- Clinical Characteristics of Asymmetric Bilateral Gynecomastia: Suggestion of Desirable Surgical Method Based on a Single-Institution Experience. [Journal Article]
- APAesthetic Plast Surg 2018 Feb 20
- CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral mastectomy provided an acceptable and symmetric cosmetic outcome in patients with ABGM.
- The metabolic and endocrine characteristics in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurol 2018 Feb 20
- CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic alterations in glucose homeostasis (diabetes) and fat metabolism (combined hyperlipidemia), and sex hormone abnormalities (androgen insensitivity) could be observed among SBMA patients without association with the neuromuscular phenotype. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was the only biomarker that correlated strongly with both weakness duration and the CAG repeat length after adjusting for age and BMI, indicating its potential as a biomarker for both disease severity and duration and, therefore, its possible use as a reliable outcome measure in future therapeutic studies.
- [The forensic medical characteristic of sudden death associated with metabolic syndrome]. [Journal Article]
- SMSud Med Ekspert 2018; 61(1):60-64
- The detection of grade II-III central obesity on a corpse in conjunction with the identification of two additional criteria (such as arterial hypertension and impaired glucose tolerance) provides, if...
The detection of grade II-III central obesity on a corpse in conjunction with the identification of two additional criteria (such as arterial hypertension and impaired glucose tolerance) provides, if combined with the autopsy data (including the visual reduction of muscular mass, the increased total amount of the adipose tissue, gynecomastia in men together with hypertrophied abdominal adipose tissue accumulation, decreased face and body pilosis), a basis for diagnostics of metabolic syndrome (MS). The objective parameters for this purpose are waist circumference measurements, corpse weight and height, the degree of visceral obesity, narrowing of the renal arteries as a result of their compression by the surrounding adipose tissue, and accumulation of epicardial fat confirmed by the results of the biochemical analysis. The signs of plasmorrhagia combined with fibrinoid degeneration of the vascular walls in the microcirculatory bed make it possible to suspect, with a high degree of probability, the development of hypertensive crisis that may result in a sudden death of the patients presenting with metabolic syndrome.
- Adrenocortical carcinoma characterized by gynecomastia: A case report. [Journal Article]
- CPClin Pediatr Endocrinol 2018; 27(1):9-18
- We present a 4-yr-old boy with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), diagnosed due to the appearance of gynecomastia as the presenting symptom. Six months prior to admission, an acute growth spurt along wi...
We present a 4-yr-old boy with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), diagnosed due to the appearance of gynecomastia as the presenting symptom. Six months prior to admission, an acute growth spurt along with the development of bilateral breast swelling was observed. He did not present any features of virilization, including enlargement of the testes, increase in testis volume, and penis size. Laboratory investigations showed gonadotropin-independent hypergonadism, with low LH/ FSH levels and elevated estradiol/testosterone levels. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large heterogeneous mass adjacent to the right kidney and below the liver. Pathological investigations of the biopsy specimen demonstrated that the tumor was an ACC. Pre- and post-operative combination chemotherapy with mitotane was administered and surgical resection was carried out. Post-surgery, the elevated estradiol/testosterone concentrations reverted to within the reference range. Urinary steroid profile and tissue concentration analysis of estradiol and testosterone indicated the presence of estrogen in the ACC tissue. An investigation for TP53 gene aberrations revealed the presence of a germline point mutation in exon 4 (c.215C>G (p.Pro72Arg)). In ACC, the most common symptom is virilization, and feminization, characterized by gynecomastia, is very rare. However, a diagnostic possibility of ACC should be considered when we encounter patients who have developed gynecomastia without the influence of causative factors such as obesity or puberty, and do not present with the typical signs of virilization.
- Changing practices: The addition of a novel surgical approach to gynecomastia. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Surg 2018 Jan 29
- CONCLUSIONS: The "double donut" technique is particularly useful for males with grades II or III gynecomastia. It provides good wound results, with acceptable patient satisfaction and cosmetic outcomes. Although initially developed for patients with higher grade gynecomastia, the improved visibility and increased patient satisfaction allowed this to become the preferred technique at our institution.
- [Gynaecomastia]. [Journal Article]
- ULUgeskr Laeger 2018 Jan 22; 180(4)
- Gynaecomastia (GM) is a benign proliferation of the glandular tissue of the male breast and results from an imbalance between androgen and oestrogen. Pubertal GM is found in 50% and often resolves sp...
Gynaecomastia (GM) is a benign proliferation of the glandular tissue of the male breast and results from an imbalance between androgen and oestrogen. Pubertal GM is found in 50% and often resolves spontaneously without treatment. GM in adult men can be the first symptom of an underlying disease, and thorough investigation is recommended. Treatment of an underlying cause of GM is the first-line treatment. If GM persists, surgical excision with liposuction can provide excellent results and a low rate of complications.
- Recovery from reproductive impact of androgen abuse. [Journal Article]
- COCurr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2018 Jan 31
- CONCLUSIONS: Androgen abuse has profound and commonly under-recognized effects on the reproductive system; recovery following androgen withdrawal may be prolonged and occasionally incomplete.
- Klinefelter syndrome: more than hypogonadism. [Review]
- MMetabolism 2018 Jan 27
- Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most frequent chromosome disorder in males (1:650 newborn males), defined by 47,XXY karyotype. The classical phenotype is that of a tall male with relatively long leg...
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most frequent chromosome disorder in males (1:650 newborn males), defined by 47,XXY karyotype. The classical phenotype is that of a tall male with relatively long legs, small, firm testes and gynecomastia. Azoospermia and infertility are almost inevitably present, but may be overcome by TESE and ICSI. Nevertheless, a broad spectrum of phenotypes has been described and >70% of the actually existing KS men may remain undiagnosed throughout their lifespan. Accordingly, hypogonadism is usually not evident until early adulthood and progresses with ageing. KS patients present a series of comorbidities that increase morbidity and mortality by 40%. Such disturbances are the impaired metabolic profile (obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance) and a tendency to thrombosis, which all favor cardiovascular disease. They also present susceptibility for specific neoplasias (breast cancer, extragonadal germ cell tumors), autoimmune diseases as well as osteoporosis and bone fractures. Moreover, KS has been associated with verbal processing and attention deficits as well as social skill impairments, leading KS individuals to academic and professional achievements inferior to those of their peers of comparable socio-economic status. Nevertheless, the majority fall within the average range regarding their intellectual abilities and adaptive functioning. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is the mainstay of treatment in hypogonadal KS patients; however, randomized trials are needed to determine optimal therapeutic regimens and follow-up schedules.
- Evidence-Based Practice in Liposuction. [Journal Article]
- APAnn Plast Surg 2018 Jan 24
- CONCLUSIONS: The benefits of UAL and LAL over SAL include the following: (1) UAL over SAL in the treatment of gynecomastia, (2) LAL and UAL over SAL with decreased hemoglobin/hematocrit in high-volume lipoaspirates, and (3) LAL over SAL with skin tightening in select areas specifically the submental area. Otherwise, the literature demonstrates equivocal results among the described techniques with no clear benefit to set one apart from the other. There appears to be no demonstrable added benefit to the addition of either UAL or LAL that would urge a change in practice patterns outside the exceptions listed.
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- Histamine H4 receptor as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of Leydig-cell tumours in prepubertal boys. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Cancer 2018; 91:125-135
- Leydig-cell tumours (LCTs) are rare endocrine tumours of the testicular interstitium, with recent increased incidence. Symptoms include precocious puberty in children; and erectile dysfunction, infer...
Leydig-cell tumours (LCTs) are rare endocrine tumours of the testicular interstitium, with recent increased incidence. Symptoms include precocious puberty in children; and erectile dysfunction, infertility and/or gynaecomastia, in adults. So far, scientific evidence points to aromatase (CYP19) overexpression and excessive oestrogen and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) -1 production as responsible for Leydig-cell tumourigenesis. LCTs are usually benign; however, malignant LCTs respond poorly to chemo/radiotherapy, highlighting the need to identify novel targets for treatment. Herein, we investigated the potential role of the histamine receptor H4 (HRH4) as a therapeutic target for LCTs using R2C rat Leydig tumour cells, a well-documented in vitro model for Leydigioma. Also, we studied for the first time the expression of CYP19, IGF-1R, oestrogen receptor (ER) α, ERβ, androgen receptor (AR) and HRH4 in human prepubertal LCTs versus normal prepubertal testes (NPTs). HRH4 agonist treatment inhibited steroidogenesis and proliferation in R2C cells and also negatively affected their pro-angiogenic capacity in vitro and in vivo, as assessed by evaluating the proliferative activity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and by means of the quail chorioallantoic membrane assay, respectively. Moreover, E2 and IGF-1 inhibited HRH4 mRNA and protein levels. In human prepubertal LCTs, CYP19, IGF-1R, ERα and ERβ were overexpressed compared with NPTs. In contrast, HRH4 staining was weak in LCTs, but moderate/strong and confined to the interstitium in NPTs. Importantly, HRH4 was absent or barely detectable in seminiferous tubules or germ cells. Overall, our results point to HRH4 as a novel therapeutic target in LCTs.