- Frequency of Macroprolactin in Hyperprolactinemia. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2018; 28(2):93-97
- CONCLUSIONS: High frequency of MaPRL was identified in patients with hyperprolactinemia. Screening with PEG precipitation in hyperprolactinemic sera is simple and cost-effective.
- Hyperprolactinemic Galactorrhea as a Side Effect of Aripiprazole: An Adolescent Case (Aripiprazole-Related Hyperprolactinemic Galactorrhea). [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Psychopharmacol 2018 Jan 23
- GeneReviews® [BOOK]
- BOOKUniversity of Washington, Seattle: Seattle (WA)
- Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome includes varying combinations of more than 20 endocrine and non-endocrine tumors. Endocrine tumors become evident either by overproduction of hormo...
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome includes varying combinations of more than 20 endocrine and non-endocrine tumors. Endocrine tumors become evident either by overproduction of hormones by the tumor or by growth of the tumor itself.Parathyroid tumorsare the main MEN1-associated endocrinopathy; onset in 90% of individuals is between ages 20 and 25 years with hypercalcemia evident by age 50 years; hypercalcemia causes lethargy, depression, confusion, anorexia, constipation, nausea, vomiting, diuresis, dehydration, hypercalciuria, kidney stones, increased bone resorption/fracture risk, hypertension, and shortened QT interval.Pituitary tumorsinclude prolactinoma (the most common), which manifests as oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea and galactorrhea in females and sexual dysfunction in males.Well-differentiated endocrine tumors of the gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) tractcan manifest as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma); hypoglycemia (insulinoma); hyperglycemia, anorexia, glossitis, anemia, diarrhea, venous thrombosis, and skin rash (glucagonoma); and watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, and achlorhydria syndrome (vasoactive intestinal peptide [VIP]-secreting tumor).Carcinoid tumorsare non-hormone-secreting and can manifest as a large mass after age 50 years.Adrenocortical tumorscan be associated with primary hypercortisolism or hyperaldosteronism. Non-endocrine tumors include facial angiofibromas, collagenomas, lipomas, meningiomas, ependymomas, and leiomyomas.
- Intrasellar cavernous hemangioma presenting as pituitary adenoma: A report of two cases and review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- CNClin Neuropathol 2017 Nov 30
- Cavernous hemangioma in the sellar region is quite rare with only a handful of cases being reported in the English literature. Its clinical manifestations and imaging characteristics can mimic those ...
Cavernous hemangioma in the sellar region is quite rare with only a handful of cases being reported in the English literature. Its clinical manifestations and imaging characteristics can mimic those of a pituitary adenoma. We report two cases of recurrent sellar lesions, both of which were clinically suspected of being pituitary adenomas but histologically confirmed as cavernous hemangiomas. The first case is of a 67-year-old female whose initial resection was diagnosed as "venous angioma". Neuroimaging performed 27 years later demonstrated significant growth of the lesion involving the right cavernous sinus and encasing the right internal carotid artery. The patient then underwent transsphenoidal endoscopic resection of the mass. At the time of the surgery, the lesion was noted to be quite vascular. The second case is a 48-year-old female who underwent emergency resection of a pituitary mass following an apoplectic event. On follow-up 4 years later, the patient reported recurrence of galactorrhea, and MRI had demonstrated regrowth of the mass. She subsequently underwent subtotal resection of the mass. At the time of surgery, brisk bleeding was noted in the operative area. The above two cases demonstrate that cavernous hemangiomas in the sellar region can clinically and radiologically mimic pituitary adenoma and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hemorrhagic sellar mass. .
- Macroprolactinemia and Empty Sella Syndrome. [Case Reports]
- PAPan Afr Med J 2017; 27:278
- Macroprolactinemia is a polymeric form of prolactin-release, causing mildly symptomatic clinical pictures. The former can be isolated or associated with other causes of hyperprolactinemia. The associ...
Macroprolactinemia is a polymeric form of prolactin-release, causing mildly symptomatic clinical pictures. The former can be isolated or associated with other causes of hyperprolactinemia. The association with an empty sella syndrome is rare. We report a case of a female patient discovered with this association. It's about a female patient 47 years old, followed up since the age of 31 years for bilateral galactorrhea and a spaniomenorrhea. There has been no associated drug intake. Her exploration has showed a serum prolactin level of 635 mIU/L. Thyroid test results were normal T4 = 10,2ng/L and TSH = 1.76 mIU/L. A brain scan has showed an empty sella turcica. Despite the unchanged levels of prolactinemia, the evolution under dopaminergic 5 mg /D has been marked by the occurrence of a pregnancy with persistent moderate hyperprolactinemia in the postpartum. Chromatography has showed a predominance of the macroprolactin form with: Prolactin monomer at 4.8%, Big Prolactin at 5% and Big Big Prolactin at 83%, thus stopping bromocriptine. Our observation suggests that macroprolactinemia can be associated with conventional etiologies of moderate hyperprolactinemia as the empty sella syndrome. Its detection would prevent the use of dopaminergic therapy which seems not useful.
- Impact of macroprolactin on galactorrhea and the rate of patients possibly affected by macroprolactin. [Journal Article]
- EJEndocr J 2017 Nov 22
- The clinical influence of macroprolactin (MPRL) is not clearly understood and the rate of patients potentially affected by MPRL is unknown. We investigated the influence of MPRL on the onset of galac...
The clinical influence of macroprolactin (MPRL) is not clearly understood and the rate of patients potentially affected by MPRL is unknown. We investigated the influence of MPRL on the onset of galactorrhea and estimated the rate of patients with a proportion of MPRL fraction that may possibly affect galactorrhea. Data of patients with obstetric or gynecological symptoms who had undergone PRL fractionation testing were retrospectively analyzed. To evaluate factors influencing galactorrhea, a multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed and the adjusted odds ratios of MPRL for galactorrhea were calculated. Cutoff values for the total PRL level and the proportion of MPRL fractions for galactorrhea were determined by ROC analysis using a multivariate logistic model. The prevalence of patients with a proportion of MPRL fraction greater than or equal to the cutoff value for galactorrhea was estimated. The median proportion of MPRL fraction was 30.1% and increased as PRL level increased. Total PRL and MPRL had a significant influence on the onset of galactorrhea and the adjusted odds ratio was 1.09 in total PRL and 0.94 in MPRL. The rate of patients with a proportion of MPRL fraction that may possibly affect galactorrhea was estimated to be 33.5% of the study population, and thus found to be twelve times or more the number of macroprolactinemia patients. Future prospects for hyperprolactinemia may require diagnostic criteria using free prolactin levels and so MPRL fraction measurement is important for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with obstetric and gynecological symptoms.
- [Hyperprolactinemia with galactorrhea induced by lansoprazole: A case report]. [Case Reports]
- TTherapie 2017; 72(6):691-693
- The mechanism of selfheal extract in treating hyperprolactinemia. [Journal Article]
- CBCancer Biomark 2017 Dec 06; 20(4):575-580
- CONCLUSIONS: Selfheal extract treated hyperprolactinemia through dopamine D2 receptor with significant effect.
- [Prolactin-secreting microadenoma in menopausal women]. [Case Reports]
- PAPan Afr Med J 2017; 27:177
- Prolactin-secreting adenoma is rare in elderly women. Patient's clinical picture may be confused with that of menopause, making diagnosis sometimes difficult. We report the case of a 57-year old woma...
Prolactin-secreting adenoma is rare in elderly women. Patient's clinical picture may be confused with that of menopause, making diagnosis sometimes difficult. We report the case of a 57-year old woman with a 2-year history of secondary amenorrhea without hot flushes associated with galactorrhea in order to highlight the peculiarities of prolactin-secreting microadenomas. Physical examination confirmed the diagnosis of galactorrhoea and biology showed hyperprolactinemia at mIU/L, FSH = 15.1 IU/L and LH = 4,1 IU/L. Pituitary MRI showed left adenoma measuring 8 mm. Patient's evolution under dopaminergic treatment was marked by the recovery, for a transitional period, of mestrual cycles and the occurrence of hot flushes, normalization of prolactin levels and reduction of adenoma size.
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- [Evaluation and treatment of nipple secretion]. [Journal Article]
- ULUgeskr Laeger 2017 Aug 07; 179(32)
- Nipple secretion is a common condition; it can occur in men and women, and be uni- or bilateral. It is related to hormonal changes, physical stimulation, intracerebral processes and certain drugs, an...
Nipple secretion is a common condition; it can occur in men and women, and be uni- or bilateral. It is related to hormonal changes, physical stimulation, intracerebral processes and certain drugs, and it is divided into three types: galactorrhoea, clear/bloody or viscous. Only the clear/bloody type is an indication of breast malignancy. Malignancy should always be ruled out in the presence of breast tumours. Treatment is determined by aetiology, and can vary from patient education, medications to surgery.