- Sensitive Leptospira DNA Detection using Tapered Optical Fiber Sensor. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biophotonics 2018 Mar 23; :e201700363
- This paper presents the development of tapered optical fiber sensor to detect a specific Leptospira bacteria DNA. The bacteria causes Leptospirosis, a deadly disease but with common early flu-like sy...
This paper presents the development of tapered optical fiber sensor to detect a specific Leptospira bacteria DNA. The bacteria causes Leptospirosis, a deadly disease but with common early flu-like symptoms. Optical single mode fiber (SMF) of 125 μm diameter is tapered to produce 12 μm waist diameter and 15 cm length. The novel DNA-based optical fiber sensor is functionalised by incubating the tapered region with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), (3-Aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) and glutaraldehyde. Probe DNA is immobilized onto the tapered region and subsequently hybridized by its complementary DNA. The transmission spectra of the DNA-based optical fiber sensor is measured in the 1500 - 1600 nm wavelength range. It is discovered that the shift of the wavelength in the SMF sensor is linearly proportional with the increase in the complementary DNA concentrations from 0.1 nM to 1.0 nM. The sensitivity of the sensor towards DNA is measured to be 1.2862 nm/nM and able to detect as low as 0.1 fM. The sensor indicates high specificity when only minimal shift is detected for non-complementary DNA testing. The developed sensor is able to distinguish between actual DNA of Leptospira serovars (Canicola and Copenhageni) against Clostridium difficile (control sample) at very low (femtomolar) target concentrations.
- Avian viral surveillance in Victoria, Australia, and detection of two novel avian herpesviruses. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(3):e0194457
- Viruses in avian hosts can pose threats to avian health and some have zoonotic potential. Hospitals that provide veterinary care for avian patients may serve as a site of exposure of other birds and ...
Viruses in avian hosts can pose threats to avian health and some have zoonotic potential. Hospitals that provide veterinary care for avian patients may serve as a site of exposure of other birds and human staff in the facility to these viruses. They can also provide a useful location to collect samples from avian patients in order to examine the viruses present in wild birds. This study aimed to investigate viruses of biosecurity and/or zoonotic significance in Australian birds by screening samples collected from 409 birds presented to the Australian Wildlife Health Centre at Zoos Victoria's Healesville Sanctuary for veterinary care between December 2014 and December 2015. Samples were tested for avian influenza viruses, herpesviruses, paramyxoviruses and coronaviruses, using genus- or family-wide polymerase chain reaction methods coupled with sequencing and phylogenetic analyses for detection and identification of both known and novel viruses. A very low prevalence of viruses was detected. Columbid alphaherpesvirus 1 was detected from a powerful owl (Ninox strenua) with inclusion body hepatitis, and an avian paramyxovirus most similar to Avian avulavirus 5 was detected from a musk lorikeet (Glossopsitta concinna). Two distinct novel avian alphaherpesviruses were detected in samples from a sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita) and a tawny frogmouth (Podargus strigoides). Avian influenza viruses and avian coronaviruses were not detected. The clinical significance of the newly detected viruses remains undetermined. Further studies are needed to assess the host specificity, epidemiology, pathogenicity and host-pathogen relationships of these novel viruses. Further genome characterization is also indicated, and would be required before these viruses can be formally classified taxonomically. The detection of these viruses contributes to our knowledge on avian virodiversity. The low level of avian virus detection, and the absence of any viruses with zoonotic potential, suggests low risk to biosecurity and human health.
- Highly Sensitive and Automated SERS-based Immunoassay for H5N1 Detection with Digital Microfluidics. [Journal Article]
- ACAnal Chem 2018 Mar 23
- Digital microfluidics (DMF) is a powerful platform for a broad range of applications, especially immunoassays having multiple steps, due to the advantages of low reagent consumption and high automati...
Digital microfluidics (DMF) is a powerful platform for a broad range of applications, especially immunoassays having multiple steps, due to the advantages of low reagent consumption and high automatization. Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) has been proven as an attractive method for highly sensitive and multiplex detection, because of its remarkable signal amplification and excellent spatial resolution. Here we propose a SERS-based immunoassay with DMF for rapid, automated and sensitive detection of disease biomarkers. SERS tags labeled with Raman reporter 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) were synthesized with a core@shell nanostructure, and showed strong signals, good uniformity and high stability. A sandwich immunoassay was designed, in which magnetic beads coated with antibodies were used as solid support to capture antigens from samples to form a beads-antibody-antigen immunocomplex. By labeling the immunocomplex with a detection antibody-functionalized SERS tag, antigen can be sensitively detected througth the strong SERS signal. The automation capability of DMF can greatly simplify the assay procedure while reducing the risk of exposure to hazardous samples. Quantitative detection of avian influenza virus H5N1 in buffer and human serum was implemented to demonstrate the utility of the DMF-SERS method. The DMF-SERS method shows excellent sensitivity (LOD of 74 pg/mL) and selectivity for H5N1 detection with less assay time (< 1 h) and lower reagent consumption (~ 30 μL) compared to the standard ELISA method. Therefore, this DMF-SERS method holds great potentials for automated and sensitive detection of a variety of infectious diseases.
- Educating children and adolescents about vaccines: A review of current literature. [Journal Article]
- ERExpert Rev Vaccines 2018 Mar 23
- Until recently, research on vaccine hesitancy has focused primarily on parent populations. Although adolescent knowledge and views are gaining momentum within the literature, particularly as they per...
Until recently, research on vaccine hesitancy has focused primarily on parent populations. Although adolescent knowledge and views are gaining momentum within the literature, particularly as they pertain to the Human Papillomavirus and influenza, children remain a virtually unstudied population with regards to vaccine hesitancy. Areas Covered: This review focuses on the lack of literature in this area and argues for more vaccine hesitancy research involving child and adolescent populations. It also outlines special issues to consider when framing health promotion messages for children and adolescents. Finally, we explore the use of new and existing technologies as delivery mechanisms for education on vaccines and immunizations in populations of children and adolescents. Expert Commentary: Children ongoing cognitive development and experiences with vaccines (e.g. pain or education) have the potential to create future attitudes towards vaccines. This can influence future vaccine behaviour, including their participation in decision-making around adolescent vaccines, their decisions to vaccinate themselves when they are adults and their decisions to vaccinate their own children. Interventions aimed at children, such as education, can create positive attitudes towards vaccines. These can also potentially influence their parent's attitudes towards vaccine as the children convey this knowledge to them. Both of these impacts require further study.
- 100% Use of Infection Control Procedures in Hemodialysis Facilities: Call to Action. [Journal Article]
- CJClin J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 Mar 22
- Out With the Old, In With the Flu. [Journal Article]
- AEAnn Emerg Med 2018; 71(4):518-520
- Performance of the inFLUenza Patient-Reported Outcome (FLU-PRO) diary in patients with influenza-like illness (ILI). [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(3):e0194180
- CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest FLU-PRO scores are reliable, valid, and responsive in adults with influenza-like illness.
- Diabetes Preventive Care Practices in North Carolina, 2000-2015. [Journal Article]
- PCPrev Chronic Dis 2018 Mar 22; 15:E35
- This analysis assessed trends in measures of diabetes preventive care overall and by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status in the North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2000-201...
This analysis assessed trends in measures of diabetes preventive care overall and by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status in the North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2000-2015). We found increasing trends in 5 measures: diabetes self-management education (DSME), daily blood glucose self-monitoring, hemoglobin A1ctests, foot examinations, and flu shots. Non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white respondents showed increases in blood glucose self-monitoring, and a significant time-by-race interaction was observed for annual flu shots. Predisposing, enabling, and need factors were significantly associated with most measures. DSME was positively associated with 7 measures. Expanding access to health insurance and health care providers is key to improving diabetes management, with DSME being the gateway to optimal care.
- New threats of H7N9 influenza virus: the spread and evolution of highly and low pathogenic variants with high genomic diversity in Wave Five. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Virol 2018 Mar 21
- H7N9 virus has caused five infection waves since it emerged in 2013. The highest number of human cases was seen in Wave Five; however, the underlying reasons have not been thoroughly elucidated. In t...
H7N9 virus has caused five infection waves since it emerged in 2013. The highest number of human cases was seen in Wave Five; however, the underlying reasons have not been thoroughly elucidated. In this study, the geographical distribution, phylogeny and genetic evolution of 240 H7N9 viruses in Wave Five, including 35 new isolates from patients and poultry in nine provinces, were comprehensively analyzed together with strains from first four waves. Geographical distribution analysis displayed the newly-emerging highly pathogenic (HP) and low pathogenic (LP) H7N9 viruses were co-circulating, causing human and poultry infections across China. Genetic analysis indicated that dynamic reassortment of the internal genes among LP-H7N9/H9N2/H6Ny and HP-H7N9, as well as the surface genes between Yangtze and Pearl River Delta lineages resulted in at least 36 genotypes, with three major genotypes (G1, A/chicken/Jiangsu/SC537/2013-like, G3, A/Chicken/Zhongshan/ZS/2017-like and G11, A/Anhui/40094/2015-like). The HP-H7N9 likely evolved from G1 LP-H7N9 by the insertion of a "KRTA" motif at the cleavage site (CS), then evolved into fifteen genotypes with four different CS motifs including PKGKRTAR/G, PKGKRIAR/G, PKRKRAAR/G and PKRKRTAR/G. Approximately 46% (28/61) of HP strains belonged to G3. Importantly, neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor resistance (R292K in NA) and mammalian adaptation (eg. E627K and A588V in PB2) mutations were found in a few non-human-derived HP-H7N9 strains. In summary, the enhanced prevalence and diverse genetic characteristics with mammalian-adapted and NAI-resistant mutations may have contributed towards increased numbers of human infections in Wave Five.IMPORTANCEThe highest numbers of human H7N9 infections were observed during Wave Five from October 2016 to September 2017. Our results showed that HP-H7N9 and LP-H7N9 has spread virtually throughout China and underwent dynamic reassortment with different subtypes (H7N9/H9N2 and H6Ny) and lineages (Yangtze and Pearl River Delta lineages), resulting in a total of 36 and three major genotypes. Notably, the NAI drug-resistant (R292K in NA) and mammalian-adapted (eg. E627K in PB2) mutations were found in HP-H7N9 not only from humans, but also from poultry and environmental isolates, indicating increased risks for human infections. The broad dissemination of LP- and HP-H7N9 with high genetic diversity, host adaptation and drug-resistant mutations likely accounted for the sharp increases in the number of human infections during Wave Five. Therefore, more strategies are needed against the further spread and damage of H7N9 in the world.
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- Characterization of H5N1 influenza virus quasispecies with adaptive hemagglutinin mutations from single-virus infections of human airway cells. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Virol 2018 Mar 21
- Transmission of avian influenza (AI) viruses to mammals involves phylogenetic bottlenecks that select small numbers of variants for transmission to new host species. However, little is known about th...
Transmission of avian influenza (AI) viruses to mammals involves phylogenetic bottlenecks that select small numbers of variants for transmission to new host species. However, little is known about the AI virus quasispecies diversity that produces variants for virus adaptation to humans. Here, we analyzed the hemagglutinin (HA) genetic diversity produced during AI H5N1 single-virus infection of primary human airway cells and characterized the phenotypes of these variants. During single-virus infection, HA variants emerged with increased fitness to infect human cells. These variants generally had decreased HA thermostability, an indicator of decreased transmissibility, that appeared to compensate for their increase in α2,6 Sia binding specificity and/or membrane fusion pH threshold, which are advantageous mutational changes for viral infection of human airway epithelia. An HA variant with increased HA thermostability also emerged, but could not outcompete variants with less HA thermostability. These results provided data on HA quasispecies diversity in human airway cells.IMPORTANCEThe diversity of the influenza virus quasispecies that emerges from a single infection is the starting point for viral adaptation to new hosts. A few studies have investigated AI virus quasispecies diversity during human adaptation using clinical samples. However, those studies could be appreciably affected by individual variability and multifactorial respiratory factors, which complicate identification of quasispecies diversity produced by selective pressure for increased adaptation to infect human airway cells. Here, we found that detectable HA genetic diversity was produced by H5N1 single-virus infection of human airway cells. Most of the HA variants had increased fitness to infect human airway cells, but incurred a fitness cost of less HA stability. To our knowledge, this is the first report to characterize the adaptive changes of AI virus quasispecies produced by infection of human airway cells. These results provide a better perspective on AI virus adaptation to infect humans.