- Ambient PM1 air pollution and cardiovascular disease prevalence: Insights from the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study. [Journal Article]
- EIEnviron Int 2018 Dec 14; 123:310-317
- CONCLUSIONS: Long-term PM1 exposure was positively related to CVD, especially in men and the elder. In addition, PM1 may play a greater role than PM2.5 in associations with CVD. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to confirm our findings.
- A systematic literature review and critical appraisal of epidemiological studies on outdoor air pollution and tuberculosis outcomes. [Review]
- EREnviron Res 2018 Dec 07; 170:33-45
- Ambient air pollution is the leading environmental risk factor for disease globally. Air pollutants can increase the risk of some respiratory infections, but their effects on tuberculosis (TB) are un...
Ambient air pollution is the leading environmental risk factor for disease globally. Air pollutants can increase the risk of some respiratory infections, but their effects on tuberculosis (TB) are unclear. In this systematic literature review, we aimed to assess epidemiological studies on the association between outdoor air pollutants and TB incidence, hospital admissions and death (collectively referred to here as 'TB outcomes'). We sought to consolidate available evidence on this topic and propose recommendations for future studies. Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus with no restrictions imposed on year of publication. A total of 11 epidemiological studies, performed in Asia, Europe and North America, met our inclusion criteria (combined sample size: 215,337 people). We extracted key study characteristics from each eligible publication, including design, exposure assessment, analytical approaches and effect estimates. The studies were assessed for overall quality and risk of bias using standard criteria. The pollutant most frequently associated with statistically significant effects on TB outcomes was fine particulate matter ( < 2.5 µm; PM2.5); 6/11 studies assessed PM2.5, of which 4/6 demonstrated a significant association). There was some evidence of significant associations between PM10 ( < 10 µm), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) and TB outcomes, but these associations were inconsistent. The existing epidemiological evidence is limited and shows mixed results. However, it is plausible that exposure to air pollutants, particularly PM2.5, may suppress important immune defence mechanisms, increasing an individual's susceptibility to development of active TB and TB-related mortality. Considering the small number of studies relative to the demonstrably large global health burdens of air pollution and TB, further research is required to corroborate the findings in the current literature. Based on a critical assessment of existing evidence, we conclude with methodological suggestions for future studies.
- New validated diagnostic criteria for pyoderma gangrenosum. [Letter]
- JAJ Am Acad Dermatol 2018 Dec 14
- Whole genome sequencing of Moraxella bovoculi reveals high genetic diversity and evidence for interspecies recombination at multiple loci. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(12):e0209113
- Moraxella bovoculi is frequently cultured from the ocular secretions and conjunctiva of cattle with Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). Previous work has shown that single nucleotide polymo...
Moraxella bovoculi is frequently cultured from the ocular secretions and conjunctiva of cattle with Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). Previous work has shown that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity in this species is quite high with 81,284 SNPs identified in eight genomes representing two distinct genotypes isolated from IBK affected eyes (genotype 1) and the nasopharynx of cattle without clinical IBK signs (genotype 2), respectively. The goals of this study were to identify SNPs from a collection of geographically diverse and epidemiologically unlinked M. bovoculi strains from the eyes of IBK positive cattle (n = 183) and another from the eyes of cattle (most from a single population at a single time-point) without signs of IBK (n = 63) and to characterize the genetic diversity. Strains of both genotypes were identified from the eyes of cattle without IBK signs. Only genotype 1 strains were identified from IBK affected eyes, however, these strains were isolated before the discovery of genotype 2, and the protocol for their isolation would have preferentially selected genotype 1 M. bovoculi. The core genome comprised ~74% of the whole and contained >127,000 filtered SNPs. More than 80% of these characterize diversity within genotype 1 while 23,611 SNPs (~18%) delimit the two major genotypes. Genotype 2 strains lacked a repeats-in-toxin (RTX) putative pathogenesis factor and any of ten putative antibiotic resistance genes carried within a genomic island. Within genotype 1, prevalence of these elements was 0.85 and 0.12 respectively in strains from eyes that were IBK positive. Recombination appears to be an important source of genetic diversity for genotype 1 and undermines the utility of ribosomal-locus-based species identification. The extremely high genetic diversity in genotype 1 presents a challenge to the development of an efficacious vaccine directed against them, however, several low-diversity pilin-like genes were identified. Finally, the genotype-defining SNPs described in this study are a resource that can facilitate the development of more accurate M. bovoculi diagnostic tests.
- Widespread circulation of West Nile virus, but not Zika virus in southern Iran. [Journal Article]
- PNPLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 17; 12(12):e0007022
- West Nile virus (WNV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are mosquito-borne viral infections. Over the past few decades, WNV has been associated with several outbreaks involving high numbers of neuroinvasive dise...
West Nile virus (WNV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are mosquito-borne viral infections. Over the past few decades, WNV has been associated with several outbreaks involving high numbers of neuroinvasive diseases among humans. The recent re-emergence of ZIKV has been associated with congenital malformation and also with Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults. The geographic range of arthropod-borne viruses has been rapidly increasing in recent years. The objectives of this study were to determine the presence of IgG specific antibodies and the genome of WNV and ZIKV in human samples, as well as WNV and ZIKV genomes in wild-caught mosquitoes in urban and rural areas of the Hormozgan province, in southern Iran. A total of 494 serum samples were tested for the presence of WNV and ZIKV IgG antibodies using ELISA assays. One hundred and two (20.6%) samples were reactive for WNV IgG antibodies. All serum samples were negative for ZIKV IgG antibodies. Using the multivariable logistic analysis, age (45+ vs. 1-25; OR = 3.4, 95% C.I.: 1.8-6.3), occupation (mostly outdoor vs. mostly indoor; OR = 2.4, 95% C.I.: 1.1-5.2), and skin type(type I/II vs. type III/IV and type V/VI; OR = 4.3, 95% C.I.: 1.7-10.8 and OR = 2.7, 95% C.I.: 1.3-5.5 respectively, skin types based on Fitzpatrick scale) showed significant association with WNV seroreactivity. We collected 2,015 mosquitoes in 136 pools belonging to 5 genera and 14 species. Three pools of Culex pipiens complex were positive for WNV RNA using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR). ZIKV RNA was not detected in any of the pools. All WNV ELISA reactive serum samples were negative for WNV RNA. In conclusion, we provided evidence of the establishment of WNV in southern Iran and no proof of ZIKV in serum samples or in mosquito vectors. The establishment of an organized arbovirus surveillance system and active case finding strategies seems to be necessary.
- The Transcriptional Signature of a Runner's High. [Journal Article]
- MSMed Sci Sports Exerc 2018 Dec 14
- CONCLUSIONS: Unique dynamics in miRNA concentration occur in athletes with subjective/objective evidence of a runner's high, targeting genes implicated endorphin, endocannabinoid, and GABAergic signaling.
- NIAAA's College Alcohol Intervention Matrix. [Journal Article]
- ARAlcohol Res 2018; 39(1):43-47
- The College Alcohol Intervention Matrix (CollegeAIM) is a user-friendly, interactive decision tool based on a synthesis of the substantial and growing literature on campus alcohol use prevention. It ...
The College Alcohol Intervention Matrix (CollegeAIM) is a user-friendly, interactive decision tool based on a synthesis of the substantial and growing literature on campus alcohol use prevention. It includes strategies targeted at both the individual and environmental levels. Commissioned by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), CollegeAIM reflects the collective knowledge of 16 separate experts in the field, which makes it unique relative to other summaries of the science. CollegeAIM is designed to help college stakeholders compare and contrast different evidence-based prevention strategies to select a mix of individual and environmental strategies that will work best on and around their campuses. CollegeAIM is a living document, which will be updated to keep pace with the science. Colleges are therefore encouraged to ensure that evaluations of individual- or environmental-focused strategies on their campuses or in their communities make it into the published literature.
- Evidence-Based Performance Measures and Outcomes in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke. [Journal Article]
- CCCirc Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2018; 11(12):e001968
- CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to evidence-based ischemic stroke care measures in China revealed substantial gaps, and select measures were associated with improved outcomes. These findings support the need for ongoing quality measurement and improvement in stroke care in China.
- Efficacy of Mobile Phone-Delivered Smoking Cessation Interventions for Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Individuals: A Randomized Clinical Trial. [Journal Article]
- JIMJAMA Intern Med 2018 Dec 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that assignment to an intervention consisting of text messaging alone may not increase cessation rates for socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. However, text messaging plus proactive counseling may be an efficacious option.
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- Long-term Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Related Deaths After a Colonoscopy With Normal Findings. [Journal Article]
- JIMJAMA Intern Med 2018 Dec 17
- CONCLUSIONS: A negative colonoscopy result in average-risk patients was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer and related deaths for more than 12 years after examination, compared with unscreened patients. Our study findings may be able to inform guidelines for rescreening after a negative colonoscopy result and future studies to evaluate the costs and benefits of earlier vs later rescreening intervals.