- Effects of ewe's milk yogurt (whole and semi-skimmed) and cow's milk yogurt on inflammation markers and gut microbiota of subjects with borderline-high plasma cholesterol levels: a crossover study. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Nutr 2018 Feb 16
- CONCLUSIONS: Ewe's yogurt effects on inflammatory markers and microbiota were not different from those after cow's yogurt, but the attenuation of some inflammatory biomarkers with ewe's whole-milk yogurt in subjects with the highest TC/HDL-c deserves further study.
- Association of breastfeeding duration with dyslipidemia in women aged over 20 years: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2014. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Lipidol 2018 Jan 31
- CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding duration was negatively correlated with dyslipidemia in terms of TC, LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and triglycerides. Long-term breastfeeding was associated with the prevalence of dyslipidemia-TC, LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and TG disorders, in particular.
- Change in cardiometabolic risk among blacks, whites and Hispanics: findings from the Health and Retirement Study. [Journal Article]
- JGJ Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2018 Feb 14
- CONCLUSIONS: We show that the cardiometabolic health of older blacks worsens as they age both absolutely and relative to that of whites and Hispanics because of poor blood pressure control and diabetes prevention.
- Low apolipoprotein A-I levels in Friedreich's ataxia and in frataxin-deficient cells: Implications for therapy. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(2):e0192779
- Friedreich's ataxia (FA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder, which results primarily from reduced expression of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. FA has an estimated prevalence of...
Friedreich's ataxia (FA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder, which results primarily from reduced expression of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. FA has an estimated prevalence of one in 50,000 in the population, making it the most common hereditary ataxia. Paradoxically, mortality arises most frequently from cardiomyopathy and cardiac failure rather than from neurological effects. Decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-l) levels in the general population are associated with an increased risk of mortality from cardiomyopathy and heart failure. However, the pathophysiology of heart disease in FA is non-vascular and there are conflicting data on HDL-cholesterol in FA. Two studies have shown a decrease in HDL-cholesterol compared with controls and two have shown there was no difference between FA and controls. One also showed that there was no difference in serum Apo-A-I levels in FA when compared with controls. Using a highly specific stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry-based assay, we demonstrated a 21.6% decrease in serum ApoA-I in FA patients (134.8 mg/dL, n = 95) compared with non-affected controls (172.1 mg/dL, n = 95). This is similar to the difference in serum ApoA-I levels between non-smokers and tobacco smokers. Knockdown of frataxin by > 70% in human hepatoma HepG2 cells caused a 20% reduction in secreted ApoA-I. Simvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor caused a 200% increase in HMG-CoA in the control HepG2 cells with a similar increase in the frataxin knockdown HepG2 cells, back to levels found in the control cells. There was a concomitant 20% increase in secreted ApoA-I to levels found in the control cells that were treated with simvastatin. This study provides compelling evidence that ApoA-I levels are reduced in FA patients compared with controls and suggest that statin treatment would normalize the ApoA-I levels.
- Effects of total fat intake on bodyweight in children. [Review]
- CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Feb 15; 2:CD012960
- CONCLUSIONS: We were unable to reach firm conclusions. Limited evidence from three trials that randomised children to a lower total fat intake (30% or less TE) versus usual or modified fat intake, but with no intention to reduce weight, showed small reductions in body mass index, total- and LDL-cholesterol at some time points with lower fat intake compared to controls, and no consistent differences in effects on weight, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol or height. Associations in cohort studies that related total fat intake to later measures of body fatness in children were inconsistent and the quality of this evidence was mostly very low. Twenty-three out of 24 included studies were conducted in high-income countries, and may not be applicable in low- and middle-income settings. High-quality, longer-term studies are needed, that include low- and middle-income settings and look at both possible benefits and risks.
- Epigallocatechin gallate suppresses hepatic cholesterol synthesis by targeting SREBP-2 through SIRT1/FOXO1 signaling pathway. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Biochem 2018 Feb 14
- This study aims to explore the effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on blood lipids, liver lipids, and cholesterol synthesis in hyperlipidemic rats. SREBP-2 transgenic rats were used to investig...
This study aims to explore the effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on blood lipids, liver lipids, and cholesterol synthesis in hyperlipidemic rats. SREBP-2 transgenic rats were used to investigate the transcriptional level of SREBP-2 regulated by SIRT-1/FOXO1 and the molecular mechanism of rate-limiting enzyme HMGCR that affects cholesterol synthesis. Rat models of hyperlipidemia were established and administered EGCG. Cholesterol synthesis was observed. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), free fatty acid (FFA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and T-AOC contents. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and oil red O staining were utilized to observe the histological changes in the liver. Biochemical method was applied to measure serum ALT and AST changes. Western blot assay and qRT-PCR were employed to detect the changes in SIRT1/FOXO1 pathway-related proteins, cholesterol synthesis-related genes, and SREBP-2. EGCG 50 mg/kg could obviously decrease the liver weight and liver coefficient, reduce serum TG, TC, LDL-C, and FFA levels (P < 0.05), and increase serum HDL-C levels in hyperlipidemic rats. EGCG could diminish hyperlipidemia-induced liver injury and reduce serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. Oil red O staining results demonstrated that the number of red lipid droplets in hepatocytes reduced to varying degrees, especially high-dose EGCG. EGCG remarkably diminished MDA content in the liver with hypercholesterolemia and increased T-AOC and SOD activity. In the model group, SIRT1 expression increased, and FOXO1 expression decreased. EGCG activated SIRT1 and increased FOXO1 expression, whose expression trend was consistent with the fenofibrate group. HMGCR, FDPS, SS, and ABCA1 expression increased, and ACAT2 expression noticeably reduced in SREBP-2+/+transgenic rats. EGCG could reverse the expression trend of each gene. Simultaneously, EGCG increased FOXO1 expression, and decrease SREBP-2 expression; however, no significant changes in these expression were found in SREBP-2-/-rats. EGCG can alleviate liver injury and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic rats. EGCG can activate SIRT1, activate FOXO1 protein, regulate SREBP-2 protein, and inhibit hepatic cholesterol synthesis.
- Adenylyl Cyclase 1 as a Major Isoform to Generate cAMP Signaling for ApoA-1-mediated Cholesterol Efflux Pathway. [Journal Article]
- JLJ Lipid Res 2018 Feb 14
- HDL apolipoprotein A-1-mediated cholesterol efflux pathway requires multiple cellular proteins and signal transduction pathways, including adenylyl cyclase (AC) / cAMP signaling. Due to the existence...
HDL apolipoprotein A-1-mediated cholesterol efflux pathway requires multiple cellular proteins and signal transduction pathways, including adenylyl cyclase (AC) / cAMP signaling. Due to the existence of multiple transmembrane AC isoforms, it was not known how many AC isoforms are expressed and which ones are essential for cholesterol efflux in macrophage foam cells. These questions were investigated in THP-1 macrophages in this study. QRT-PCR detected mRNAs for all nine transmembrane AC isoforms, but only the mRNA and protein of AC1 isoform were consistently upregulated by cholesterol loading and apoA-1. AC1 shRNA interference decreased AC1 mRNA and protein levels, resulting in reduction of apoA-1-mediated cAMP production and cholesterol efflux, while the intracellular cholesterol levels remained high. Confocal microscopy shows that apoA-1 promotes translocation of cholesterol and formation of cholesterol-apoA-1 complexes (protrusions) on the cholesterol-loaded macrophage surface. AC1 shRNA interfered macrophages showed no translocation of cholesterol to the cell surface. AC1 shRNA interference also disrupted cellular localization of an intracellular cholesterol indicator protein ADFP, and the expression as well as surface translocation of ABCA1. Together, our study showed that AC1 is a major isoform for apoA-1-activated cAMP signaling to promote cholesterol transport and exocytosis to the surface of THP-1 macrophage foam cells.
- Association of ABCA1 rs1800977 polymorphism with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Chinese Han population. [Journal Article]
- BRBiosci Rep 2018 Feb 08
- ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is associated with serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. Several studies have demonstrated that individuals with a high HDL cholesterol level have a...
ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is associated with serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. Several studies have demonstrated that individuals with a high HDL cholesterol level have a reduced risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, we conducted a case-control study including 508 T2DM patients and 614 controls to explore the association between the ABCA1 rs1800977 polymorphism and T2DM risk in a Chinese Han population. Genotyping was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/lionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Our results indicate that the TT genotype of the rs1800977 polymorphism was associated with a decreased risk of T2DM compared to the CC genotype. The T allele of the rs1800977 polymorphism was also related with a decreased risk of T2DM. There was no significant association between clinical parameters (HDL, low-density lipoprotein, cholesterol, body mass index, and age) and rs1800977 polymorphism genotypes. In conclusion, the ABCA1 rs1800977 polymorphism may contribute to the development of T2DM. However, larger studies with more diverse ethnic populations are needed to confirm these results.
- Chicoric Acid Improves Heart and Blood Responses to Hypobaric Hypoxia in Tibetan Yaks. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Chin Med 2018 Feb 12; :1-17
- Yak is a wild bovine species living on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau that demonstrates good adaptability to the hypoxic environment. Chicoric acid, a natural phenolic compound, is known as having anti-ox...
Yak is a wild bovine species living on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau that demonstrates good adaptability to the hypoxic environment. Chicoric acid, a natural phenolic compound, is known as having anti-oxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. However, its effect on hypoxia adaptability of yak is still unclear. In this study 40 yaks were selected that were of similar age, parity and weight, and divided into the control group and experimental groups 1, 2, 3, randomly. Results showed that chicoric acid significantly improved RBC, HGB, and WBC. There are significantly beneficial effects to increasing total protein contents ([Formula: see text]): all treatments increased HDL-C contents, and supplementations 100[Formula: see text]mg/h significantly decreased the content of TG on the 60th day ([Formula: see text]). Contents of the serum related enzymes like ALP, GOP and GPT showed varying degrees of change, but no significant differences and the indexes of anti-oxidant capacity (T-AOC and GSH-Px) were significantly improved ([Formula: see text]), but MDA was decreased ([Formula: see text]) under the action of the chicoric acid. Hypoxia-inducible factor in serum such as HIF-2[Formula: see text], EPO, ROS, Fe[Formula: see text] and Tf are all significantly decreased ([Formula: see text]). The myocardial mitochondrial parameters mtDNA, UCP2, PGC1-[Formula: see text], NRF1 and mitochondrial complexes were altered remarkably. Some indicators of glucose metabolism presented variation trends. Taken together, chicoric acid has shown a positive effect on the adaptive ability of yak in high altitude, hypoxic environment in plateau areas. Our findings reported a new potential means to enhance immunity and inflammatory response and improve the anti-oxidant capacity.
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- Relationship between serum adipsin and first-phase of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in subjects with different glucose tolerance. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Diabetes Investig 2018 Feb 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Serum adipsin levels were lower in T2DM and IGT, and correlated with the first-phase of insulin secretion. Adipsin might involve in the pathology of T2DM. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.