- Rotenone induces gastrointestinal pathology and microbiota alterations in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. [Journal Article]
- NNeurotoxicology 2018 Feb 19
- While people are often aware of the motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), few know of the many non-motor symptoms, which patients report have a greater impact on their quality of life. Gastroin...
While people are often aware of the motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), few know of the many non-motor symptoms, which patients report have a greater impact on their quality of life. Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is one of the most common non-motor symptoms, which can occur at any stage of PD, even years prior to diagnosis, and can affect all sections along the GI tract causing a range of symptoms including drooling, gastroparesis and constipation. We have investigated whether a neurotoxin model of PD- rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, is capable of reproducing the GI dysfunction seen clinically. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 2.75 mg/kg rotenone, 5 days/week for 4 weeks, via intraperitoneal injection. Rats underwent behavioural testing, including the one-hour stool and gastric emptying tests before GI contents and tissues were collected for microbiota and histological analysis. Rats exposed to rotenone had more days with evidence of diarrhoea and significantly delayed gastric emptying, reproducing the clinical symptom of gastroparesis. Microbiota analysis revealed alterations in the small intestine and colon of rotenone-treated rats, relatively consistent with changes described in PD patients. Histological analysis demonstrated mucosal thickening and goblet cell hyperplasia in the colon of rotenone rats, which may be an adaptive response to the toxin or changes in GI microbiota. Our results indicate rotenone may be a good model for investigating the mechanisms involved with Parkinson's GI symptoms and for screening potential therapeutic options as it is capable of recapitulating some key GI changes that occur during PD progression.
- Gastric Per Oral Endoscopic Myotomy (G-POEM) for the Treatment of Refractory Gastroparesis: Early Experience. [Journal Article]
- DDDig Dis Sci 2018 Feb 22
- CONCLUSIONS: G-POEM for treatment of refractory gastroparesis appears to be a feasible and safe technique that can be successfully performed in patients with a variety of etiologies including different types of postsurgical gastroparesis. Our initial experience suggests that the majority of patients report some improvement in symptoms, particularly symptoms of vomiting, retching, and loss of appetite. Further experience is needed to determine the efficacy and safety of G-POEM and predict those who best respond to this treatment.
- Exploring Symptom Severity, Illness Perceptions, Coping Styles, and Well-Being in Gastroparesis Patients Using the Common Sense Model. [Journal Article]
- DDDig Dis Sci 2018 Feb 22
- CONCLUSIONS: The final model showed that the influence of gastroparesis symptom severity on psychological distress was fully mediated by illness perceptions, while the influence on QoL was partially mediated by illness perceptions. The study provides guidance for the development of psychological interventions targeted toward improving mediating psychological factors.
- Endoscopic Myotomy for Foregut Motility Disorders. [Journal Article]
- GGastroenterology 2018 Feb 15
- Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is an advanced endoscopic procedure classically performed for the treatment of achalasia. The procedure is based on principles of submucosal endoscopy and is compris...
Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is an advanced endoscopic procedure classically performed for the treatment of achalasia. The procedure is based on principles of submucosal endoscopy and is comprised of a mucosal incision, submucosal tunneling, myotomy and mucosal closure. Multiple published studies that collectively include more than 6000 patients reported clinical success in more than 80-90% of patients. Recent literature also suggested durability of response over a medium-term follow-up. POEM is associated with a low rate of adverse events when performed by experienced operators. Gastroesophageal reflux is not infrequent after POEM but does not seem significantly different from reflux which occurs after Heller myotomy. POEM also seems to be effective in the treatment of spastic esophageal disorders (e.g. Jackhammer and diffuse esophageal spasm). Lastly, the role of gastric POEM (G-POEM) in the treatment of gastroparesis has been investigated in recent studies with promising results.
- Analysis of gastric myoelectrical activity from the electrogastrogram signals based on wavelet transform and line length feature. [Journal Article]
- PIProc Inst Mech Eng H 2018 Feb 01; :954411918757812
- Electrogastrogram is used for the abdominal surface measurement of the gastric electrical activity of the human stomach. The electrogastrogram technique has significant value as a clinical tool becau...
Electrogastrogram is used for the abdominal surface measurement of the gastric electrical activity of the human stomach. The electrogastrogram technique has significant value as a clinical tool because careful electrogastrogram signal recordings and analyses play a major role in determining the propagation and coordination of gastric myoelectric abnormalities. The aim of this article is to evaluate electrogastrogram features calculated by line length features based on the discrete wavelet transform method to differentiate healthy control subjects from patients with functional dyspepsia and diabetic gastroparesis. For this analysis, the discrete wavelet transform method was used to extract electrogastrogram signal characteristics. Next, line length features were calculated for each sub-signal, which reflect the waveform dimensionality variations and represent a measure of sensitivity to differences in signal amplitude and frequency. The analysis was carried out using a statistical analysis of variance test. The results obtained from the line length analysis of the electrogastrogram signal prove that there are significant differences among the functional dyspepsia, diabetic gastroparesis, and control groups. The electrogastrogram signals of the control subjects had a significantly higher line length than those of the functional dyspepsia and diabetic gastroparesis patients. In conclusion, this article provides new methods with increased accuracy obtained from electrogastrogram signal analysis. The electrogastrography is an effective and non-stationary method to differentiate diabetic gastroparesis and functional dyspepsia patients from the control group. The proposed method can be considered a key test and an essential computer-aided diagnostic tool for detecting gastric myoelectric abnormalities in diabetic gastroparesis and functional dyspepsia patients.
- Gastric per-oral endoscopic myotomy for refractory gastroparesis: a detailed description of the procedure, our experience, and review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- SESurg Endosc 2018 Feb 12
- CONCLUSIONS: G-POEM is a feasible and effective procedure for refractory gastroparesis based on early and limited data. Well-designed prospective studies are expected to advance and evaluate this new procedure in the future.
- Formulation development and evaluation of nifedipine as pylorospasm inhibitor. [Journal Article]
- DDDrug Dev Ind Pharm 2018 Feb 21; :1-14
- CONCLUSIONS: Results strongly suggest that nifedipine loaded mucoadhesive formulation has a targeting potential which accelerates gastric emptying process in gastroparesis patients, and thus the formulation might prove useful as a potent prokinetic agent.
- Delivery of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Gelatin-Alginate Hydrogels to Stomach Lumen for Treatment of Gastroparesis. [Journal Article]
- BBioengineering (Basel) 2018 Feb 07; 5(1)
- Gastroparesis (GP) is associated with depletion of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and enteric neurons, which leads to pyloric dysfunction followed by severe nausea, vomiting and delayed gastric e...
Gastroparesis (GP) is associated with depletion of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and enteric neurons, which leads to pyloric dysfunction followed by severe nausea, vomiting and delayed gastric emptying. Regenerating these fundamental structures with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy would be helpful to restore gastric function in GP. MSCs have been successfully used in animal models of other gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, including colitis. However, no study has been performed with these cells on GP animals. In this study, we explored whether mouse MSCs can be delivered from a hydrogel scaffold to the luminal surfaces of mice stomach explants. Mouse MSCs were seeded atop alginate-gelatin, coated with poly-l-lysine. These cell-gel constructs were placed atop stomach explants facing the luminal side. MSCs grew uniformly all across the gel surface within 48 h. When placed atop the lumen of the stomach, MSCs migrated from the gels to the tissues, as confirmed by positive staining with vimentin and N-cadherin. Thus, the feasibility of transplanting a cell-gel construct to deliver stem cells in the stomach wall was successfully shown in a mice stomach explant model, thereby making a significant advance towards envisioning the transplantation of an entire tissue-engineered 'gastric patch' or 'microgels' with cells and growth factors.
- Gastrointestinal Motility Problems in Critically Ill Patients. [Review]
- CCCrit Care Nurs Clin North Am 2018; 30(1):109-121
- Gastrointestinal (GI) motility problems are common complications in critical care patients. GI problems contribute to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Toxic megacolon (TM) is a type of a...
Gastrointestinal (GI) motility problems are common complications in critical care patients. GI problems contribute to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Toxic megacolon (TM) is a type of acquired megacolon categorized as a medical emergency and includes severe inflammation affecting all layers of the colon wall. The high incidence of GI complications in critically ill patients requires the critical care nurse to provide close monitoring of patients at risk and an acute awareness of the causation, signs and symptoms, and treatment of various GI motility disorders, including gastroparesis, ileus, and TM.
New Search Next
- Effects of naloxegol on whole gut transit in opioid-naïve healthy subjects receiving codeine: A randomized, controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- NMNeurogastroenterol Motil 2018 Feb 06
- CONCLUSIONS: Short-term administration of naloxegol (25 mg) in healthy, opioid-naïve volunteers does not reverse the retardation of gastric, small bowel, or colonic transit induced by acute administration of codeine. Further studies with naloxegol at higher dose are warranted to assess the ability to reverse the retardation of transit caused by acute administration of codeine in opioid-naïve subjects.