- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive, facultative intracellular rod bacteria that is catalase positive and beta-hemolytic when grown on blood agar. There have been several historical foodborne i...
Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive, facultative intracellular rod bacteria that is catalase positive and beta-hemolytic when grown on blood agar. There have been several historical foodborne illness breakouts involving L. monocytogenes. In 1981, L. monocytogenes was revealed to be a foodborne illness linked to a variety of foods. In 1985, a massive outbreak of L. monocytogenes was traced to a brand of soft cheeses involving 142 cases, 28 deaths, and 20 fetal losses. While L. monocytogenes is not the most common foodborne illness, it has the highest mortality rate secondary to its unique virulence factors. L. monocytogenes’ virulence factors include but are not limited to intracellular mobility via actin polymerization and the ability to replicate at refrigerator temperatures. This makes it difficult for food industries to control. Transmission of the bacteria occurs via the fecal-oral route and most commonly involves foods such as cold deli meats and unpasteurized dairy products. The number of cases involving L. monocytogenes has decreased in recent years thanks to advances in prevention, detection, and treatment. Infection via L. monocytogenes (listeriosis) includes but is not limited to sepsis, meningitis, encephalitis, spontaneous abortion, or fever and self-limiting gastroenteritis in a healthy adult. Populations at the most risk for L. monocytogenes infection include pregnant females, infants, immunocompromised individuals, and elderly.
- An immunocompromised mouse model to infect Ixodes scapularis ticks with the relapsing fever spirochete, Borrelia miyamotoi. [Journal Article]
- TTTicks Tick Borne Dis 2018 Nov 27
- The hard tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete, Borrelia miyamotoi, has recently gained attention as a cause of human illness, but fundamental aspects of its enzootic maintenance are still poorly und...
The hard tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete, Borrelia miyamotoi, has recently gained attention as a cause of human illness, but fundamental aspects of its enzootic maintenance are still poorly understood. Challenges to experimental studies with B. miyamotoi-infected vector ticks include low prevalence of infection in field-collected ticks and seemingly inefficient horizontal transmission from infected immunocompetent rodents to feeding ticks. To reliably produce large numbers of B. miyamotoi-infected ticks in support of experimental studies, we developed an animal model where immunocompromised Mus musculus SCID mice were used as a source of B. miyamotoi-infection for larval and nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks. Following needle inoculation with 1 × 105 spirochetes, the SCID mice developed a high spirochetemia (greater than 1 × 107 copies of B. miyamotoi purB per mL of blood) that persisted for at least 30 d after inoculation. In comparison, immunocompetent M. musculus CD-1 mice developed transient infections, detectable for only 2-8 d within the first 16 d after needle inoculation, with a brief, lower peak spirochetemia (8.5 × 104 - 5.6 × 105purB copies per mL of blood). All larval or nymphal ticks fed on infected SCID mice acquired B. miyamotoi, but frequent loss of infection during the molt led to the proportion infected ticks of the resulting nymphal or adult stages declining to 22-29%. The ticks that remained infected after the molt had well-disseminated infections which then persisted through successive life stages, including transmission to larval offspring.
- Successful treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus felis, a cryptic species within the Aspergillus section Fumigati: A case report. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Infect Chemother 2018 Nov 30
- Aspergillus species are a major cause of life-threatening infections in immunocompromised hosts, and the most common pathogen of invasive aspergillosis is Aspergillus fumigatus. Recently, the develop...
Aspergillus species are a major cause of life-threatening infections in immunocompromised hosts, and the most common pathogen of invasive aspergillosis is Aspergillus fumigatus. Recently, the development of molecular identification has revealed cryptic Aspergillus species, and A. felis is one such species within the Aspergillus section Fumigati reported in 2013. We describe a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis caused by A. felis in a 41-year-old Japanese woman diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndrome. She presented with fever 19 days after undergoing autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and was clinically diagnosed with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed for definitive diagnosis. The β-tubulin genes of the mold isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and sequenced directly from the PCR products using a primer pair were found to have 100% homology with A. felis. We successfully treated the patient with echinocandin following careful susceptibility testing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published case reporting the clinical course for diagnosis and successful treatment of invasive aspergillosis by A. felis.
- Colonization of preterm gnotobiotic piglets with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and its interference with Salmonella Typhimurium. [Journal Article]
- CEClin Exp Immunol 2018 Nov 13
- A balanced microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is a prerequisite for a healthy host. The GIT microbiota in preterm infants is determined by the method of delivery and nutrition. Probiotics...
A balanced microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is a prerequisite for a healthy host. The GIT microbiota in preterm infants is determined by the method of delivery and nutrition. Probiotics can improve the GIT microbiota balance and suitable animal models are required to verify their harmlessness. Preterm gnotobiotic piglets were colonized with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) to evaluate its safety and possible protective action against infection with an enteric pathogen, Salmonella Typhimurium (ST). Clinical signs (anorexia, somnolence, fever and diarrhea), bacterial interference and translocation, intestinal histopathology, transcriptions of claudin-1, occludin and interferon (IFN)-γ, intestinal and systemic protein levels of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-12/23 p40 and IFN-γ were compared among (i) germ-free, (ii) LGG-colonized, (iii) ST-infected and (iv) LGG-colonized and subsequently ST-infected piglets for 24 h. Both LGG and ST-colonized the GIT; LGG translocated in some cases into mesenteric lymph nodes and the spleen but did not cause bacteremia and clinical changes. ST caused clinical signs of gastroenteritis, translocated into mesenteric lymph nodes, the spleen, liver and blood, increased claudin-1 and IFN-γ transcriptions, but decreased occludin transcription and increased local and systemic levels of IL-8 and IL-12/23 p40. Previous colonization with LGG reduced ST colonization in the jejunum and translocation into the liver, spleen and blood. It partially ameliorated histopathological changes in the intestine, reduced IL-8 levels in the jejunum and plasma and IL-12/23 p40 in the jejunum. The preterm gnotobiotic piglet model of the vulnerable preterm immunocompromised infant is useful to verify the safety of probiotics and evaluate their protective effect.
- Splenic granulomas: a rare manifestation of Mycobacterium avium complex in an immunocompetent host. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Nov 08; 2018
- Infections caused by Mycobacteriumavium complex (MAC) are commonly seen in immunocompromised individuals. Though disseminated MAC infections with splenic granulomas are seen in some patients, MAC inf...
Infections caused by Mycobacteriumavium complex (MAC) are commonly seen in immunocompromised individuals. Though disseminated MAC infections with splenic granulomas are seen in some patients, MAC infection clinically manifesting as only splenic granulomas is rare. This presentation is even less common in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of a young adult who presented with fever of unknown origin and was found to have multiple splenic granulomas. Fine needle aspiration cytology and PCR for Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the granulomas revealed a diagnosis of MAC infection. The patient was not found to have any immunodeficiency on investigations. This case is perhaps the first case of MAC clinically presenting as splenic granulomas in an immunocompetent individual.
- Retroperitoneal abscess with subcutaneous extension: case report of a rare complication of percutaneous renal biopsy. [Journal Article]
- BNBMC Nephrol 2018 Nov 09; 19(1):319
- CONCLUSIONS: Infections and abscess formation are rare but serious complications of renal biopsy. Immunocompromised state is a potential risk factor. Possible mechanisms and measures for prevention and early detection of this rare complication are discussed.
- Community acquired Sphingomonas paucimobilis in a child - A rare case. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pak Med Assoc 2018; 68(11):1714-1716
- Sphingomonas paucimobilis is a rare organism that usually infects immunocompromised patients and is known to cause nosocomial infections from mild to severe pathogenicity. Recently a few community ac...
Sphingomonas paucimobilis is a rare organism that usually infects immunocompromised patients and is known to cause nosocomial infections from mild to severe pathogenicity. Recently a few community acquired infections have been identified in relatively healthy adult patients with diabetes and alcoholics. We report a case of a 10 years old previously healthy child who presented with fever for a month and was found to have a positive blood cu lt ure for Sphi ngomon as pauc imobil is.
- Impact of a Multiplex PCR Assay for Bloodstream Infections With and Without Antimicrobial Stewardship Intervention at a Cancer Hospital. [Journal Article]
- OFOpen Forum Infect Dis 2018; 5(10):ofy258
- Implementation of Biofire FilmArray Blood Culture Identification Multiplex PCR panel (BCID) at a cancer hospital was associated with reduced time to appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Additional redu...
Implementation of Biofire FilmArray Blood Culture Identification Multiplex PCR panel (BCID) at a cancer hospital was associated with reduced time to appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Additional reductions were not observed when BCID was coupled with antimicrobial stewardship intervention.
- Hypermetabolic Diffuse Proximal Small Bowel Wall Thickening on Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography? Consider Strongyloidiasis among the Differentials. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Nucl Med 2018 Oct-Dec; 33(4):368-369
- Strongyloidiasis is an emerging tropical/subtropical parasitic infection commonly encountered in immunocompromised patients and often accompanied by life-threatening gram-negative bacteremia. We pres...
Strongyloidiasis is an emerging tropical/subtropical parasitic infection commonly encountered in immunocompromised patients and often accompanied by life-threatening gram-negative bacteremia. We presented an interesting image of a critically ill 66-year-old lady, an asthmatic on high dose steroids, presenting with unexplained fever and vomiting where fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography and endoscopic biopsy revealed this often neglected pathogenic nematode.
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- Persistence of yellow fever virus-specific neutralizing antibodies after vaccination among US travellers. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Travel Med 2018 Jan 01; 25(1)
- CONCLUSIONS: Although the percentage of vaccinees with a positive PRNT and antibody titers decreased over time, a single dose of YF vaccine provided long-lasting protection in the majority of US travellers. A booster dose could be considered for certain travellers who are planning travel to a high risk area based on immune competence and time since vaccination.