- Colonoscopy complications: experience with 8968 consecutive patients in a single institution. [Journal Article]
- RCRev Col Bras Cir 2018 Sep 17; 45(4):e1858
- CONCLUSIONS: the data corroborate the safety of the colonoscopy exam and points to a reduction in major complications rates.
- Intestinal Spirochetosis: An Obscure Cause of Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2018 Jul 12; 10(7):e2970
- Adherence of spirochetes to the apical membrane of the colonic epithelium has been well-described in the literature, but the exact pathogenesis leading to symptomatic clinical manifestations is poorl...
Adherence of spirochetes to the apical membrane of the colonic epithelium has been well-described in the literature, but the exact pathogenesis leading to symptomatic clinical manifestations is poorly understood. Most cases are found incidentally on the pathological evaluation of colonic biopsies taken during diagnostic or therapeutic colonoscopies. However, whether the colonization of the intestinal mucosa can be attributed to clinical symptoms is a matter of debate. Here, we present a case of intermittent hematochezia attributed to the overwhelming invasion of the colonic mucosa by intestinal spirochetes.
- An updated meta-analysis of transanal drainage tube for prevention of anastomotic leak in anterior resection for rectal cancer. [Review]
- SOSurg Oncol 2018; 27(3):333-340
- CONCLUSIONS: TDT placement is associated with significant lower rates of AL and reoperation, hence it is likely to be an effective method of preventing and reducing AL after rectal cancer surgery.
- Factors Related to the Use of Topical vs. Oral NSAIDs for Sprains, Strains, and Contusions in a Senior Population: A Retrospective Analysis of Administrative Claims Data. [Journal Article]
- DADrugs Aging 2018; 35(10):937-950
- CONCLUSIONS: Topical NSAIDs were used less often than oral NSAIDs following a sprain, strain, or contusion. Age, medication burden, pill burden, evidence of gastrointestinal disorder, and evidence of certain pain-related conditions were significant factors associated with topical NSAID as opposed to oral NSAID use. In comparison to oral NSAIDs, topical NSAIDs were more likely to be prescribed in a physician's office than an emergency department, possibly because a patient's physician has a better understanding of the patient's concomitant medications and comorbidities. Although topical NSAIDs were more likely to be used than oral NSAIDs in patients with gastrointestinal disorders, the use of oral NSAIDs among patients with gastrointestinal bleeding was substantial.
- A recurrent, ischaemic ileocolonic anastomosis ulcer refractory to surgery treated with hyperbaric oxygen. [Case Reports]
- DHDiving Hyperb Med 2018 Sep 30; 48(3):194-196
- A 54-year-old male had undergone right hemicolectomy and ileo-colonic anastomosis for carcinoma-in-situ found at colonoscopy. Eighteen months later, he presented with a lower gastrointestinal bleed f...
A 54-year-old male had undergone right hemicolectomy and ileo-colonic anastomosis for carcinoma-in-situ found at colonoscopy. Eighteen months later, he presented with a lower gastrointestinal bleed from an anastomotic ulcer, treated with resection of the anastomotic site and ileo-sigmoid anastomosis. In the ensuing 12 months, he had three episodes of haematochezia. Colonoscopy revealed a 12 mm anastomotic ulcer necessitating a further colonic resection and re-anastomosis. Two-years later, he presented with iron deficiency anaemia. He preferred expectant management and received ten iron-infusions over the subsequent four years. Thereafter, he developed painless haematochezia. Colonoscopy showed a 15 mm linear ulcer with mild ooze at the anastomosis. Histology was consistent with an ischaemic ulcer; there was no evidence of recurrence of carcinoma-in-situ. The ulcer remained refractory to endoscopic and medical treatment, as seen at three follow-up colonoscopies. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) was offered and he received 30 sessions over six weeks. Colonoscopy at HBOT completion revealed healing of the ulcer. The patient had no further overt bleeding and serum ferritin has continued to rise spontaneously over 12 months follow-up.
- A teenage patient with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, a splenorenal shunt, and congenital hepatic fibrosis: a case report. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Bras Nefrol 2018 Sep 06
- A 16-year-old female patient previously diagnosed with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) presented with acute bilateral pneumonia, upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by ruptur...
A 16-year-old female patient previously diagnosed with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) presented with acute bilateral pneumonia, upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by ruptured esophageal varices, ascites, and lower limb edema. She required intensive care and an endoscopic procedure to treat the gastrointestinal bleeding. The analysis of the differential diagnosis for chronic liver disease indicated she had a spontaneous splenorenal shunt. Ultrasound-guided biopsy revealed the patient had cirrhosis, as characteristically seen in individuals with ARPKD. She had no symptoms at discharge and was referred for review for a combined transplant.
- Successful Localization of the Source of Hemorrhage in Patient with Post-Whipple Surgery by 99mTc-Labelled Red Blood Cell Scintigraphy. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Radiol 2018; 2018:1381203
- Gastrointestinal Bleeding Scintigraphy (GIBS) of 99mTc-labelled red blood cells is a relatively simple examination to perform, with high diagnostic accuracy and a relatively lower radiation dose. A p...
Gastrointestinal Bleeding Scintigraphy (GIBS) of 99mTc-labelled red blood cells is a relatively simple examination to perform, with high diagnostic accuracy and a relatively lower radiation dose. A positive scan can either suggest surgery without further investigation or can indicate angiography, a more targeted procedure. Whipple pancreatoduodenectomy is most often performed for tumors of the head of the pancreas. Pancreatoduodenectomy has 30%-40% morbidity and mortality, and while post-pancreatoduodenectomy hemorrhage is seen in less than 10% of patients, it accounts for 11%-38% mortality. The role of imaging in patients to detect relative hemodynamic stability is essential. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) shows the cause, site, and nature of bleeding, while digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has a diagnostic as well as a therapeutic role. We present a patient who presented with active gastrointestinal bleeding (GI) bleeding after undergoing a Whipple procedure, to highlight the role of GIBS in the successful localization of a bleeding site and the guidance of digital DSA in the embolization and control of the active bleeding.
- Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma Presenting as Gastrointestinal Bleeding. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Gastroenterol 2018 May-Aug; 12(2):379-384
- Mantle cell lymphoma is a rare and aggressive subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Mantle cell lymphoma frequently involves extranodal sites, and gastrointestinal tract is involved microscopicall...
Mantle cell lymphoma is a rare and aggressive subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Mantle cell lymphoma frequently involves extranodal sites, and gastrointestinal tract is involved microscopically and macroscopically in more than 80$ of cases. We present two cases of recurrent mantle cell lymphoma presenting with lower and upper gastrointestinal bleeding, respectively. A 58-year-old woman with a history of recurrent mantle cell lymphoma treated with chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation presented with left-sided abdominal pain and hematochezia. Colonoscopy showed a mass-like lesion in the ascending colon, polyps in the ascending colon, and splenic flexure. A 68-year-old man with a history of mantle cell lymphoma treated with chemotherapy presented with epigastric pain and melena. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed a large polypoidal ulcerated mass with oozing in the duodenal bulb. Biopsies in both patients were suggestive of mantle cell lymphoma. Patients with mantle cell lymphoma could be asymptomatic or may present with abdominal pain, obstruction, diarrhea, or gastrointestinal bleeding. In patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms, endoscopy must be pursued and biopsies must be taken for any suspicious lesions as well as normal mucosa to exclude mantle cell lymphoma as an etiology for the lesion or symptoms. Even though there are no standard guidelines for endoscopic screening of gastrointestinal tract in asymptomatic patients, one should be aware of involvement of gastrointestinal tract in the early course of disease or recurrent disease. Although mantle cell lymphoma is initially responsive to chemotherapy, it eventually becomes refractory with a median survival of 3-5 years.
- The Natural History of Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Patients without an Obvious Source. [Journal Article]
- ASAm Surg 2018 Aug 01; 84(8):1345-1349
- With the advent of proton pump inhibitors and H. Pylori treatment, the old dogma "the most common cause of lower GI bleeding is upper GI bleeding" may no longer be valid. We sought to determine the m...
With the advent of proton pump inhibitors and H. Pylori treatment, the old dogma "the most common cause of lower GI bleeding is upper GI bleeding" may no longer be valid. We sought to determine the most common causes of GI bleeding in patients without an obvious source and their clinical outcomes. We queried our hospital database for GI hemorrhage during 2015, excluding patients with obvious sources such as hematemesis or anal pathology. We collected data from patients with GI bleeding defined as bright red blood per rectum, melena, or a positive fecal occult blood test. The primary endpoints were etiology of GI bleed, amount of transfusions required, and types of interventions performed. Ninety-three patients were admitted with GI bleeding as defined previously: mean age was 74 years and mean hemoglobin was 8.2. Seventy-four per cent received blood transfusions with an average of 2 units transfused per patient; 22 per cent received 3 or more units of blood. The etiology of bleeding was 17 per cent upper GI source, 15 per cent lower GI source, and in 68 per cent, the source remained unknown. Bleeding stopped spontaneously in 86 per cent of patients and 9 per cent died. Endoscopy was performed in 71 per cent, but only 6 per cent underwent therapeutic endoscopic intervention. No patient had surgical or interventional radiologic procedures related to their GI bleed. Gastrointestinal bleeding, without an obvious source on presentation, rarely requires operative intervention or interventional radiologic procedure. Blood transfusions were not predictive of the need for therapeutic endoscopic intervention which was required in only 6 per cent of patients.
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- Esophageal arteriovenous malformation, a rare cause of significant upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Case report and review of literature. [Journal Article]
- IRIntractable Rare Dis Res 2018; 7(3):196-199
- Gastrointestinal (GI) arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a well-known source of bleeding with colon being the most common site, but they can also occur in rare locations like the esophagus which ...
Gastrointestinal (GI) arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a well-known source of bleeding with colon being the most common site, but they can also occur in rare locations like the esophagus which may present with life threatening bleeding. We report the case of a 51-year-old male with end stage renal disease (ESRD) presenting with hematemesis and acute on chronic anemia. Further investigation showed an esophageal AVM which is an unusual location and it was successfully treated with an endoscopic clip instead of argon plasma coagulation (APC) due to its challenging location and esophageal wall motion from breathing. The patient continued to be asymptomatic without any upper and lower GI bleeding during his 20 months follow up period after the endoscopic management. Review of literature showed only 10 cases of AVMs involving esophagus and the average age of presentation was 52 years with a male predominance. We also provide an overview of those cases in the discussion section below.