- Non-malignant Helicobacter pylori-Associated Diseases. [Journal Article]
- AEAdv Exp Med Biol 2019 Apr 24
- Helicobacter pylori infection of the human stomach is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease or gastric carcinoma, and thus a high burden for the public health systems worldwide. For…
Helicobacter pylori infection of the human stomach is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease or gastric carcinoma, and thus a high burden for the public health systems worldwide. Fortunately, only a small subfraction of up to 15-20% of infected individuals will develop serious complications. Unfortunately, it is not always known upfront, who will be affected by serious diesease outcome. For risk stratifications, it is therefore necessary to establish a common terminology and grading system, that can be applied worldwide to compare population data. The updated Sydney System for classification of gastritis with its semi-quantitative analogue scale is the system, that is currently used worldwide. Additionally, pathologists should always try to classify the etiology of the inflammatory infiltrates in the stomach to instruct the clinicians for choosing a proper treatment regime. Risk factors such as intestinal metaplasia, atrophy and scoring systems to classify these risk factors into a clinical context such as OLGA and OLGIM are discussed. Also, special forms of gastritis like lymphocytic gastritis, autoimmune gastritis and peptic ulcer disease are explained and discussed e.g. how to diagnose and how to treat. Extra-gastric sequelae of H. pylori infections inside and outside the stomach are shown in this chapter as well. Important host and bacterial risk factors such as pathogenicity islands are dicussed to draw a complete landscape around a H. pylori infection, that still can be diagnosed in patients. However, it needs to be noted that some countries have almost no H. pylori infection anymore, while others have still a very high frequency of infections with or without serious complications. The understanding and application of risk assessements may help to save money and quality of life. Extra-gastric H. pylori infections are rarely reported in the literature until today. The pathogenitiy is still under debate, but especially in the bile ducts and gallbladder, several pathological conditions may be also based on H. pylori infection, and will be also discussed.
- Helicobacter pylori Genetic Polymorphisms in Gastric Disease Development. [Journal Article]
- AEAdv Exp Med Biol 2019 Apr 24
- Infecting half of the world's population, Helicobacter pylori is a medically important bacterium that induces a variety of gastric diseases, including gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric can…
Infecting half of the world's population, Helicobacter pylori is a medically important bacterium that induces a variety of gastric diseases, including gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Sequencing of almost 1000 H. pylori isolates has revealed a diverse genome that contains abundant polymorphic genetic elements; many of these lie in factors likely to be associated with virulence. To ascertain the effect of these varying genetic elements, numerous epidemiological studies have investigated the contribution of the various polymorphisms to gastric disease development; particular focus has been placed on polymorphisms in the outer membrane proteins (OMPs), an effector protein, and a toxin produced by H. pylori. These studies have revealed geographic variation in the prevalence of various polymorphisms as well as in the associations between particular polymorphisms and gastric disease development. Furthermore, researchers have identified polymorphisms in multiple genes that frequently occur in combination. Though no single polymorphic genetic factor alone can fully account for gastric disease development in a population, the evaluation of multiple polymorphisms in a colonizing H. pylori strain can aid in the assessment of the pathogenic potential of the strain. Here we review specific H. pylori genetic polymorphisms (Bab proteins, Hom proteins, HopQ, SabA, SabB, OipA, IceA, VacA and CagA) that have been linked to disease outcome and discuss how geographic location and virulence factor polymorphisms together contribute to H. pylori-induced disease.
- Benign Gastric Ulcer with Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Mimicking Malignant Gastric Ulcer. [Journal Article]
- KJKorean J Gastroenterol 2019 Mar 25; 73(3):177-181
- Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the cause of infectious mononucleosis, which is characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, and sore throat. On the other hand, gastrointestinal symptoms of EBV infection lik…
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the cause of infectious mononucleosis, which is characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, and sore throat. On the other hand, gastrointestinal symptoms of EBV infection like dyspepsia, abdominal pain are non-specific and rarely encountered, which means it is difficult to diagnose gastric involvement of EBV infection without suspicion. The relation between gastric carcinoma and gastric lymphoma associated with EBV infection is well defined, but relations with other EBV-associated gastrointestinal diseases such as gastritis and peptic ulcer disease have rarely been reported. We report a case of benign gastric ulcer with EBV infection confirmed by endoscopic and histological findings.
- Prevalence and Risk Factors of Helicobacter pylori Infection among Children Aged 1 to 15 Years at Holy Innocents Children's Hospital, Mbarara, South Western Uganda. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Trop Med 2019; 2019:9303072
- CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of H. pylori infection among children aged 1 to 15 years at Holy Innocents Children's Hospital was high and increases with age. School attendance, lack of sanitary facility, lack of safe drinking water, and overcrowding were the risk factors associated with H. pylori infection.
- Ethnic Disparities in Gastric Cancer Presentation and Screening Practice in the United States: Analysis of 1997-2010 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare Data. [Journal Article]
- CECancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2019; 28(4):659-665
- CONCLUSIONS: Noncardia gastric cancer, associated with H. pylori infection, was diagnosed more frequently among APIs, blacks, and Hispanics than NHWs. Testing for H. pylori was low among all gastric cancer cases despite evidence of risk factors for which screening is recommended. Studies are needed to increase appropriate testing for H. pylori among higher risk populations.This study sheds light on poor screening practices despite presence of gastric cancer-related conditions.
- Helicobacter pylori: molecular basis for colonization and survival in gastric environment and resistance to antibiotics. A short review. [Journal Article]
- IDInfect Dis (Lond) 2019; 51(6):399-408
- Helicobacter pylori is a human-specific pathogen with a strict tropism for the gastric mucosa. This bacterium infects around half of the world population and is the main responsible for gastritis, pe…
Helicobacter pylori is a human-specific pathogen with a strict tropism for the gastric mucosa. This bacterium infects around half of the world population and is the main responsible for gastritis, peptic ulcer and, in some cases, for the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. Nevertheless, disease development in infected subjects depends not only on the bacterium, but also on the host genetic predisposition and on environmental factors. The fascinating question of how the bacterium can survive in the gastric environment has stimulated research in this field. It is now clear that H. pylori is able to colonize and adhere to the gastric epithelium through several mechanisms, including the breakdown of urea with production of the cell-toxic ammonia. The resulting raise in pH neutralizes acidity of the stomach, thereby allowing the bacterium to safely cross the mucus layer to the epithelial surface. Current challenges regard understanding the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance and how to overcome it. Lately, an increasing H. pylori resistance rate to antibiotics has been reported and several molecular bases for this phenomenon described. In this review, we highlight the current knowledge on mechanisms supporting H. pylori resistance to gastric environment and to therapy.
- PREVALENCE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION IN DYSPEPTIC PATIENTS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH CLINICAL RISK FACTORS FOR DEVELOPING GASTRIC ADENOCARCINOMA. [Journal Article]
- AGArq Gastroenterol 2019 Mar 18
- CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a high prevalence of H. pylori infection and identifies its contribution to gastric inflammations, which in the long term are manifested in high-risk clinical factors for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma.
- Impact of Helicobacter pylori Infection on Gastric Variceal Bleeding among Patients with Liver Cirrhosis. [Journal Article]
- GRGastroenterol Res Pract 2019; 2019:6529420
- CONCLUSIONS: H. pylori-induced follicular gastritis is considered as an additional risk factor for bleeding from gastric varices.
- Application of PCR and Microscopy to Detect Helicobacter pylori in Gastric Biopsy Specimen among Acid Peptic Disorders at Tertiary Care Centre in Eastern Nepal. [Journal Article]
- CJCan J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2019; 2019:3695307
- CONCLUSIONS: We found that PCR assay to detect H. pylori is more sensitive than microscopy. However, we advocate for the combination of both assays to increase the strength of diagnostic accuracy due to the absence of the gold standard assay for H. pylori infection.
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- Helicobacter suis infection alters glycosylation and decreases the pathogen growth inhibiting effect and binding avidity of gastric mucins. [Journal Article]
- MIMucosal Immunol 2019; 12(3):784-794
- Helicobacter suis is the most prevalent non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species in the human stomach and is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric mucosa-associated…
Helicobacter suis is the most prevalent non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species in the human stomach and is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. H. suis colonizes the gastric mucosa of 60-95% of pigs at slaughter age, and is associated with chronic gastritis, decreased weight gain, and ulcers. Here, we show that experimental H. suis infection changes the mucin composition and glycosylation, decreasing the amount of H. suis-binding glycan structures in the pig gastric mucus niche. Similarly, the H. suis-binding ability of mucins from H. pylori-infected humans is lower than that of noninfected individuals. Furthermore, the H. suis growth-inhibiting effect of mucins from both noninfected humans and pigs is replaced by a growth-enhancing effect by mucins from infected individuals/pigs. Thus, Helicobacter spp. infections impair the mucus barrier by decreasing the H. suis-binding ability of the mucins and by decreasing the antiprolific activity that mucins can have on H. suis. Inhibition of these mucus-based defenses creates a more stable and inhabitable niche for H. suis. This is likely of importance for long-term colonization and outcome of infection, and reversing these impairments may have therapeutic benefits.