- Viral etiology of acute respiratory infections in hospitalized children in Novosibirsk City, Russia (2013 - 2017). [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(9):e0200117
- CONCLUSIONS: We evaluated the distribution of respiratory viruses in children with ARIs and showed the prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus in the etiological structure of infections. This study is important for the improvement and optimization of diagnostic tactics, control and prevention of the respiratory viral infections.
- Eleutheroside B1 mediates its anti-influenza activity through POLR2A and N-glycosylation. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Med 2018 Sep 07
- Influenza viruses represent a serious threat to human health. Although our research group has previously demonstrated the antiviral and anti‑inflammatory activities of eleutheroside B1, a detailed ex...
Influenza viruses represent a serious threat to human health. Although our research group has previously demonstrated the antiviral and anti‑inflammatory activities of eleutheroside B1, a detailed explanation of the mechanism by which it is effective against the influenza virus remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the transcriptomic responses of influenza A virus‑infected lung epithelial cells (A549) treated with eleutheroside B1 were investigated using high‑throughput RNA sequencing, and potential targets were identified using a molecular docking technique, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) assay, and DNA methylation analysis. The transcriptomic data revealed that there are 1,871 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the cells infected with the influenza virus strain variant PR8, and the cells infected with PR8 and treated with eleutheroside B1. Among the DEGs, RNA polymerase II subunit A (POLR2A; encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II) and mannosidase α class II member 1 (MAN2A1) were selected from the molecular docking analysis with eleutheroside B1. The docking score of Drosophila melanogaster MAN2A1 (3BVT) was 11.3029, whereas that of POLR2A was 9.0133. The RT‑qPCR results demonstrated that the expression levels of host genes (MAN2A2, POLR2A) and viral genes (PA, PB1, PB2, HA) were downregulated following eleutheroside B1 treatment. Bisulfite‑sequencing PCR was performed to investigate whether eleutheroside B1 was able to modify the DNA methylation of POLR2A, and the results suggested that the average proportion of methylated CpGs (‑222‑72 bp) increased significantly following treatment with eleutheroside B1. Taken together, these findings suggested that eleutheroside B1 may affect N‑glycan biosynthesis, the chemokine signaling pathway, cytokine‑cytokine receptor interaction and, in particular, may target the POLR2A to inhibit the production of influenza virus genes.
- [Semi-quantitative risk assessment of human infection with H7N9 avian influenza epidemic in Zhejiang province]. [Journal Article]
- ZDZhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2018 May 25; 47(2):131-136
- CONCLUSIONS: A semi-quantitative method has been established in this study, which provides scientific basis for prevention and control of H7N9 avian influenza epidemic in Zhejiang province.
- Influenza C Virus in Cattle with Respiratory Disease, United States, 2016-2018. [Journal Article]
- EIEmerg Infect Dis 2018; 24(10):1926-1929
- We identified influenza C virus (ICV) in samples from US cattle with bovine respiratory disease through real-time PCR testing and sequencing. Bovine ICV isolates had high nucleotide identities (≈98%)...
We identified influenza C virus (ICV) in samples from US cattle with bovine respiratory disease through real-time PCR testing and sequencing. Bovine ICV isolates had high nucleotide identities (≈98%) with each other and were closely related to human ICV strains (≈95%). Further research is needed to determine bovine ICV's zoonotic potential.
- Evaluation of Nowcasting for Detecting and Predicting Local Influenza Epidemics, Sweden, 2009-2014. [Journal Article]
- EIEmerg Infect Dis 2018; 24(10):1868-1873
- The growing availability of big data in healthcare and public health opens possibilities for infectious disease control in local settings. We prospectively evaluated a method for integrated local det...
The growing availability of big data in healthcare and public health opens possibilities for infectious disease control in local settings. We prospectively evaluated a method for integrated local detection and prediction (nowcasting) of influenza epidemics over 5 years, using the total population in Östergötland County, Sweden. We used routine health information system data on influenza-diagnosis cases and syndromic telenursing data for July 2009-June 2014 to evaluate epidemic detection, peak-timing prediction, and peak-intensity prediction. Detection performance was satisfactory throughout the period, except for the 2011-12 influenza A(H3N2) season, which followed a season with influenza B and pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus activity. Peak-timing prediction performance was satisfactory for the 4 influenza seasons but not the pandemic. Peak-intensity levels were correctly categorized for the pandemic and 2 of 4 influenza seasons. We recommend using versions of this method modified with regard to local use context for further evaluations using standard methods.
- Intranasal immunization of guinea pig with trivalent influenza antigen adjuvanted by Cyclamen europaeum tubers extract. [Journal Article]
- AVArch Virol 2018 Sep 17
- Cyclamen europaeum tubers extract (CTE) with concentration commonly used for human rhinosinusitis treatment was tested as mucosal adjuvant in experimental intranasal immunization of guinea pigs with ...
Cyclamen europaeum tubers extract (CTE) with concentration commonly used for human rhinosinusitis treatment was tested as mucosal adjuvant in experimental intranasal immunization of guinea pigs with concentrated commercially available influenza trivalent vaccine and subsequent infection with influenza strain A/California/04/2009 H1N1pdm. Dual intranasal immunization with vaccine compound consisting of 7.5 µg of each hemagglutinin and 500 µg of CTE in 50 µl induced reciprocal GMT on day 21 after immunization 40 (5-640) against H1N1pdm; 43.20 (5-1280) against H3N2; 10.80 (5-80) against influenza B. Animals with HI titers 1/80 against cell-derived antigen were completely protected against challenge with A/California/04/2009 H1N1pdm09.
- Contemporaneous data on the prevalence of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus infection in people with acute respiratory tract infections in Africa (2000-2017). [Journal Article]
- DBData Brief 2018; 20:940-947
- Availability of accurate data on the burden of the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (HRSV) can help to implement better strategies to curb this burden in Africa continent among people with acute res...
Availability of accurate data on the burden of the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (HRSV) can help to implement better strategies to curb this burden in Africa continent among people with acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI). We summarize here available contemporaneous data published from January 1, 2000 to August 31, 2017 on the prevalence of HSRV infection among people with ARTI in the continent.
- A healthy infant with bloody tears: Case report and mini-review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- SJSaudi J Ophthalmol 2018 Jul-Sep; 32(3):246-249
- A 4-month old healthy infant was brought by her parents to the emergency department with bloody tears of three days duration. There was also intermittent yellowish discharge since birth and a history...
A 4-month old healthy infant was brought by her parents to the emergency department with bloody tears of three days duration. There was also intermittent yellowish discharge since birth and a history of flu-like symptoms a week prior to presentation. Extensive investigations revealed no infection or other possible etiologies. The patient was treated with antibiotic eye drops and her condition resolved within a three-four days. In the literature, 15 cases with haemolacria of undermined source were reviewed; the median age of onset (12 years), bilateral involvement and female gender were more commonly encountered, and the most common associated illnesses were headache and epistaxis. The condition is self-limiting and spontaneous resolution is seen in majority of cases. Idiopathic haemolacria is a rare condition that can be presumed in patients presenting with bloody tears when all work-up turns to be negative. The condition is self-limiting with spontaneous resolution.
- Optimization of cell-laden bioinks for 3D bioprinting and efficient infection with influenza A virus. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Sep 17; 8(1):13877
- Bioprinting is a new technology, which arranges cells with high spatial resolution, but its potential to create models for viral infection studies has not yet been fully realized. The present study d...
Bioprinting is a new technology, which arranges cells with high spatial resolution, but its potential to create models for viral infection studies has not yet been fully realized. The present study describes the optimization of a bioink composition for extrusion printing. The bioinks were biophysically characterized by rheological and electron micrographic measurements. Hydrogels consisting of alginate, gelatin and Matrigel were used to provide a scaffold for a 3D arrangement of human alveolar A549 cells. A blend containing 20% Matrigel provided the optimal conditions for spatial distribution and viability of the printed cells. Infection of the 3D model with a seasonal influenza A strain resulted in widespread distribution of the virus and a clustered infection pattern that is also observed in the natural lung but not in two-dimensional (2D) cell culture, which demonstrates the advantage of 3D printed constructs over conventional culture conditions. The bioink supported viral replication and proinflammatory interferon release of the infected cells. We consider our strategy to be paradigmatic for the generation of humanized 3D tissue models by bioprinting to study infections and develop new antiviral strategies.
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- IL-17A Attenuates IFN-λ Expression by Inducing Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Expression in Airway Epithelium. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Immunol 2018 Sep 17
- IFN-λ is a cytokine expressed in epithelial tissues and plays a central role in antiviral mucosal immune response. The expression of IFN-λ in the airway is impaired in chronic airway diseases (e.g., ...
IFN-λ is a cytokine expressed in epithelial tissues and plays a central role in antiviral mucosal immune response. The expression of IFN-λ in the airway is impaired in chronic airway diseases (e.g., asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), which renders patients susceptible to viral infection. IL-17A is associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease pathogenesis; however, IL-17A regulation of IFN-λ expression remains unclear. The aim of the current study is to clarify IL-17A-mediated regulatory mechanisms of IFN-λ expression in human airway epithelial cells. In this study, we have shown that polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) and influenza A virus (IAV) infection increased IFN-λ expression at mRNA and protein levels in primary cultures of normal human bronchial epithelial cells, whereas IL-17A attenuated polyI:C- or IAV-induced IFN-λ expression. IFN-λ receptor 1 knockdown and a JAK inhibitor, ruxolitinib, attenuated polyI:C-induced IFN-λ expression, confirming that a positive autocrine feedback loop, the IFN-λ receptor-JAK-STAT pathway, was involved in IFN-λ expression. In Western blotting analysis, we demonstrated that polyI:C and IAV infection induced STAT1 phosphorylation in normal human bronchial epithelial cells, whereas IL-17A suppressed polyI:C- or IAV-mediated STAT1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, we found that cotreatment with IL-17A and polyI:C or IAV infection synergistically increased suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 and SOCS3 expression. SOCS1 small interfering RNA and SOCS3 small interfering RNA negated the inhibitory effect of IL-17A in polyI:C-induced IFN-λ expression by restoring attenuated STAT1 phosphorylation. Taken together, these findings indicate that IL-17A attenuates virus-induced IFN-λ expression by enhancing SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression to inhibit autocrine signaling loops in human airway epithelial cells.