technique in Asia, has recently gained traction in the West as a viable option for the management of early Barrett's esophagus (BE) neoplasia. Compared to standard endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), ESD allows the en bloc resection of lesions irrespective of size, which may facilitate histological interpretation and reduce recurrence rates. Large prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to validate the efficacy and safety of this technique and to further define its role in the endoscopic armamentarium in early BE neoplasia. STER is an attractive technique that theoretically permits the resection of subepithelial esophageal tumors (SETs) arising from the deeper GI layers. Initial studies from highly experienced endoscopic centers support its technical feasibility and safety, although these results should be interpreted with caution due to variability arising from small numbers and heterogeneity among studies. Overall, third space endoscopy is an expanding field within endoscopic therapeutics for the treatment of esophageal diseases. While initial results have been very promising, large prospective studies, long-term data, and structured training programs with the establishment of competency parameters are needed before third space endoscopy can be advocated outside of highly specialized centers.
- Surgical management of gastroesophageal reflux disease in patients with systemic sclerosis. [Journal Article]
- SESurg Endosc 2018 Feb 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic RYGB as an anti-reflux procedure is safe and may provide an alternative to fundoplication in the treatment of GERD for systemic sclerosis patients with esophageal dysmotility.
- Esophageal motor disorders are frequent during pre and post lung transplantation. Can they influence lung rejection? [Journal Article]
- RERev Esp Enferm Dig 2018 Feb 09
- CONCLUSIONS: significant changes in esophageal motility were observed pre-LTx and particularly post-LTx; hypercontractile esophagus was a frequent EMD found post-LTx. EMD were more frequent in the group of patients that experienced organ rejection compared to the non-rejection group. EMD leading to an impaired esophageal clearance should be considered as an additional factor that contributes to LTx failure.
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- Mechanism of Action of STW 5 in Functional Dyspepsia and IBS: The Origin of Multi-Target. [Journal Article]
- DDDig Dis 2018 Feb 08; 35 Suppl 1:18-24
- CONCLUSIONS: Each herbal constituent of STW 5 has distinct effects on the gastrointestinal tract, and each shows activity through different mechanisms of action: among others, the single extracts have effects on nerves, smooth muscles, epithelial, and inflammatory cells. For example, they have relaxing or tonicizing effects on gastrointestinal muscles, and they counteract inflammation through different physiological systems, contributing to the clinical efficacy through modulation of multiple therapeutic targets. Key Messages: STW 5 is a role model for the concept of multi-targeting in therapy. Especially in complex syndromes such as FD and IBS, simultaneous multi-targeting of different functional causes seems to be a more promising approach than the classical paradigm of one disease - one receptor - one effect.