- Influence of Welded Pores on Very Long-Life Fatigue Failure of the Electron Beam Welding Joint of TC17 Titanium Alloy. [Journal Article]
- MMaterials (Basel) 2019 Jun 05; 12(11)
- The electron beam welding process is widely used in the connection among titanium alloy material parts of aero-engines. Its mechanical properties need to meet the requirements of long life and high r…
The electron beam welding process is widely used in the connection among titanium alloy material parts of aero-engines. Its mechanical properties need to meet the requirements of long life and high reliability. In this paper, the static strength and the fatigue failure behavior of the electron beam weldments of TC17 titanium alloy were investigated experimentally under low amplitude high frequency (20 kHz), and the mechanical response and failure mechanism under different external loading conditions were analyzed. In summary, the samples were found to have anisotropic microstructure. The tensile strength of the PWHT of TC17 EBW joint was ~4.5% lower than that of the base metal. Meanwhile, compared with the base metal, the fatigue strength was reduced by 45.5% at 109 cycles of fatigue life. The fracture analysis showed that the fatigue failure of the welded joint of TC17 alloy was caused by the welded pores and the fatigue cracks initiated from the welded pores. A fine granular area (FGA) was observed around the crack initiation region. The existence of pores caused the stress intensity factor of the fine granular area (KFGA) to be inversely proportional to the fatigue life. The KFGA calculation formula was modified and the fatigue crack propagation threshold of the welded joint of TC17 alloy was calculated (3.62 MPa·m1/2). Moreover, the influences of the effective size and the relative depth of the pores on the very long fatigue life of the electron beam welded joint of TC17 titanium alloy were discussed.
- Health risk assessment of cadmium, chromium and nickel from car paint dust from used automobiles at auto-panel workshops in Nigeria. [Journal Article]
- TRToxicol Rep 2019; 6:449-456
- Nigeria's economic problems which inhibited local production has resulted in massive importation of used automobiles. Most of these automobiles need some repairs and reworking, having outlived their …
Nigeria's economic problems which inhibited local production has resulted in massive importation of used automobiles. Most of these automobiles need some repairs and reworking, having outlived their lifespan in the manufacturer's country. This study centers on the human carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risk assessment of cadmium, chromium and nickel exposures from reworking of imported used vehicles. Scraped car paint dusts from 56 Japanese made cars were collected from 8 different panel beating (body works) workshops (A-H) in Southeastern Nigeria. They were homogenized, mixed, divided into fine particles, filtered and digested by standard method. The filtrates were assayed for cadmium, chromium and nickel with atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS, 200A), workshops F and D have the highest concentration (mg/kg) of Cd (3.58 ± 0.02) and (3.36 ± 0.04) and higher than levels in workshops A, B, C, E, G and H. Chromium (mg/kg) in workshops F and G were (2.87 ± 0.04) and (2.95 ± 0.06) and higher than the other workshops. Nickel in workshop A (3.84 ± 0.04) is close to other workshop values. The highest hazard quotients for adults were cadmium in workshops B (1.37E-01), D (1.69E-01), E (1.79E-01) (inhalation), chromium [workshops G (5.45E-02), F (5.29E-02) and C (5.24E-02) inhalation]. Nickel -workshop A (5.9E-03) for children (inhalation). HQ in children through ingestion is cadmium (3.72E-04) workshop F and ingestion- 3.21E-01(workshop F) while nickel is 1.06E-02 (workshop A).The highest cancer risks were in exponents -4,-7 and -8 (adult) and -3, -6 and -9 (children) for workshops A-H through inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact, exposures to scrap car paint dust may be of significant public health importance in Nigeria as it can add to body burden of some carcinogenic heavy metals.
- Assessment of metal contamination and the associated human health risk from dustfall deposition: a study in a mid-sized town in India. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Jun 12
- It is evident from the past studies that dust fallout is a severe concern due to its impact to urban air quality and public health. This study mainly examines the spatial and seasonal variation of du…
It is evident from the past studies that dust fallout is a severe concern due to its impact to urban air quality and public health. This study mainly examines the spatial and seasonal variation of dustfall at ambient levels and chemical characterization of its insoluble fraction for Kharagpur Town, India. Dustfall samples were collected monthly for 1 year (July 2014 to June 2015) from four sampling sites. The results showed that the maximum dustfall deposition is found during summer (March to June) and in the range of 2.01 ± 0.36 to 15.74 ± 3.83 ton km-2 month-1, and minimum deposition is during monsoon season (July to October) in the range of 0.42 ± 0.72 to 7.38 ± 5.8 ton km-2 month-1. Selected metals like Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Y, Zr, Ce, Hf, and Pb were analyzed using the high-resolution inductively coupled mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS) technique, and the contamination level of heavy metals was assessed using the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and enrichment factor (EF). To estimate the sources for the metallic contaminants, principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted. The US EPA health risk assessment model was applied to determine the hazard index and hazard quotient values. The results show the significant level of enrichment for Pb (EF = 41.79) and Cr (EF = 4.39). The Igeo values point out moderate contamination by Pb (Igeo = 2.01) and Cr (Igeo = 1.6) in Kharagpur Town. This study suggests that in the context of noncancer risk of heavy metals as determined by the hazard index (HI) and hazard quotient (HQ) values, ingestion is the main source of exposure to dust in adults and children followed by dermal contact. Considering the inhalation route, carcinogenic risk level of Cr, Co, and Ni for adults and children is lower than the EPA's safe limit (10-6 to 10-4), indicating that cancer risk of these metals due to exposure to dustfall in Kharagpur is negligible.
- Cardiorespiratory coordination reveals training-specific physiological adaptations. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Appl Physiol 2019 Jun 11
- CONCLUSIONS: Although CONT and HIIT improved aerobic fitness to a similar extent, there were different patterns of change for cardiorespiratory coordination. These changes appear training-intensity specific and could be sensitive to investigate the individual response to endurance training.
- Effect of Chitin Nanofibrils on Biocompatibility and Bioactivity of the Chitosan-Based Composite Film Matrix Intended for Tissue Engineering. [Journal Article]
- MMaterials (Basel) 2019 Jun 10; 12(11)
- This paper discusses the mechanical and physicochemical properties of film matrices based on chitosan, as well as the possibility of optimizing these properties by adding chitin nanofibrils. It is sh…
This paper discusses the mechanical and physicochemical properties of film matrices based on chitosan, as well as the possibility of optimizing these properties by adding chitin nanofibrils. It is shown that with the introduction of chitin nanofibrils as a filler, the mechanical stability of the composite materials increases. By varying the concentration of chitin nanofibrils, it is possible to obtain a spectrum of samples with different bioactive properties for the growth of human dermal fibroblasts. Film matrices based on the nanocomposite of chitosan and 5 wt % chitin nanofibrils have an optimal balance of mechanical and physicochemical properties and bioactivity in relation to the culture of human dermal fibroblasts.
- Dosimetric study of the plan quality and dose to organs at risk on tangential breast treatments using the Halcyon linac. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Appl Clin Med Phys 2019 Jun 11
- CONCLUSIONS: Plan quality for breast treatments using Halcyon is similar to the quality for a 6 MV, C-arm plan. For treatments using megavoltage setup fields, the dose contribution to OARs from the imaging fields can be equal or higher than the dose from treatment fields.
- Silicon-doped carbon quantum dots with blue and green emission are a viable ratiometric fluorescent probe for hydroquinone. [Journal Article]
- MAMikrochim Acta 2019 Jun 10; 186(7):399
- Silicon-doped carbon quantum dots (Si-CQDs) were employed to fabricate a ratiometric fluorometric probe that shows high selectivity for hydroquinone (HQ). The Si-CQDs were prepared through hydrotherm…
Silicon-doped carbon quantum dots (Si-CQDs) were employed to fabricate a ratiometric fluorometric probe that shows high selectivity for hydroquinone (HQ). The Si-CQDs were prepared through hydrothermal treatment of N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]-ethylenediamine. If HQ is oxidized in a solution of the Si-CQDs, 1,4-benzoquinone will be formed which quenches the blue fluorescence (with excitation/emission peaks at 360/435 nm) of the Si-CQDs. Simultaneously, intense green fluorescence (with a emission peak at 513 nm) appears, probably due to the formation of n-π clathrates or of a quinone imine between 1,4-benzoquinone and amino groups on the surface of the Si-CQDs. The ratio of the green and blue fluorescence can be applied to the determination of HQ with a 0.077 μM detection limit. The analytical range extends from 1 to 40 μM. Graphical abstract Schematic of a silicon-doped carbon quantum dot-based ratiometric fluorescence probe with blue and green emission for the visual and fluorometric determination of hydroquinone.
- Prediction and risk assessment of five heavy metals in maize and peanut: A case study of Guangxi, China. [Journal Article]
- ETEnviron Toxicol Pharmacol 2019 May 27; 70:103199
- To assess the contamination levels and health risk of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) to human beings, the concentrations of these heavy metals in soil were surveyed…
To assess the contamination levels and health risk of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) to human beings, the concentrations of these heavy metals in soil were surveyed and the concentrations in maize and peanut grains were estimated by models. The geo-accumulation index (I geo) was calculated, and chronic daily intake (CDI), hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were estimated. Results indicated that the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn in the soil samples exceeded the limit set by authorities in China. However, the concentrations in maize and peanut grains were rarely higher than the allowable concentrations suggested by the Ministry of Health of China (MHC). In accordance with geo-accumulation, these heavy metals in soil samples were polluted to different extents. Prediction models were developed to effectively assess the health risk of using TOC, Mn, pH, and CaO to human beings. Therefore, the concentrations of these heavy metals in the grains could be decreased by changing their levels in soil. The CDI, HQ, and HI were estimated by estimating concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in maize grains, indicating that these metals exhibited a slight health risk to adult residents.
- [Cumulative risk assessment of phthalates exposure in preschool children]. [Journal Article]
- ZLZhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2019 May 10; 40(5):585-589
- CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that risk of cumulative exposure to phthalates was high in preschool children aged 3-6 years in Ma'anshan. Age, gender and sampling season were influencing factors.
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- Electrochemical biotoxicity detection on a microfluidic paper-based analytical device via cellular respiratory inhibition. [Journal Article]
- TTalanta 2019 Sep 01; 202:384-391
- A novel microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) was developed with benzoquinone (BQ)-mediated E. coli respiration method to measure the biotoxicities of pollutants. Functional units includi…
A novel microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) was developed with benzoquinone (BQ)-mediated E. coli respiration method to measure the biotoxicities of pollutants. Functional units including sample injection, fluid-cell separation, all-carbon electrode-enabled electrochemical detection, were integrated on a piece of chromatography paper. The three-electrode, working electrode, counter electrode and reference electrode, were simultaneously screen-printed on the μPAD with conductive carbon ink. The satisfying electrochemical performance of the paper-based carbon three-electrode was confirmed by cyclic voltammetry detecting K3 [Fe(CN)6]. The process of cell toxication was considered that toxicants inhibited cell respiration and diminished the electrons on E. coli respiratory chain. It was quantitatively reflected by measuring oxidation current of hydroquinone (HQ) as a reduced state of the redox mediator BQ after the incubation of cells with pollutants. The current detection time, BQ concentration and E. coli incubation time were carefully optimized to establish the systematic optimized operations of BQ-mediated E. coli respiration method. Using the fabricated μPAD the half inhibitory concentration (IC50) were Cu2+ solution 13.5 μg mL-1, Cu2+-soil 21.4 mg kg-1, penicillin sodium-soil 85.1 mg kg-1, and IC30 of Pb2+ solution was 60.0 μg mL-1. Detection of pesticide residues in vegetable juices were accomplished in a similar way. The proposed method is fascinating on three points; 1) The generality in the biotoxicity detection depends on toxicants inducing cellular respiratory inhibition; 2) The portability and affordability make it convenient for practical applications, because of replacing incubators and centrifuges; 3) There is potential applicability in less-developed areas due to its simple operation and low-cost.