- Elimination of Pathogens of Significance in Food by Low-dose Irradiation: A Review. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Food Prot 1994; 57(1):73-86
- Food irradiation is a processing technology that has been shown to be a wholesome process by many scientific studies conducted worldwide during the past 40 years. The research has been supported by t…
Food irradiation is a processing technology that has been shown to be a wholesome process by many scientific studies conducted worldwide during the past 40 years. The research has been supported by the World Health Organization, the Food and Agricultural Organization, and govemmental agencies in many different countries. Industrial support also has been substantial. Some of the benefits ascribed to this technology include improved shelf life, reduced use of Chemicals as preservatives, and reduced levels of pathogens in foods. Pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes , Yersinia enterocolitica , and Aeromonas hydrophila are capable of growing at temperatures as low as 0°C and are considered to pose a threat to the safety of refrigerated products. The number of cases of foodborne illness caused by contamination by Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. continues to increase. Researchers have been investigating ways in which food safety can be improved without sacrificing product quality and wholesomeness. The sensitivity of these pathogens to low-dose irradiation has been studied in several food products. Survival curves have been elucidated, and some studies on the effects of storage atmosphere, storage temperature, heating, and various treatments in combination with irradiation have been conducted. This review presents background information on this technology, with an emphasis on the radiation sensitivity of some pathogens of importance. Suggestions for future work in this area are also discussed.
- Disinfectant and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Campylobacter coli Isolated in 1998 to 1999 and 2015 from Swine and Commercial Pork Chops. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Food Sci 2019 May 22
- Susceptibility profiles were determined for 111 Campylobacter coli strains obtained in 1998 to 1999 and 2015 from market age pigs and pork chops against 22 disinfectants and 9 antimicrobials. Resista…
Susceptibility profiles were determined for 111 Campylobacter coli strains obtained in 1998 to 1999 and 2015 from market age pigs and pork chops against 22 disinfectants and 9 antimicrobials. Resistance to tetracycline (TET) was observed in 44.4% of 1998 to 1999 strains, and the antibiotic resistance profile was TET. But strains obtained in 2015 from swine and retail pork chops had 75% TET resistance and the antibiotic resistance profile was TET, followed by azithromycin-erythromycin-TET-telithromycin-clindamycin. Antimicrobial resistance increased in 2015 strains. All strains were resistant to triclosan, and 84.1% and 95.8% of strains in 1998 to 1999 and 2015, respectively, were chlorhexidine resistant. All strains were susceptible to benzalkonium chloride. There was a shift toward higher susceptibility to chlorhexidine, triclosan, P-128, OdoBan, CPB, and CPC in 2015 swine and pork chop strains compared with 1998 to 1999 strains. The disinfectants Tek-Trol and providone-iodine, tris(hydroxylmethyl)nitromethane (THN) and formaldehyde demonstrated the highest susceptibilities. Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (C10AC) appeared to be about equally effective as benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (C14BAC) for inhibiting C. coli, and both were more effective than C8AC and C12BAC, but C16BAC was not efficient at inhibiting C. coli. The BACs, C12BAC and C14BAC, were the most effective ingredients in DC&R. Also, C12BAC and C14BAC, or these two in synergy with C10AC were responsible for inhibition of C. coli at high P-128 MICs. No cross-resistance was observed between antibiotics and disinfectants. The continued use of THN and formaldehyde in DC&R should be evaluated since these components are not effective, and their inclusion adds unwanted chemicals in the environment. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Campylobacter species cause diarrheal disease throughout the world. Disinfectants are often used on the farm, in veterinary medicine, by the food processing industry, in restaurants, and in consumer's homes. Limited information is available in the literature showing how disinfectants or disinfectant components may affect the many different foodborne pathogens, and, specifically, Campylobacter coli studied here. The knowledge generated in this study concerning the interactions of a broad array of disinfectants against C. coli may well affect the types of disinfectants and disinfectant formulations allowable for use by medical personnel, producers, food processors, restaurants, and consumers.
- The occurrence and co-occurrence of aflatoxin and fumonisin along the maize value chain in southwest Nigeria. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem Toxicol 2019 May 11; 129:458-465
- Aflatoxin and fumonisin are two major foodborne mycotoxins: toxic chemicals produced by fungi that contaminate food commodities including maize, a staple food in sub-Saharan Africa. Aflatoxin causes …
Aflatoxin and fumonisin are two major foodborne mycotoxins: toxic chemicals produced by fungi that contaminate food commodities including maize, a staple food in sub-Saharan Africa. Aflatoxin causes liver cancer, and is associated with acute liver toxicity and immunotoxicity; while fumonisin is associated with neural tube defects in infants and esophageal cancer. Both mycotoxins have been associated with child growth impairment. Previous studies suggest that co-occurrence of these mycotoxins may have potentially synergistic toxicological effects. Despite health risks associated with co-occurrence of these mycotoxins, no study has examined their co-occurrence along key food supply chains in Africa. This study is the first report that examines the occurrence and co-occurrence of aflatoxins and fumonisins along the maize value chain in Nigeria. All samples were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. About 52% and 21% of the samples had aflatoxin levels above the Nigerian and US standards for human food, respectively. Though no regulatory limits exist for fumonisin in Nigeria, 13% of the samples contained fumonisin levels higher than the US regulatory limit. Aflatoxin levels can become dangerously high in maize stored four months or longer. Adequately addressing mycotoxin risk requires consideration of the entire maize value chain and associated value chains for food production.
- Emerging Point-of-care Technologies for Food Safety Analysis. [Review]
- SSensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 17; 19(4)
- Food safety issues have recently attracted public concern. The deleterious effects of compromised food safety on health have rendered food safety analysis an approach of paramount importance. While c…
Food safety issues have recently attracted public concern. The deleterious effects of compromised food safety on health have rendered food safety analysis an approach of paramount importance. While conventional techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry have traditionally been utilized for the detection of food contaminants, they are relatively expensive, time-consuming and labor intensive, impeding their use for point-of-care (POC) applications. In addition, accessibility of these tests is limited in developing countries where food-related illnesses are prevalent. There is, therefore, an urgent need to develop simple and robust diagnostic POC devices. POC devices, including paper- and chip-based devices, are typically rapid, cost-effective and user-friendly, offering a tremendous potential for rapid food safety analysis at POC settings. Herein, we discuss the most recent advances in the development of emerging POC devices for food safety analysis. We first provide an overview of common food safety issues and the existing techniques for detecting food contaminants such as foodborne pathogens, chemicals, allergens, and toxins. The importance of rapid food safety analysis along with the beneficial use of miniaturized POC devices are subsequently reviewed. Finally, the existing challenges and future perspectives of developing the miniaturized POC devices for food safety monitoring are briefly discussed.
- A retrospective cohort study on cassava food poisoning, Santa Cruz, Davao del Sur, Philippines, October 2015. [Case Reports]
- WPWestern Pac Surveill Response J 2018 Oct-Dec; 9(4):7-11
- On 2 October 2015, the Event-Based Surveillance and Response Unit of the Department of Health (DOH), Philippines received a report of foodborne illness cases in Santa Cruz, Davao del Sur. A team from…
On 2 October 2015, the Event-Based Surveillance and Response Unit of the Department of Health (DOH), Philippines received a report of foodborne illness cases in Santa Cruz, Davao del Sur. A team from DOH was sent to conduct an investigation to identify the implicated source and determine risk factors.
- Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae) Aerial Parts at Flowering Period. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Plant Sci 2019; 10:27
- Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae) is a Brazilian native bush tree, and its leaf essential oil has been reported to possess some biological activities, but the antimicrobial activity of its ae…
Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae) is a Brazilian native bush tree, and its leaf essential oil has been reported to possess some biological activities, but the antimicrobial activity of its aerial part essential oil at the flowering period is unknown or little studied, mainly against agents that cause foodborne diseases. Thus, this study aimed to determine the chemical composition and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of B. dracunculifolia aerial part at flowering period. This essential oil was obtained by hydro distillation and its chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, and minimum fungicidal concentration of the essential oil were evaluated against eight bacteria and eight fungi using 96-well microtiter plates. The essential oil yield was 1.8 ± 0.07%, and spathulenol (27%) and trans-nerolidol (23%), both oxygenated sesquiterpenes, were the major compounds found among 30 chemical constituents identified. The essential oil presented bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities, mainly against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and also fungistatic and fungicidal activities. However, its antibacterial activity was more effective than the antifungal one by using the essential oil at lower concentrations. Essential oil of B. dracunculifolia may be a potential alternative for food applications in order to reduce synthetic chemicals in a more sustainable food industry.
- A role for taste receptors in (neuro)endocrinology? [Review]
- JNJ Neuroendocrinol 2019; 31(3):e12691
- The sense of taste is positioned at the forefront when it comes to the interaction of our body with foodborne chemicals. However, the role of our taste system, and in particular its associated taste …
The sense of taste is positioned at the forefront when it comes to the interaction of our body with foodborne chemicals. However, the role of our taste system, and in particular its associated taste receptors, is not limited to driving food preferences leading to ingestion or rejection before other organs take over responsibility for nutrient digestion, absorption and metabolic regulation. Taste sensory elements do much more. On the one hand, extra-oral taste receptors from the brain to the gut continue to sense nutrients and noxious substances after ingestion and, on the other hand, the nutritional state feeds back on the taste system. This intricate regulatory network is orchestrated by endocrine factors that are secreted in response to taste receptor signalling and, in turn regulate the taste receptor cells themselves. The present review summarises current knowledge on the endocrine regulation of the taste perceptual system and the release of hunger/satiety regulating factors by gastrointestinal taste receptors. Furthermore, the regulation of blood glucose levels via the activation of pancreatic sweet taste receptors and subsequent insulin secretion, as well as the influence of bitter compounds on thyroid hormone release, is addressed. Finally, the central effects of tastants are discussed briefly.
- The reduction of Salmonella on chicken skin by the combination of sodium dodecyl sulfate with antimicrobial chemicals and coating wax microemulsions. [Journal Article]
- PSPoult Sci 2019 Jun 01; 98(6):2615-2621
- Chickens with high populations of various microorganisms arrive at processing facilities. Salmonella species are one of the important foodborne pathogens commonly found in poultry products. Various i…
Chickens with high populations of various microorganisms arrive at processing facilities. Salmonella species are one of the important foodborne pathogens commonly found in poultry products. Various intervention strategies are implemented during poultry processing to reduce microorganisms in the products, including pre-scald bird brushes, multi-stage scalding, antimicrobial applications, etc. In this study, the effects of adding sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to chlorine (Cl) and peracetic acid (PAA) against Salmonella were investigated. In addition, the efficacy of wax coating the skin to reduce Salmonella attachment was studied. Skin samples were collected following the 4 different methods of (1) euthanized-dry hand-de-feathered carcasses, (2) carcasses rinsed in tap water and mechanically de-feathered, (3) carcasses soft scalded and mechanically de-feathered, and (4) from carcasses hard scalded and mechanically de-feathered. It was shown that 0.5% SDS was able to reduce Salmonella both loosely (34, 28, 42, and 13%, respectively) and firmly (29, 39, 32, and 53%, respectively) attached in the 0.005% Cl-treated samples, but did not increase antimicrobial efficacy of 0.2% PAA. Moreover, carnauba wax coating significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced Salmonella attachment on all 4 types of chicken skins, 1.57, 0.71, 0.74, and 0.84 log cfu/sample on dry hand de-feathered, tap water rinsed, soft-scalded and hard-scalded chicken skins, respectively. Beeswax coating did not affect Salmonella attachment regardless of types of chicken skins. Overall, the addition of SDS improved antimicrobial activity of Cl, but not for PAA. Moreover, carnauba wax coating was an effective intervention to reduce Salmonella on chicken skin.
- Improving the shelf-life and quality of fresh and minimally-processed fruits and vegetables for a modern food industry: A comprehensive critical review from the traditional technologies into the most promising advancements. [Journal Article]
- CRCrit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2019 Jan 07; :1-36
- The market size of fresh and minimally-processed fruits and vegetables (MPFVs) have grown rapidly in the last years as a result of consumer attitudes change due to their increasing use in prepared mi…
The market size of fresh and minimally-processed fruits and vegetables (MPFVs) have grown rapidly in the last years as a result of consumer attitudes change due to their increasing use in prepared mixed salad for fresh, healthy and convenient food. Handling and mechanical operations of cutting and peeling induce injures and release of on-site cellular contents which promote the growth of harmful microbes. Chlorine has been widely adopted in fresh and MPFVs disinfection in washing due to its low cost and high efficacy against a broad spectrum of microorganisms; but, continuous replenishment of chlorine into high organic wash water can promote the formation of suspected carcinogenic compounds. There is a real need to find new alternatives to chlorine to preserve MPFVs quality for longer time. Although several methods and chemicals can be used to achieve similar reduction of microorganism counts without the production of harmful compounds, nor compromising the quality of MPFVs produce, fewer amount of them have gained widespread acceptance by the food industry. The challenge of this work was to give an upgraded level of understanding for producers and retailers to underpin future research directions for a modern food industry in order to resolve existing issues that limit fresh-cut quality and shelf-life. This paper covers a comprehensive review to improve shelf-life and quality of MPFVs, from the traditional technologies toward the most promising advancements.
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- An assay for determining the susceptibility of Salmonella isolates to commercial and household biocides. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(12):e0209072
- Poultry and meat products contaminated with Salmonella enterica are a major cause of foodborne illness in the United States. The food industries use a wide variety of antimicrobial interventions to r…
Poultry and meat products contaminated with Salmonella enterica are a major cause of foodborne illness in the United States. The food industries use a wide variety of antimicrobial interventions to reduce bacterial contamination. However, little is known about Salmonella susceptibility to these compounds and some studies have shown a concerning link between biocide resistance and antibiotic resistance. To investigate this, a 96 well panel of 17 common household and commercially used biocides was designed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of these compounds for Salmonella. The panel contained two-fold serial dilutions of chemicals including Dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DC), Benzalkonium chloride (BKC), Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HB), Hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (HC), Acetic acid (AA), Lactic acid (LA), Citric acid (CA), Peroxyacetic acid (PXA), Acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), Sodium hypochlorite (SHB), 1,3 dibromo, 5,5 dimethylhydantoin (DBH), Chlorhexidine (CHX), Sodium metasilicate (SM), Trisodium phosphate (TSP), Arsenite (ARI), and Arsenate (ARA). The assay was used to test the susceptibility of 88 multidrug resistant (MDR) Salmonella isolates from animal sources. Bacteria are defined as multidrug resistant (MDR) if it exhibited non-susceptibility to at least one agent in three or more antimicrobial categories. The concentration of biocide at which ≥50% of the isolates could not grow was designated as the minimum inhibitory concentration or MIC50 and was used as the breakpoint in this study. The MIC50 (μg ml-1) for the tested MDR Salmonella was 256 for DC, 40 for BKC, 80 for CPC. HB and HC, 1,640 for AA, 5664 for LA, 3,156 for CA, 880 for PXA, 320 for ASC, 3.0 for CHX, 1,248 for DBH, 3,152 (6%) for SHB, 60,320 for SM, 37,712 for TSP, 56 for ARI and 832 for ARA. A few isolates were not susceptible at the MIC50 breakpoint to some chemicals indicating possible resistance. Isolates with MICs of two 2-fold dilutions above the MIC50 were considered resistant. Biocides for which resistant isolates were detected included CPC (n = 1 isolate), HB (1), CA (18), ASC (7), CHX (22), ARA (16), and ARI (4). There was no correlation detected between the biocide susceptibility of Salmonella isolates and antibiotic resistance. This assay can determine the MICs of bacteria to 17 biocides in a single test and will be useful in evaluating the efficacy of biocides and to detect the development of resistance to them.