- Efficacy and safety of APT036 versus simethicone in the treatment of functional bloating: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, parallel group, clinical study. [Journal Article]
- TGTransl Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018; 3:72
- CONCLUSIONS: Both APT036 and simethicone had good safety profiles but APT036 was superior to simethicone in relieving symptoms of functional bloating.
- In vitro fermentation of raffinose by the human gut bacteria. [Journal Article]
- FFFood Funct 2018 Nov 14; 9(11):5824-5831
- Raffinose has become a major focus of research interest and recent studies have shown that besides beneficial bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus...
Raffinose has become a major focus of research interest and recent studies have shown that besides beneficial bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus pneumoniae can also utilize raffinose and raffinose might lead to flatulence in some hosts. Therefore, it is required to find out the raffinose-metabolizing bacteria in the gut and the bacteria responsible for the flatulence. The BLASTP search results showed that the homologous proteins of glycosidases related to raffinose utilization are widely distributed in 196 of the 528 gut bacterial strains. Fifty-nine bacterial strains belonging to nine species of five genera were isolated from human feces and were found to be capable of utilizing raffinose; of these species, Enterococcus avium and Streptococcus salivarius were reported for the first time. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the supernatants of the nine species revealed that the bacteria could utilize raffinose in different manners. Glucose and melibiose were detected in the supernatants of Enterococcus avium E5 and Streptococcus salivarius B5, respectively. However, no resulting saccharides of raffinose degradation were detected in the supernatants of other seven strains, indicating that they had different raffinose utilization types from Enterococcus avium E5 and Streptococcus salivarius B5. Gas was produced with raffinose utilization by Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus macedonicus, Streptococcus pasteurianus and Enterococcus avium. Thus, more attention should be paid to the raffinose-utilizing bacteria besides bifidobacteria and further studies are required to reveal the mechanisms of raffinose utilization to clarify the relationship between raffinose and gut bacteria.
- Effect of Probiotic Administration Immediately and 1 Month after Colonoscopy in Diarrhea-predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients. [Journal Article]
- ABAdv Biomed Res 2018; 7:94
- CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, the use of probiotics had the beneficial effect on IBS symptoms. Furthermore, it can be said that reductions in symptoms and pain in the two treatment groups were not significantly different, but after 6 months of treatment, the effect of probiotics in patients who immediately use it after colonoscopy was more visible and more stable.
- Fermentable Sugar Ingestion, Gas Production, and Gastrointestinal and Central Nervous System Symptoms in Patients With Functional Disorders. [Journal Article]
- GGastroenterology 2018; 155(4):1034-1044.e6
- CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of breath test results from more than 2000 patients with FGIDs, we identified clusters of GI and CNS symptoms in response to fructose of lactose ingestion. The association between specific symptoms and breath gas concentrations indicate distinct mechanisms of FGID pathogenesis, such as changes in the microbiome or mechanical and chemical sensitization. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02085889.
- Is CO2 insufflation an amelioration of routine colonoscopy? [Journal Article]
- MGMinerva Gastroenterol Dietol 2018; 64(3):193-200
- CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed only moderate positive effects for use of CO2 during colonoscopy. We found only modest improvement of patient's comfort during and after colonoscopy. No reduced doses of drugs for sedation could be recorded.
- Processing methods for reducing alpha-galactosides in pulses. [Journal Article]
- CRCrit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2018 Sep 10; :1-12
- Pulses are an excellent source of protein and dietary fiber and are consumed around the world. Their consumption has been recommended as part of a healthy diet. However, they contain various antinutr...
Pulses are an excellent source of protein and dietary fiber and are consumed around the world. Their consumption has been recommended as part of a healthy diet. However, they contain various antinutrients such as tannins and trypsin inhibitors, as well as indigestible carbohydrates called alpha-galactosides. These oligosaccharides are fermented by the microorganisms in the gut, producing gas and causing flatulence in healthy individuals. While this flatulence is undesirable (and results in their low acceptance in the Western diet), alpha-galactosides have also been hypothesized to increase susceptibility to bowel diseases, and their presence in the gut worsens the symptoms of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. The elimination of alpha-galactosides by breeding is difficult as they play a vital role in maintaining seed viability through periods of drought and cold. There is a critical need to evaluate the various post-harvest processing methods, and their effect on alpha-galactoside removal to facilitate commercialization. This paper reviews the effectiveness of methods and processing conditions in alpha-galactoside removal from a variety of pulses.
- Effects of Prebiotics vs a Diet Low in FODMAPs in Patients With Functional Gut Disorders. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- GGastroenterology 2018; 155(4):1004-1007
- Prebiotics and diets low in fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols (low-FODMAP diet) might reduce symptoms in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders, despite reports that ...
Prebiotics and diets low in fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols (low-FODMAP diet) might reduce symptoms in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders, despite reports that some nonabsorbable, fermentable meal products (prebiotics) provide substrates for colonic bacteria and thereby increase gas production. We performed a randomized, parallel, double-blind study of patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders with flatulence. We compared the effects of a prebiotic supplement (2.8 g/d Bimuno containing 1.37 g beta-galactooligosaccharide) plus a placebo (Mediterranean-type diet (prebiotic group, n = 19) vs a placebo supplement (2.8 g xylose) plus a diet low in FODMAP (low-FODMAP group, n = 21) for 4 weeks; patients were then followed for 2 weeks. The primary outcome was effects on composition of the fecal microbiota, analyzed by 16S sequencing. Secondary outcomes were intestinal gas production and digestive sensations. After 4 weeks, we observed opposite effects on microbiota in each group, particularly in relation to the abundance of Bifidobacterium sequences (increase in the prebiotic group and decrease in the low-FODMAP group; P = .042), and Bilophila wadsworthia (decrease in the prebiotic group and increase in the low-FODMAP group; P = .050). After 4 weeks, both groups had statistically significant reductions in all symptom scores, except reductions in flatulence and borborygmi were not significant in the prebiotic group. Although the decrease in symptoms persisted for 2 weeks after patients discontinued prebiotic supplementation, symptoms reappeared immediately after patients discontinued the low-FODMAP diet. Intermittent prebiotic administration might therefore be an alternative to dietary restrictions for patients with functional gut symptoms. ClinicalTrials.gov no.: NCT02210572.
- Nationwide survey of partial fundoplication in Korea: comparison with total fundoplication. [Journal Article]
- ASAnn Surg Treat Res 2018; 94(6):298-305
- CONCLUSIONS: Although antireflux surgery is not popular in Korea and total fundoplication is the primary surgical choice for gastroesophageal reflux disease, partial fundoplication may be useful in certain conditions because it has less postoperative adverse symptoms but similar efficacy to total fundoplication.
- The effect of prunes on stool output, gut transit time and gastrointestinal microbiota: A randomised controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- CNClin Nutr 2018 Feb 15
- CONCLUSIONS: In healthy individuals with infrequent stool habits and low fibre intake, prunes significantly increased stool weight and frequency and were well tolerated. Prunes may have health benefits in populations with low stool weight.
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- Fructans Exacerbate Symptoms in a Subset of Children With Irritable Bowel Syndrome. [Journal Article]
- CGClin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018; 16(2):219-225.e1
- CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized controlled trial of children with IBS, we found fructans to exacerbate several symptoms. However, fructan sensitivity cannot be identified based on baseline gastrointestinal symptoms, dietary intake, psychosocial factors, or gas production. Clinicaltrials.gov no: NCT02842281.