- Influencing Factors of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection and DNA Load According to the Severity of Cervical Lesions in Female Coal Mine Workers of China. [Journal Article]J Cancer 2019; 10(23):5764-5769JC
- High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) plays an aetiological role in the progression of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. Determining the risk factors of HR-HPV infection is useful for HR-HPV infection surveillance and control. We aimed to explore the influencing factors of HR-HPV infection in female coal mine workers, and to evaluate the associations between HR-HPV DNA load and cytologi…
High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) plays an aetiological role in the progression of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. Determining the risk factors of HR-HPV infection is useful for HR-HPV infection surveillance and control. We aimed to explore the influencing factors of HR-HPV infection in female coal mine workers, and to evaluate the associations between HR-HPV DNA load and cytological and histological changes of cervix. In total 6,325 participants completed standard questionnaire on potential influencing factors of HR-HPV infection and underwent gynecological examinations, HPV test as well as Thinprep cytology test (TCT). 1,512 women with positive results of HPV and/or TCT were referred to colposcopy with biopsy and histological examination. HR-HPV DNA load was evaluated by Digene second generation hybrid capture (HC2) assay. Multiple unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influencing factors for HR-HPV infection. Of 6,325 study participants, 1,405 (22.2%) were HR-HPV positive. HR-HPV infection rate was higher in women aged 30-50 years, with lower education level, working inside the mines and engaging in shift work. Risk factors for HR-HPV infection in female coal mine workers included contraception (OR=1.395, 95%CI=1.102-1.458), previous artificial abortion (OR=1.603, 95%CI=1.202-1.856), working inside the mines (OR=1.230, 95%CI=1.056-1.528) and history of gynecological diseases (OR=1.198, 95%CI=1.001-1.462), while menopause was a protective factor (OR=0.402, 95%CI=0.306-0.507). The HR-HPV DNA load significantly increased with the severity of cervical cytological (χ2trend=177.372, p<0.001) and histological (χ2trend=194.501, p<0.001) changes. The results indicated that HR-HPV infection is highly prevalent in female coal mine workers in China. Contraception, artificial abortion, working inside the mines and gynecological diseases could increase the risk of HR-HPV infection in these women. HR-HPV DNA load might predict risks of cervical precancerous lesions and cancer. Our findings could provide scientific basis for reducing the risk of HR-HPV infection and cervical cancer in this vulnerable population.
- The use of human papillomavirus DNA methylation in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. [Journal Article]EBioMedicine 2019E
- CONCLUSIONS: Higher HPV methylation is associated with increased disease severity, whilst HPV16 L1/L2 genes demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy to detect high-grade CIN in HPV16 positive women. Direct clinical use is limited by the need for a multi-genotype and standardised assays. Next-generation multiplex HPV sequencing assays are under development and allow potential for rapid, automated and low-cost methylation testing.
- Absence of high-risk human papilloma virus in p16 positive inverted sinonasal papilloma. [Journal Article]Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis 2019EA
- CONCLUSIONS: Since only 2 out of 38 SIPs were positive for HPV (type 11), and at the same time p16 was positive in epithelia in all samples and in 37 of 38 papilloma lesions of the samples, it is concluded that p16 cannot be used as a surrogate marker for high-risk HPV-infection in SIP. We are currently planning a prospective, multicenter study in order to increase the study power and in order to be able to better evaluate the clinical implications of HPV-and p16 in SIP.
- Prior cervical cytology and high-risk HPV testing results for 311 patients with invasive cervical adenocarcinoma: a multicenter retrospective study from China's largest independent operator of pathology laboratories. [Journal Article]BMC Infect Dis 2019; 19(1):962BI
- CONCLUSIONS: Both cytology alone and HR-HPV testing alone showed poor screening efficiency, whereas the combination of the two clearly increased the efficiency of primary cervical adenocarcinoma screening. Thus, cytology and HR-HPV co-testing might be the most efficient cervical adenocarcinoma screening method.
- Seven years prevalence and distribution of high and low risk HPV genotypes in women living in the metropolitan area of Naples. [Journal Article]Cancer Epidemiol 2019; 63:101625CE
- CONCLUSIONS: We provided an HPV epidemiological analysis, highlighting the need to implement vaccination programmes and preventative screening strategies.
- Cancer of Unknown Primary: A Review on Clinical Guidelines in the Development and Targeted Management of Patients with the Unknown Primary Site. [Review]Cureus 2019; 11(9):e5552C
- Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is a malignant widespread metastatic disease without an identifiable primary site after extensive clinical investigation. Recently, a decline is observed in the diagnosis of CUP, mainly due to improvement in detection of the primary tumors, thus decreasing the unknown primaries. Worldwide, CUP is the sixth to eighth most common malignancy, accounting for 2.3% to 5%…
Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is a malignant widespread metastatic disease without an identifiable primary site after extensive clinical investigation. Recently, a decline is observed in the diagnosis of CUP, mainly due to improvement in detection of the primary tumors, thus decreasing the unknown primaries. Worldwide, CUP is the sixth to eighth most common malignancy, accounting for 2.3% to 5% of a new cancer diagnosis. CUP is third to fourth most common cause of death due to cancer-related mortality. The prognosis of CUP is depressing with the median survival of three to six months in the previous studies, but according to recent studies, median survival is less than one year. High risk for developing CUP is seen in heavy smokers (26 or more cigarettes/day) and individuals with the lowest quartiles of waist circumference. A weak association is observed with the use of alcohol consumption and low level of education. Human papillomavirus DNA plays a role in those with squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primaries in head and neck regions. In the diagnosis of CUP, comprehensive medical history, complete physical examination (including genitourinary, rectal exam, and breast examination in women) and necessary laboratory tests are crucial. Whole-body positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) is the investigation of choice to assess the entire body for CUP. Multiparametric 3T-MRI (MP-MRI) is used to examine the local soft tissue status, helps in the staging of the tumor, and to determine the extent of involvement of tissue for medical as well as prognostic purposes. Immunohistochemistry outlines the specific markers, including caudal-related homeobox protein (CDX2), homeobox protein Nkx-3.1 (NKX3-1), paired box gene 8 (PAX8), special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2), thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), and splicing factor 1 (SF1) with the focus on the effectiveness of lineage-restricted transcription factors. Patients response to treatment can be evaluated by the gene expression profiling (GEP) test that also predicts tissue of origin (TOO). Tumor identified through gene profiling is sensitive to platinum/taxane therapy, others that are not TOO tumors are resistant to platinum/taxane. The new therapeutic method based on molecular profiling is associated with higher treatment response. In comprehensive genomic profiling, it is observed that there is at least one clinically appropriate genomic alteration in CUP that can influence the targeted therapy. The targeted therapeutic approach will not only improve the disease outcome but will also be cost-effective and save time from finding the primary site.
- Quality control of cervical cytology using a 3-type HPV mRNA test increases screening program sensitivity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ in young Norwegian women-A cohort study. [Journal Article]PLoS One 2019; 14(11):e0221546Plos
- Within 2021, Norway intends to complete implementation of HPV DNA-based primary screening for cervical cancer for women 34-69 years, while continue cytology-based screening for women 25-33 years. Over the recent years, the incidence of cervical cancer has increased by 30% among women younger than 40 years. In this subset of women, nearly 30% were diagnosed with a normal smear, as most recent smea…
Within 2021, Norway intends to complete implementation of HPV DNA-based primary screening for cervical cancer for women 34-69 years, while continue cytology-based screening for women 25-33 years. Over the recent years, the incidence of cervical cancer has increased by 30% among women younger than 40 years. In this subset of women, nearly 30% were diagnosed with a normal smear, as most recent smear, prior the cancer diagnosis. This observation demands quality control of normal smears. The aim of this study was to assess increase in program sensitivity of CIN2+ after follow-up of women with false negative Pap-smears testing positive for a 3-type (-16, -18, -45) HPV mRNA test in a cohort design over one screening interval. 521 women, aged 23-39 years, and no prior history of CIN1+ or HSIL, with an ASC-US or worse smear (ASC-US+) and 1444 women with normal screening cytology comprised the study cohorts. The positivity rate for the 3-type HPV mRNA was 1.9% (28/1444). Rescreening revealed 23 women with ASC-US, two women with LSIL, two women with ASC-H, and one woman with AGUS. If the HPV mRNA-positivity rate and histology findings from samples rescreened were applied to all women with normal cytology, an estimated increase in screening sensitivity of 16.4% (95% CI:15.3-17.5) for CIN2+ and 17.3% (95% CI:16.2-18.4) for CIN3+ were achieved. By rescreening less than 2% of women with normal cytology positive for a 3-type HPV mRNA test, we achieved a significant increase in screening program sensitivity.
- Investigation of Cervical Tumor Biopsies for Chromosomal Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) and Microsatellite Instability (MSI) at the HLA II Locus in HIV-1/HPV Co-infected Women. [Journal Article]Front Oncol 2019; 9:951FO
- CONCLUSIONS: HPV infection alone can induce LOH/MSI at the HLA II locus in cervical tumor DNA, whereas HIV-1 co-infection exacerbates it, suggesting that this may accelerate cervical disease progression in a subgroup of HIV-1-positive women.
- Human Papillomavirus Detection in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using p16 Immunohistochemistry. [Journal Article]Int J Appl Basic Med Res 2019 Oct-Dec; 9(4):212-216IJ
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that IHC-based detection of p16 provides a suboptimal prognostic information if not combined with detection of HPV DNA. Although p16 expression and HPV DNA infection are correlated with HPV-associated OPSCCs, neither of the tests alone is the optimal method for HPV status detection.
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- Dietary Supplementation with the Red Seaweed Porphyra umbilicalis Protects against DNA Damage and Pre-Malignant Dysplastic Skin Lesions in HPV-Transgenic Mice. [Journal Article]Mar Drugs 2019; 17(11)MD
- Some diet profiles are associated with the risk of developing cancer; however, some nutrients show protective effects. Porphyra umbilicalis is widely consumed, having a balanced nutritional profile; however, its potential for cancer chemoprevention still needs comprehensive studies. In this study, we incorporated P. umbilicalis into the diet of mice transgenic for the human papillomavirus type 16…
Some diet profiles are associated with the risk of developing cancer; however, some nutrients show protective effects. Porphyra umbilicalis is widely consumed, having a balanced nutritional profile; however, its potential for cancer chemoprevention still needs comprehensive studies. In this study, we incorporated P. umbilicalis into the diet of mice transgenic for the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16), which spontaneously develop pre-malignant and malignant lesions, and determined whether this seaweed was able to block lesion development. Forty-four 20-week-old HPV+/- and HPV-/- mice were fed either a base diet or a diet supplemented with 10% seaweed. At the end of the study, skin samples were examined to classify HPV16-induced lesions. The liver was also screened for potential toxic effects of the seaweed. Blood was used to study toxicological parameters and to perform comet and micronucleus genotoxicity tests. P. umbilicalis significantly reduced the incidence of pre-malignant dysplastic lesions, completely abrogating them in the chest skin. These results suggest that P. umbilicalis dietary supplementation has the potential to block the development of pre-malignant skin lesions and indicate its antigenotoxic activity against HPV-induced DNA damage. Further studies are needed to establish the seaweed as a functional food and clarify the mechanisms whereby this seaweed blocks multistep carcinogenesis induced by HPV.