- Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy applied in pediatrics: endoscopic and histological findings, including Helicobacter pylori. [Journal Article]
- RGRev Gastroenterol Peru 2018 Jan-Mar; 38(1):40-43
- CONCLUSIONS: pediatric endoscopy is an important niche of the digestive endoscopy, where it is important to emphasize the relevance of the institutional structure that performs these procedures, in order to conduct them safely, being able to treat possible and feasible complications.
- Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatric Patients: Update on Diagnosis and Eradication Strategies. [Review]
- PDPaediatr Drugs 2018 May 22
- Helicobacter pylori infection is acquired mainly in childhood and remains an essential cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. This article provides commentary on the last ESPGHAN/NASPGHAN ...
Helicobacter pylori infection is acquired mainly in childhood and remains an essential cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. This article provides commentary on the last ESPGHAN/NASPGHAN guidelines and on publications made after the consensus conference of 2015. The majority of infected children are asymptomatic and pediatric studies do not support a role for H. pylori in functional disorders such as recurrent abdominal pain. The role of H. pylori infection in failure to thrive, children's growth, type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and celiac disease remains controversial. The diagnosis of infection should be based on upper-digestive endoscopy with biopsy-based methods. Eradication control after treatment should be based on validated non-invasive tests. Nodular gastritis is the main endoscopic finding of childhood H. pylori infection, but gastroduodenal erosions/ulcers are seen in some children, especially after 10 years of age. When indicated, eradication treatment should be given when good compliance is expected and based on the antimicrobial susceptibility profile.
- Primary Gastric Lymphoma, Epidemiology, Clinical Diagnosis, and Treatment. [Journal Article]
- CCCancer Control 2018 Jan-Mar; 25(1):1073274818778256
- Primary gastric lymphoma (PGL) is the most common extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma and represents a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from indolent low-grade marginal zone lymphoma or mucosa-associate...
Primary gastric lymphoma (PGL) is the most common extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma and represents a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from indolent low-grade marginal zone lymphoma or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma to aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The PGL is a relatively rare cancer and easily misdiagnosed due to its unspecific symptoms of the digestive tract. The medical literature and ongoing clinical trials were reviewed on the clinical presentation, diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and treatment of PGL. Primary gastric lymphoma is an event in the course of cancer with a variable clinical presentation and a wide differential diagnosis. Chronic gastritis secondary to Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori) infection has been considered a major predisposing factor for MALT lymphoma. Magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography have helped in staging of these cancers. The clinical course and prognosis of this disease are dependent on histopathological subtype and stage at the time of diagnosis. A global therapeutic approach to the cure of PGL has completely changed over the past 10 years, including innovative and conservative options to reduce treatment toxicity. Due to the rarity of PGL, many aspects of this neoplasm are still controversial. The incidence of this disease is increasing, making it necessary for clinicians to understand the clinical symptoms, workup, and treatment of these lymphomas.
- Association of the Helicobacter pylori cagA, vacA, and iceA genotypes with chronic follicular gastritis in a Colombian population at high risk for gastric cancer. [Journal Article]
- RGRev Gastroenterol Mex 2018 May 16
- CONCLUSIONS: The population studied had elevated frequencies of cytotoxic Helicobacter pylori strains and the iceA1 genotype was more frequent in follicular gastritis.
- Presence of Helicobacter and Campylobacter species in faecal samples from zoo mammals. [Journal Article]
- VMVet Microbiol 2018; 219:49-52
- Helicobacter and Campylobacter species (spp.) colonize the gastrointestinal tract of various domesticated animals. Apart from their pathogenic significance in animals, several species are of zoonotic...
Helicobacter and Campylobacter species (spp.) colonize the gastrointestinal tract of various domesticated animals. Apart from their pathogenic significance in animals, several species are of zoonotic importance as well. For most non-domesticated animal spp., however, little is known on the presence and importance of these agents. Therefore, we investigated the presence of Helicobacter and Campylobacter spp. in marine and terrestrial zoo mammals. Faecal samples of various marine and terrestrial zoo mammals were collected from 6 different zoos in Belgium. These samples were tested for the presence of Helicobacter and Campylobacter spp. by isolation and direct demonstration of DNA using genus-specific PCRs, followed by sequencing of the obtained amplicons. Helicobacter spp. were detected in 12 and Campylobacter spp. in 5 of the 22 faecal samples from marine mammals. In 4 of 5 dolphins, H. cetorum was demonstrated, a well-known pathogen associated with gastritis and gastric ulceration in marine mammals. C. insulaenigrae was isolated from 4 of 6 sea lions and from 1 of 11 seals. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the presence of C. insulaenigrae on the European mainland. Helicobacter spp. were detected in 5 and Campylobacter spp. (mainly C. jejuni subsp. jejuni and C. coli) in 9 of the 26 faecal samples from terrestrial mammals. Potential novel enterohepatic Helicobacter spp. were detected in both marine and terrestrial zoo mammals. For the first time, the presence of several known and unknown Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. was demonstrated in the gastrointestinal tract of various marine and terrestrial zoo mammals. Further investigation is needed on the pathogenic and zoonotic importance of these species.
- Material basis research for Huangqi Jianzhong Tang against chronic atrophic gastritis rats through integration of urinary metabonomics and SystemsDock. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Ethnopharmacol 2018 May 17; 223:1-9
- CONCLUSIONS: he results showed that the approach integrating of metabonomics and systemsDock is a powerful tool to obtain the material basis and regulatory mechanism of TCM formula.
- Severity of gastric mucosal atrophy affects the healing speed of post-endoscopic submucosal dissection ulcers. [Journal Article]
- WJWorld J Gastrointest Endosc 2018 May 16; 10(5):83-92
- CONCLUSIONS: The healing speed of post-ESD ulcers was associated with the degree of gastric mucosal atrophy, and Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy is required to perform at younger age.
- High α-Tocopherol dosing increases lipid metabolism by changing redox state in damaged rat gastric mucosa and liver after ethanol treatment. [Journal Article]
- CSClin Sci (Lond) 2018 May 17
- Regeneration of ethanol-injured rat gastric mucosa must undergo changes in major metabolic pathways to achieve DNA replication and cell proliferation. These events are highly dependent on glucose uti...
Regeneration of ethanol-injured rat gastric mucosa must undergo changes in major metabolic pathways to achieve DNA replication and cell proliferation. These events are highly dependent on glucose utilization and inhibited by vitamin E (α-tocopherol) administration. Therefore, this study was aimed at assessing lipid metabolism in the gastric mucosa and ethanol-induced gastric damage and the effect of α-tocopherol administration. For this, rates of fatty acid β-oxidation and lipogenesis were tested in gastric mucosa samples. Through histological analysis, we found loss of the mucosa's superficial epithelium, which became gradually normalized during the recovery period. Proliferation of gastric mucosa occurred with augmented formation of β-oxidation by-products, diminished synthesis of triacylglycerols, as well as of phospholipids, and a reduced cytoplasmic NAD/NADH ratio, whereas the mitochondrial redox NAD/NADH ratio was much less affected. In addition, α-tocopherol increased palmitic acid utilization in the gastric mucosa, which was accompanied by the induction of "mirror image" effects on the cell redox state, reflected in an inhibited cell gastric mucosa proliferation by the vitamin administration. In conclusion, this study shows for the first time the role of lipid metabolism in the adaptive cell gastric mucosa changes that drive proliferation after a chronic insult. Moreover, α-tocopherol increased gastric mucosa utilization of palmitic acid associated with energy production. These events could be associated with its antioxidant properties in coordination with regulation of genes and cell pathways, including changes in the cell NAD/NADH redox state.
- Risk of gastric cancer development after eradication of Helicobacter pylori. [Review]
- WJWorld J Gastrointest Oncol 2018 May 15; 10(5):115-123
- Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the most important risk factor for gastric cancer (GC) development through the Correa's gastric carcinogenesis cascade. However, H. pylori eradication alo...
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the most important risk factor for gastric cancer (GC) development through the Correa's gastric carcinogenesis cascade. However, H. pylori eradication alone does not eliminate GC, as pre-neoplastic lesions (atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia) may have already developed in some patients. It is therefore necessary to identify patients at high-risk for gastric cancer after H. pylori eradication to streamline the management plan. If the patients have not undergone endoscopy with histologic assessment, the identification of certain clinical risk factors and non-invasive testing (serum pepsinogen) can predict the risk of atrophic gastritis. For those with suspected atrophic gastritis, further risk stratification by endoscopy with histologic assessment according to validated histologic staging systems would be advisable. Patients with higher stages may require long-term endoscopic surveillance. Apart from secondary prevention to reduce deaths by diagnosing GC at an early stage, identifying medications that could potentially modify the GC risk would be desirable. The potential roles of a number of medications have been suggested by various studies, including proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), aspirin, statins and metformin. However, there are currently no randomized clinical trials to address the impact of these medications on GC risk after H. pylori eradication. In addition, most of these studies failed to adjust for the effect of concurrent medications on GC risk. Recently, large population-based retrospective cohort studies have shown that PPIs were associated with an increased GC risk after H. pylori eradication, while aspirin was associated with a lower risk. The roles of other agents in reducing GC risk after H. pylori eradication remain to be determined.
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- Risk factors of Helicobacter pylori infection in an urban community in Northeast Brazil and the relationship between the infection and gastric diseases. [Journal Article]
- RSRev Soc Bras Med Trop 2018 Mar-Apr; 51(2):183-189
- CONCLUSIONS: The increased risk of H. pylori infection associated with non-treated water consumption indicates the need for improvements in public water treatment and better sanitary conditions because these can be a source of not only H. pylori infections but also other water-borne pathogen infections.