- Development and validation of the social adjustment scale for adolescents with Tourette syndrome in Taiwan. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pediatr Nurs 2019 Jun 10
- CONCLUSIONS: The SASATS is a reliable and valid instrument for evaluating social adjustment status in TS adolescents.The SASATS is easy to use and offers an effective scale for nurses and healthcare providers in clinical and academic settings. It can quickly measure and detect the psychological functioning of the social adjustment of adolescents with TS during interpersonal interactions. Moreover, interventions can be provided to improve adolescents' social adjustment and promote their mental health.
- Coprolalia Successfully Treated With Aripiprazole in a Child With Tourette Syndrome. [Journal Article]
- CNClin Neuropharmacol 2019 Jun 11
- A peek into premonitory urges in Tourette syndrome: Temporal evolution of neurophysiological oscillatory signatures. [Journal Article]
- PRParkinsonism Relat Disord 2019 May 31
- CONCLUSIONS: The spatial-temporal dynamics of cortical activity suggests a voluntary component of tics that might be triggered by a failure of compensatory motor inhibitory mechanisms.
- Isoallopregnanolone reduces tic-like behaviors in the D1CT-7 mouse model of Tourette syndrome. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neuroendocrinol 2019 Jun 07; :e12754
- Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by multiple, persistent tics. These semi-voluntary motor and phonic manifestations are typically aggravated by exposure to acute st…
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by multiple, persistent tics. These semi-voluntary motor and phonic manifestations are typically aggravated by exposure to acute stress, yet the mechanisms underlying this exacerbation remain unclear. Using a well-characterized animal model of TS, the D1CT-7 mouse, we recently showed that acute stress increases tic-like responses and causes sensorimotor gating deficits, as measured by the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle. We showed that these effects are promoted by the brain synthesis of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone (AP). In line with this idea, inhibition of AP synthesis by finasteride was found to suppress the tic-exacerbating effects of stress; conversely, AP administration resulted in a marked enhancement of the number of tic-like motor bursts. Given that the primary mechanism of AP is based on the positive allosteric modulation of GABA-A receptors, here we hypothesized that the enhancement in tic-like behaviors induced by either stress or AP may be countered by isoallopregnanolone (isoAP), the natural 3β-epimer of AP that acts as an antagonist to the AP-binding site within GABA-A receptors. In agreement with our hypothesis, isoAP (5-10 mg/kg, SC) dose-dependently reduced the number of tic-like behaviors induced by stress in D1CT-7 mice. These effects were comparable to those elicited by both the benchmark TS therapy haloperidol (0.3 mg/kg, IP), as well as finasteride (25 mg/kg, IP). IsoAP also countered the prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficits secondary to stress in D1CT-7 mice. Finally, isoAP opposed the enhancement of tic-like behaviors induced by AP (15 mg/kg, IP). Given that isoAP is well-tolerated and has an optimal safety profile, these data suggest that this steroid may have therapeutic properties in TS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- A Review of Cognitive Outcomes Across Movement Disorder Patients Undergoing Deep Brain Stimulation. [Review]
- FNFront Neurol 2019; 10:419
- CONCLUSIONS: Post-DBS cognitive issues can impact both motor and quality of life outcomes. The underlying pathophysiology of cognitive changes post-DBS and the identification of pathways underpinning declines will require further investigation. Future studies should employ careful methodological designs. Patient specific analyses will be helpful to differentiate the effects of medications, DBS and the underlying disease state, including disease progression. Disease progression is often an underappreciated factor that is important to post-DBS cognitive issues.
- Adult-Onset Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome: Psychogenic or Organic? The Challenge of Abnormal Neurophysiological Findings. [Case Reports]
- FNFront Neurol 2019; 10:461
- Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics. Adult-onset cases are rare and may be due to "reactivation" of childhood tics, or secondary to psychiatric or g…
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics. Adult-onset cases are rare and may be due to "reactivation" of childhood tics, or secondary to psychiatric or genetic diseases, or due to central nervous system lesions of different etiologies. Late-onset psychogenic motor/vocal tics resembling GTS have been described. Neurophysiology may serve to differentiate organic from functional GTS. Altered blink reflex pre-pulse inhibition (BR-PPI), blink reflex excitability recovery (BR-ERC), and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) have been described in GTS. We report a 48-years-old male, who developed numerous motor/vocal tics 2 months after sustaining non-commotional craniofacial trauma in a car accident. Both his father and brother had died earlier in car crashes. He presented with blepharospasm-like forced lid closure, forceful lip pursing, noisy suction movements, and deep moaning sounds, occurring in variable combinations, without warning symptoms or internal "urge." Tics showed low distractibility and these increased with attention. Standard magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, and evoked potentials were unremarkable. Neuropsychology diagnosed moderately impaired intellect, attention, and executive functions. Psychiatric assessment revealed somatization disorder and generalized anxiety. BR-PPI was unremarkable, while BR-ERC was enhanced, even showing facilitation at short intervals. SICI was markedly reduced at 1 and 3 ms and intracortical facilitation (ICF) was enhanced at 10 ms. The patient fulfilled Fahn and Williams' diagnostic criteria for a psychogenic movement disorder. Neurophysiology, however, documented hyperexcitability of motor cortex and brainstem. We suggest that-similar to what has been reported in psychogenic dystonia-a pre-existing predisposition may have led to the functional hyperkinetic disorder in response to severe psychic stress.
- Image-based analysis and long-term clinical outcomes of deep brain stimulation for Tourette syndrome: a multisite study. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2019 May 25
- CONCLUSIONS: The results collectively indicate that DBS may improve tics and OCB, the effects may develop over several months, and stimulation locations relative to structural anatomy alone may not predict response. This study was the first to visualise and evaluate the regions of stimulation across a large cohort of patients with TS to generate new hypotheses about potential targets for improving tics and comorbidities.
- Rhynchophylline Attenuates Neurotoxicity in Tourette Syndrome Rats. [Journal Article]
- NRNeurotox Res 2019 May 21
- Tourette syndrome (TS) is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder with clinical manifestations of involuntary and repeated muscle twitching and vocal twitching. The drugs used to treat TS are relatively …
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder with clinical manifestations of involuntary and repeated muscle twitching and vocal twitching. The drugs used to treat TS are relatively limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rhynchophylline (RH) and the underlying mechanism in 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI)-induced neurotoxicity in a TS rat model. A TS model was induced with DOI. The rats were divided into control, TS, TS + tiapride (25 mg/kg), and TS + RH (20 and 40 mg/kg) groups. Behavioral tests were performed 24 h after the last administration by nodding and stereotype experiments. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in striatum and serum were detected with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression levels of Toll-like receptor (TLR)/nucleotide-binding domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signal proteins in the striatum. The expression of TLR2 and NF-κB p65 subunit was detected with immunohistochemical analysis. RH may significantly improve behavioral changes in rats with DOI-induced TS and reduce the levels of inflammatory factors in serum and striatum. RH inhibited the activation of TLR/NLRP3/NF-κB signaling proteins in the striatum of TS rats. In BV2 cells, DOI-induced inflammation mediated through TLR/NLRP3/NF-κB was significantly inhibited following RH administration. The therapeutic effect of RH in TS was studied and its mechanism of action mediated via the TLR/NLRP3/NF-κB pathway was clarified in vitro and in vivo.
- Regulatory effects of Ningdong granule on dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in a rat model of Tourette syndrome assessed by PET. [Journal Article]
- MMMol Med Rep 2019; 20(1):191-197
- Dysfunctions in dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5‑HT) metabolism have been widely implicated in Tourette syndrome (TS); however, the exact nature of these dysfunctions remains unclear. The objective of …
Dysfunctions in dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5‑HT) metabolism have been widely implicated in Tourette syndrome (TS); however, the exact nature of these dysfunctions remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the variation in DA and 5‑HT metabolism in a rat model of TS, and to evaluate the therapeutic effect of Ningdong granule (NDG), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation used specifically for the treatment of TS. Rats were treated with 3,3'‑iminodipropionitrile for 7 days to induce the model of TS, and were then intragastrically administered NDG each day. After 8 weeks of treatment, micro‑positron emission tomography was used to measure the binding of DA D2 receptors (D2Rs), DA transporters (DATs), 5‑HT2A receptors (5‑HT2ARs) and 5‑HT transporters (SERTs) in brain regions of interest. The results indicated that NDG could significantly reduce the typical characteristics of TS in the rat model. Decreased D2R binding and increased DAT binding were detected in the striatum compared with the binding activities in untreated rats. The density of 5‑HT2AR was also significantly increased in the striatum following NDG treatment; however, SERT levels were decreased in certain brain regions, including the striatum, cortex, nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Taken together, the current results demonstrated that NDG may be effective in treating patients with TS.
New Search Next
- Inflammation in Tic Disorders and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Are PANS and PANDAS a Path Forward? [Journal Article]
- JCJ Child Neurol 2019 May 21; :883073819848635
- This review and commentary is the product of an invited lecture called "Autoimmunity: PANS/PANDAS" presented at the 2018 Neurobiology of Diseases in Children Symposium in Chicago, IL. The talk addres…
This review and commentary is the product of an invited lecture called "Autoimmunity: PANS/PANDAS" presented at the 2018 Neurobiology of Diseases in Children Symposium in Chicago, IL. The talk addressed clinical and scientific questions and recently published data. At this time, among highly experienced and respected clinicians and researchers spanning relevant disciplines, there is substantial controversy regarding a role for inflammation in producing tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This commentary summarizes these controversies, discusses reasons for opposing views on best clinical practices, and concludes with suggestions for pathways forward.