- Primary Assessment of the Patient With Orbital Fractures Should Include Pupillary Response and Visual Acuity Changes to Detect Occult Major Ocular Injuries. [Journal Article]
- JOJ Oral Maxillofac Surg 2018 May 01
- CONCLUSIONS: During primary assessment of the patient with orbital fractures, abnormal pupillary response and subjective visual acuity changes are key predictors of occult major ocular injury.
- Colored floaters as a manifestation of digoxin toxicity. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2018; 10:233-235
- CONCLUSIONS: Colored floaters may occur in patients taking cardiac glycosides but this association has not been explored. Unlike optical illusions and visual hallucinations, floaters are entoptic phenomena casting a physical shadow upon the retina and their coloring likely arise from retinal dysfunction. Colored floaters may be a more common visual phenomenon than realized.
- Test Characteristics of Point of Care Ultrasound for the Diagnosis of Retinal Detachment in the Emergency Department. [Journal Article]
- AEAcad Emerg Med 2018 May 18
- CONCLUSIONS: A large heterogeneous group of EPs can perform POCUS with high specificity but only intermediate sensitivity for RD. A negative POCUS scan in the ED performed by a heterogeneous group of providers after a one-hour POCUS didactic is not sufficiently sensitive to rule out RD in a patient with new onset flashes or floaters. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- A Quantitative Risk Assessment of Human Salmonellosis from Consumption of Pistachios in the United States. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Food Prot 2018; 81(6):1001-1014
- We developed a quantitative risk assessment model to assess the risk of human nontyphoidal salmonellosis from consumption of pistachios in the United States and to evaluate the impact of Salmonella t...
We developed a quantitative risk assessment model to assess the risk of human nontyphoidal salmonellosis from consumption of pistachios in the United States and to evaluate the impact of Salmonella treatments (1- to 5-log reductions). The exposure model estimating prevalence and contamination levels of Salmonella at consumption included steps in pistachio processing such as transport from grower to huller, removal of the hull through wet abrasion, separation of pistachio floaters (immature, smaller nuts) and sinkers (mature, larger nuts) in a flotation tank, drying, storage, and partitioning. The risks of illness per serving and per year were evaluated by including a Salmonella dose-response model and U.S. consumption data. The spread of Salmonella through float tank water, delay in drying resulting in growth, increased Salmonella levels through pest infestation during storage (pre- and posttreatment), and a simulation of the 2016 U.S. salmonellosis outbreak linked to consumption of pistachios were the modeled atypical situations. The baseline model predicted one case of salmonellosis per 2 million servings (95% CI: one case per 5 million to 800,000 servings) for sinker pistachios and one case per 200,000 servings (95% CI: one case per 400,000 to 40,000 servings) for floater pistachios when no Salmonella treatment was applied and pistachios were consumed as a core product (>80% pistachio) uncooked at home. Assuming 90% of the pistachio supply is sinkers and 10% is floaters, the model estimated 419 salmonellosis cases per year (95% CI: 200 to 1,083 cases) when no Salmonella treatment was applied. A mean risk of illness of less than one case per year was estimated when a minimum 4-log reduction treatment was applied to the U.S. pistachio supply, similar to the results of the Salmonella risk assessment for almonds. This analysis revealed that the predicted risk of illness per serving is higher for all atypical situations modeled compared with the baseline, and delay in drying had the greatest impact on consumer risk.
- Acute retinal hemorrhage after Pipeline embolization device placement for treatment of ophthalmic segment aneurysm: A case report. [Journal Article]
- INInterv Neuroradiol 2018 Jan 01; :1591019918771929
- Introduction Ophthalmic segment aneurysms may present with visual symptoms due to direct compression of the optic nerve. Treatment of these aneurysms with the Pipeline embolization device (PED) often...
Introduction Ophthalmic segment aneurysms may present with visual symptoms due to direct compression of the optic nerve. Treatment of these aneurysms with the Pipeline embolization device (PED) often results in visual improvement. Flow diversion, however, has also been associated with occlusion of the ophthalmic artery and visual deficits in a small subset of cases. Case report A 49-year-old Caucasian female presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm. On follow-up imaging, the patient was found to have a right asymptomatic ophthalmic segment aneurysm. Due to the irregular shape of the aneurysm and history of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, the decision was made to treat the aneurysm with a PED. Postoperatively, the patient complained of floaters in the right eye. Detailed ophthalmologic examination showed retinal hemorrhage and cotton-wool spots on the macula. Such complication after PED placement has never been reported in the literature. Conclusion Visual complications after PED placement for treatment of ophthalmic segment aneurysms are rare. It is thought that even in cases where the ophthalmic artery occludes, patients remain asymptomatic due to the rich collateral supply from the external carotid artery branches. Here we report a patient who developed an acute retinal hemorrhage after PED placement.
- Evidence for an Association between Macular Degeneration and Thyroid Cancer in the Aged Population. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Environ Res Public Health 2018 May 03; 15(5)
- Direct evidence of whether thyroid cancer patients have a higher risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has yet to be investigated. Patients older than 50 years-old and newly diagnosed with t...
Direct evidence of whether thyroid cancer patients have a higher risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has yet to be investigated. Patients older than 50 years-old and newly diagnosed with thyroid cancer between 2000 and 2008 were identified from the national health insurance research database (NHIRD). We applied time-varying Cox proportional hazard models to assess the association between thyroid cancer and AMD. The multivariable models included conventional cardiovascular risk factors, myopia, vitreous floaters, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and treatment modality of thyroid cancer. The analysis process was stratified by age, gender, and comorbidity. In this study, 5253 patients were included in a thyroid cancer cohort (men 24.5%; median age 59.1 years (53.7⁻67.4 years), and 21,012 matched controls were included in a non-thyroid cancer cohort. The AMD incidence was 40.7 per 10,000 person/year in the thyroid cancer cohort. The thyroid cancer cohort had a higher risk (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.38, 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.09⁻1.75) of AMD than the non-thyroid cohort. Thyroid cancer patients had a higher risk of AMD, especially the male patients (aHR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.38⁻3.14) and the patients with comorbidities (aHR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.09⁻1.74). In conclusion, thyroid cancer patients older than 50 years-old have increased risk of AMD.
- Subordinate females in the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler obtain direct benefits by joining unrelated groups. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anim Ecol 2018 May 11
- 1.In many cooperatively breeding animals, a combination of ecological constraints and benefits of philopatry favours offspring taking a subordinate position on the natal territory instead of dispersi...
1.In many cooperatively breeding animals, a combination of ecological constraints and benefits of philopatry favours offspring taking a subordinate position on the natal territory instead of dispersing to breed independently. However, in many species individuals disperse to a subordinate position in a non-natal group ("subordinate between-group" dispersal), despite losing the kin-selected and nepotistic benefits of remaining in the natal group. It is unclear which social, genetic and ecological factors drive between-group dispersal. 2.We aim to elucidate the adaptive significance of subordinate between-group dispersal by examining which factors promote such dispersal, whether subordinates gain improved ecological and social conditions by joining a non-natal group, and whether between-group dispersal results in increased lifetime reproductive success and survival. 3.Using a long-term dataset on the cooperatively-breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), we investigated 4.how a suite of proximate factors (food availability, group composition, age and sex of focal individuals, population density) promote subordinate between-group dispersal by comparing such dispersers with subordinates that dispersed to a dominant position or became floaters. We then analysed whether subordinates that moved to a dominant or non-natal subordinate position, or became floaters, gained improved conditions relative to the natal territory, and compared fitness components between the three dispersal strategies. 5.We show that individuals that joined another group as non-natal subordinates were mainly female and that, similar to floating, between-group dispersal was associated with social and demographic factors that constrained dispersal to an independent breeding position. Between-group dispersal was not driven by improved ecological or social conditions in the new territory and did not result in higher survival. Instead, between-group dispersing females often became co-breeders, obtaining maternity in the new territory, and were likely to inherit the territory in the future, leading to higher lifetime reproductive success compared to females that floated. Males never reproduced as subordinates, which may be one explanation why subordinate between-group dispersal by males is rare. 6.Our results suggest that subordinate between-group dispersal is used by females to obtain reproductive benefits when options to disperse to an independent breeding position are limited. This provides important insight into the additional strategies that individuals can use to obtain reproductive benefits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- A threshold model for polydactyly. [Journal Article]
- PBProg Biophys Mol Biol 2018 Apr 25
- We present a cellular automaton-based model for threshold behaviors in vertebrate digit patterning and polydactyly formation. The rules of the model follow classical reactor-diffusion algorithms. Yet...
We present a cellular automaton-based model for threshold behaviors in vertebrate digit patterning and polydactyly formation. The rules of the model follow classical reactor-diffusion algorithms. Yet it is not physical diffusion that is taken as the required natural agent but the propagation of cellular states, which can be represented by the same differential equations. The bistable cellular states in the model correspond to mesenchymal limb bud cells that can be either "on" or "off" for the cartilage differentiation pathway. Simulation runs demonstrate that reaction rate and cell number have the most decisive influence on the number of digit-like cell activation patterns. Threshold-based effects can generate supernumerary activation stripes via de novo condensation, stabilized bifurcation, and free floaters. All three behaviors are consistent with processes in natural polydactyly formation. It is argued that these effects are rooted in cell-based behaviors, not in gene regulation or globally diffusing morphogens. Our model suggests that the origin of discrete character states, such as individual digits, is a consequence of an additive cell state variable with a normal distribution that is transformed by a growth function with Turing behaviors into discontinuous phenotypic units. We discuss the application of this type of autopod patterning to the mutational, developmental, experimental, and evolutionary occurrences of polydactyly. The model provides a refinement of the previous Hemingway model for digit novelty and supports Turing type pattern formation in the vertebrate limb.
- 23G pars plana vitrectomy for vitreal floaters: prospective assessment of subjective self-reported visual impairment and surgery-related risks during the course of treatment. [Journal Article]
- GAGraefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2018; 256(6):1089-1099
- CONCLUSIONS: For the majority of floater patients, subjective impairment was profoundly reduced by vitrectomy. Benefits of surgery prevailed despite complications.
New Search Next
- Pediatric Eales Disease: An Indian Tertiary Eye Center Experience. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2018 Apr 27; :1-5
- CONCLUSIONS: Recurrent vasculitis and vitreous hemorrhage in children should raise the suspicion of pediatric Eales disease. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 200X;XX(X):XX-XX.].