- Receipt of other routinely recommended vaccines relative to receipt of seasonal influenza vaccines: Trends from medicare administrative data, 2013-2015. [Journal Article]
- VVaccine 2018 Jun 13
- Annual influenza vaccination campaigns emphasize the importance of getting vaccinated against influenza. These campaigns offer potential opportunities to raise awareness of all vaccines. We explored ...
Annual influenza vaccination campaigns emphasize the importance of getting vaccinated against influenza. These campaigns offer potential opportunities to raise awareness of all vaccines. We explored the peak timing of the receipt of influenza and other routinely recommended vaccinations. We examined administrative claims data of 31 million Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries, eligible to receive vaccinations administered from 2013 to 2015 from Medicare Part B (medical insurance) and Medicare Part D (prescription drug benefit). From 2013 to 2015, 88% of over 50 million influenza vaccination claims occurred in September, October, and November. Claims for pneumococcal (42%), herpes zoster (36%), and tetanus-containing (32%) vaccines were also concentrated during these months. For pneumococcal vaccines, this concentration occurred across various provider settings, including traditional doctor's offices, pharmacies, and hospitals. Herpes zoster (92%) and tetanus-containing (72%) vaccines were largely administered in the pharmacy. Annual influenza vaccination efforts offer additional opportunities to assess, recommend, and administer other recommended vaccinations.
- Respiratory viruses among children with non-severe community-acquired pneumonia: A prospective cohort study. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Virol 2018 Jun 06; 105:77-83
- CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory viruses were detected in over 90% of the cases, out of which 70% had multiple viruses. Several viruses are more commonly found in multiple virus detection whereas other viruses are similarly found in sole and in multiple virus detection.
- The second-generation thiazolide haloxanide is a potent inhibitor of avian influenza virus replication. [Journal Article]
- ARAntiviral Res 2018 Jun 13
- The emergence of new avian influenza virus (AIV) strains able to infect humans represents a serious threat to global human health. In addition to surveillance and vaccine development, antiviral thera...
The emergence of new avian influenza virus (AIV) strains able to infect humans represents a serious threat to global human health. In addition to surveillance and vaccine development, antiviral therapy remains crucial for AIV control; however, the increase in drug-resistant AIV strains underscores the need for novel approaches to anti-influenza chemotherapy. We have previously shown that the thiazolide anti-infective nitazoxanide (NTZ) inhibits influenza A/PuertoRico/8/1934(H1N1) virus replication, and this effect was associated with inhibition of viral hemagglutinin (HA) maturation. Herein we investigated the activity of the second-generation thiazolide haloxanide (HLN) against H5N9, H7N1 and H1N1 AIV infection in vitro, and explored the mechanism of the antiviral action. Using the A/chicken/Italy/9097/1997(H5N9) AIV as a model, we show that HLN and its precursor p-haloxanide are more effective than NTZ against AIV, with IC50 ranging from 0.03 to 0.1 μg/ml, and SI ranging from 200 to >700, depending on the multiplicity of infection. Haloxanide did not affect AIV entry into target cells and did not cause a general inhibition of viral protein expression, whereas it acted at post-translational level by inhibiting HA maturation at a stage preceding resistance to endoglycosidase-H digestion. Importantly, this effect was independent of the AIV-HA subtype and the host cell. Immunomicroscopy and receptor-binding studies confirmed that HLN-induced alterations impair AIV-HA trafficking to the host cell plasma membrane, a key step for viral morphogenesis. The results indicate that haloxanide could provide a new tool for treatment of avian influenza virus infections.
- Prevalence of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus infection in people with acute respiratory tract infections in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- IOInfluenza Other Respir Viruses 2018 Jun 16
- CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a high prevalence of HRSV in people with ARTI in Africa, particularly among children and people with severe clinical form. All innovative strategies to curb the burden should first focus on children which present the highest HRSV related burden. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Modelling the population effectiveness of the national seasonal influenza vaccination programme in Scotland: the impact of targeting all individuals aged 65 years and over Flu Vaccination Programme Effectiveness. [Journal Article]
- IOInfluenza Other Respir Viruses 2018 Jun 16
- CONCLUSIONS: Routinely vaccinating those aged 65+ years appears to have reduced influenza related morbidity and mortality in Scotland. With the childhood vaccination programme well underway, these data provide an importance benchmark which can be used to accurately assess the impact of this new seasonal influenza vaccination programme. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Saliva as a diagnostic specimen for testing respiratory virus by a point-of-care molecular assay: a diagnostic validity study. [Journal Article]
- CMClin Microbiol Infect 2018 Jun 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Saliva specimen has high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of respiratory viruses by an automated multiplex Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-waived point-of-care molecular assay when compared with that of NPA. The use of saliva also reduces the time and cost associated with specimen collection.
- Are we missing respiratory viral infections in infants and children? Comparison of a hospital-based quality management system with standard of care. [Journal Article]
- CMClin Microbiol Infect 2018 Jun 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Disease-burden estimates and surveillance should account for the underreporting of cases in routine care. Future studies should explore the effect of ILI-screening and surveillance in various age groups and settings. Diagnostic algorithms could be based on the WHO ILI definition combined with targeted testing.
- Influenza A Virus Facilitates Its Infectivity by Activating p53 to Inhibit the Expression of Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Proteins. [Journal Article]
- FIFront Immunol 2018; 9:1193
- Human influenza virus (IAV) are among the most common pathogens to cause human respiratory infections. A better understanding on interplay between IAV and host factors may provide clues for disease p...
Human influenza virus (IAV) are among the most common pathogens to cause human respiratory infections. A better understanding on interplay between IAV and host factors may provide clues for disease prevention and control. While many viruses are known to downregulate p53 upon entering the cell to reduce the innate host antiviral response, IAV infection is unusual in that it activates p53. However, it has not been clear whether this process has proviral or antiviral effects. In this study, using human isogenic p53 wild-type and p53null A549 cells generated from the CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we observed that p53null cells exhibit significantly reduced viral propagation when infected with influenza A virus (strain A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 H1N1). Genome-wide microarray analysis revealed that p53 regulates the expression of a large set of interferon-inducible genes, among which the interferon-induced transmembrane family members IFITM1, IFITM2, and IFITM3 were most significantly downregulated by the expression of p53. Knockdown of interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) by short interfering RNAs enhanced influenza virus infectivity in p53null A549 cells, while overexpressed IFITMs in A549 cells blocked virus entry. Intriguingly, regulation of IFITMs by p53 is independent of its transcriptional activity, as the p53 short isoform Δ40p53 recapitulates IFITM regulation. Taken together, these data reveal that p53 activation by IAV is an essential step in maintaining its infectivity. This novel association between human p53 and the broad spectrum antiviral proteins, the IFITMs, demonstrates a previous mechanism employed by influenza virus to enhance its propagation via p53 inhibition of IFITMs.
- Influenza A virus-derived siRNAs increase in the absence of NS1 yet fail to inhibit virus replication. [Journal Article]
- RNARNA 2018 Jun 14
- While the issue of whether RNA interference (RNAi) ever forms part of the antiviral innate immune response in mammalian somatic cells remains controversial, there is considerable evidence demonstrati...
While the issue of whether RNA interference (RNAi) ever forms part of the antiviral innate immune response in mammalian somatic cells remains controversial, there is considerable evidence demonstrating that few, if any, viral small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are produced in infected cells. Moreover, inhibition of RNAi by mutational inactivation of key RNAi factors, such as Dicer or Argonaute 2, fails to enhance virus replication. One potential explanation for this lack of inhibitory effect is that mammalian viruses encode viral suppressors of RNAi (VSRs) that are so effective that viral siRNAs are not produced in infected cells. Indeed, a number of mammalian VSRs have been described, of which the most prominent is the influenza A virus (IAV) NS1 protein, which has not only been reported to inhibit RNAi in plants and insects but also to prevent the production of viral siRNAs in IAV-infected human cells. Here, we confirm that an IAV mutant lacking NS1 indeed differs from wild type IAV in that it induces the production of readily detectable levels of Dicer-dependent viral siRNAs in infected human cells. However, we also demonstrate that these siRNAs have little if any inhibitory effect on IAV gene expression. This is likely due, at least in part, to their inefficient loading into the RNA-induced silencing complexes.
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- Predictors and temporal trend of flu vaccination in auto-immune rheumatic diseases in the UK: a nationwide prospective cohort study. [Journal Article]
- RRheumatology (Oxford) 2018 Jun 12
- CONCLUSIONS: SIV uptake is low in the under 65s, and the majority of them are not vaccinated in time. Additional effort is required to promote timely uptake of SIV in this population.