- Increase of lifetime cadmium intake dose-dependently increased all cause of mortality in female inhabitants of the cadmium-polluted Jinzu River basin, Toyama, Japan. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2018 Mar 20; 164:379-384
- CONCLUSIONS: The present study documents that individual LCd dose-dependently decreased life prognosis over long-term observation in women. LCd was significantly related to the increased mortality for renal disease and toxic effect of Cd in women. The result provides clear evidence that life prognosis was adversely affected by Cd-exposure, especially in women.
- Intramuscular and intranasal immunization with an H7N9 influenza virus-like particle vaccine protects mice against lethal influenza virus challenge. [Journal Article]
- IIInt Immunopharmacol 2018 Mar 20; 58:109-116
- The H7N9 influenza virus epidemic has been associated with a high mortality rate in China. Therefore, to prevent the H7N9 virus from causing further damage, developing a safe and effective vaccine is...
The H7N9 influenza virus epidemic has been associated with a high mortality rate in China. Therefore, to prevent the H7N9 virus from causing further damage, developing a safe and effective vaccine is necessary. In this study, a vaccine candidate consisting of virus-like particles (VLPs) based on H7N9 A/Shanghai/2/2013 and containing hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix protein (M1) was successfully produced using a baculovirus (BV) expression system. Immunization experiments showed that strong humoral and cellular immune responses could be induced by the developed VLPs when administered via either the intramuscular (IM) or intranasal (IN) immunization routes. Notably, VLPs administered via both immunization routes provided 100% protection against lethal infection caused by the H7N9 virus. The IN immunization with 40μg of H7N9 VLPs induced strong lung IgA and lung tissue resident memory (TRM) cell-mediated local immune responses. These results provide evidence for the development of an effective preventive vaccine against the H7N9 virus based on VLPs administered through both the IM and IN immunization routes.
- Gene Fusion in Malignant Glioma: An Emerging Target for Next-Generation Personalized Treatment. [Review]
- TOTransl Oncol 2018 Mar 20; 11(3):609-618
- Malignant gliomas are heterogeneous diseases in genetic basis. The development of sequencing techniques has identified many gene rearrangements encoding novel oncogenic fusions in malignant glioma to...
Malignant gliomas are heterogeneous diseases in genetic basis. The development of sequencing techniques has identified many gene rearrangements encoding novel oncogenic fusions in malignant glioma to date. Understanding the gene fusions and how they regulate cellular processes in different subtypes of glioma will shed light on genomic diagnostic approaches for personalized treatment. By now, studies of gene fusions in glioma remain limited, and no medication has been approved for treating the malignancy harboring gene fusions. This review will discuss the current characterization of gene fusions occurring in both adult and pediatric malignant gliomas, their roles in oncogenesis, and the potential clinical implication as therapeutic targets.
- Enhanced sensitivity to socially facilitating and anxiolytic effects of ethanol in adolescent Sprague Dawley rats following acute prenatal ethanol exposure. [Journal Article]
- AAlcohol 2017 Nov 06; 69:25-32
- Emerging evidence suggests that deficits in social functioning and social anxiety are associated with adolescent alcohol use. Our previous research has shown that acute exposure to a high dose of eth...
Emerging evidence suggests that deficits in social functioning and social anxiety are associated with adolescent alcohol use. Our previous research has shown that acute exposure to a high dose of ethanol on gestational day (G) 12 produces social alterations in adolescent Sprague Dawley rats. The present study assessed whether these social alterations can affect sensitivity to acute ethanol challenge during adolescence. Pregnant females were exposed intraperitoneally (i.p.) to ethanol (2.5 g/kg followed by 1.25 g/kg in 2 h) or saline on G12, and their male and female offspring were tested on postnatal day (P) 42. Rats were challenged i.p. with one of four ethanol doses (0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 g/kg), and their social behavior was assessed in a modified social interaction test. Social alterations associated with prenatal ethanol exposure and indexed via decreases of social investigation, social preference, and play fighting were evident in males and females challenged with the 0 g/kg ethanol dose. Acute ethanol increased social investigation, social preference, and play fighting in animals prenatally exposed to ethanol. In contrast, rats prenatally exposed to saline, showing no social facilitation, demonstrated significant ethanol-induced (0.75 and 1.0 g/kg) decreases in social behavior. Given that late adolescents demonstrating social alterations induced by prenatal ethanol exposure become sensitive to the socially anxiolytic as well as socially facilitating effects of acute ethanol, it is possible that the attractiveness of ethanol to these adolescents may be based on its ability to alleviate anxiety under social circumstances and facilitate interactions with peers.
- International Parkinson and movement disorder society evidence-based medicine review: Update on treatments for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. [Review]
- MDMov Disord 2018 Mar 23
- CONCLUSIONS: The options for treating PD symptoms continues to expand. These recommendations allow the treating physician to determine which intervention to recommend to an individual patient. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
- Surgical re-excision versus observation for histologically dysplastic nevi: A Systematic Review of Associated Clinical Outcomes. [Review]
- BJBr J Dermatol 2018 Mar 23
- The management of histologically dysplastic nevi (HDN) with re-excision versus observation remains controversial due to lack of evidence about associated melanoma outcomes. This systematic review of ...
The management of histologically dysplastic nevi (HDN) with re-excision versus observation remains controversial due to lack of evidence about associated melanoma outcomes. This systematic review of all published data assessed the development of biopsy site primary cutaneous melanoma among biopsy-proven HDN managed with either re-excision or observation. A total of 5,293 records were screened, 18 articles were assessed in full-text, and 12 studies met inclusion criteria. No controlled trials were identified. Most studies (11/12, 92%) were retrospective chart reviews, and one was both a cross sectional and cohort study. Many studies (9/12, 75%) had no head-to-head comparison groups and either only reported HDN that were re-excised or observed. A total of 2,673 (1535 observed vs 1138 re-excised) HDN of various grades were included. Follow up varied between 2 weeks to 30 years. Nine studies reported that no melanomas developed. Eleven biopsy site melanomas developed across 3 of the studies, 6 among observed lesions (0.39%) and 5 among re-excised lesions (0.44%). Based upon the available evidence the rates of biopsy site primary melanoma was similarly low among observed lesions and re-excised lesions. This suggests that HDNs can be observed with minimal adverse melanoma associated outcomes. However, all included articles were of low quality and further prospective trials could better guide clinical decision making. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Lack of Substantial Post-Cessation Weight Increase in Electronic Cigarettes Users. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Mar 23; 15(4)
- Minimization of post-cessation weight gain in quitters is important, but existing approaches (e.g., antismoking medications) shows only limited success. We investigated changes in body weight in smok...
Minimization of post-cessation weight gain in quitters is important, but existing approaches (e.g., antismoking medications) shows only limited success. We investigated changes in body weight in smokers who quit or reduced substantially their cigarette consumption by switching to electronic cigarettes (ECs) use. Body weight and smoking/vaping history were extracted from medical records of smokers and ex-smokers to match three study groups: (1) regular EC users on at least two consecutive follow-up visits; (2) regular smokers (and not using ECs); (3) subjects who reported sustained smoking abstinence after completing a cessation program. Review of their medical records was conducted at two follow-up visits at 6- (F/U 6m) and 12-months (F/U 12m). A total of 86 EC users, 93 regular smokers, and 44 quitters were studied. In the EC users study group, cigarettes/day use decreased from 21.1 at baseline to 1.8 at F/U 12m (p< 0.0001). Dual usage was reported by approximately 50% of EC users. Both within factor (time,p< 0.0001) and between factor (study groups,p< 0.0001) produced significant effect on weight (% change from baseline), with a significant 4.8% weight gain from baseline in the quitters study group at F/U 12m. For the EC users, weight gain at F/U 12m was only 1.5% of baseline. There was no evidence of post-cessation weight increase in those who reduced substantially cigarette consumption by switching to ECs (i.e., dual users) and only modest post-cessation weight increase was reported in exclusive EC users at F/U 12m. By reducing weight gain and tobacco consumption, EC-based interventions may promote an overall improvement in quality of life.
- Efficacy of Nutritional Interventions on Inflammatory Markers in Haemodialysis Patients: A Systematic Review and Limited Meta-Analysis. [Review]
- NNutrients 2018 Mar 23; 10(4)
- Low-grade chronic inflammation is prevalent in patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD) treatment and is linked to the development of premature atherosclerosis and mortality. The non-pharmacological ap...
Low-grade chronic inflammation is prevalent in patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD) treatment and is linked to the development of premature atherosclerosis and mortality. The non-pharmacological approach to treat inflammation in HD patients through nutritional intervention is well cited. We aimed to assess the efficacy of different nutritional interventions at improving inflammatory outcomes in HD patients, based on markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase for randomized controlled trials (RCT) published before June 2017. Inclusion criteria included RCTs on adult patients on maintenance HD treatment with duration of nutritional interventions for a minimum 4 weeks. Risk of bias was assessed using the Jadad score. In total, 46 RCTs experimenting different nutritional interventions were included in the review and categorized into polyphenols rich foods, omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, vitamin D, fibres, and probiotics. Meta-analyses indicated significant reduction in CRP levels by omega-3 fatty acids (Random model effect: -0.667 mg/L,p< 0.001) and vitamin E (fixed model effect: -0.257 mg/L,p= 0.005). Evidence for other groups of nutritional interventions was inconclusive. In conclusion, our meta-analysis provided evidence that omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E could improve inflammatory outcomes in HD patients.
- The Health Care Transition of Youth With Liver Disease into the Adult Health System: Position Paper from ESPGHAN and EASL. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018 Mar 22
- CONCLUSIONS: Transfer of medical care of individuals with paediatric onset hepatobiliary chronic diseases to adult facilities is a complex task requiring multiple involvements of patients and both paediatric and adult care providers.
New Search Next
- Paediatric Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction: Evidence and Consensus-Based Recommendations from an ESPGHAN-Led Expert Group. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018 Mar 22
- CONCLUSIONS: This document is intended to be used in daily practice from the time of first presentation and definitive diagnosis PIPO through to the complex management and treatment interventions such as intestinal transplantation. Significant challenges remain to be addressed through collaborative clinical and research interactions.