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(Hawthorne effect)
7,606 results
  • Maximizing placebo response in neurological clinical practice. [Journal Article]
    Int Rev Neurobiol. 2020; 153:71-101.Mariani LL, Corvol JC
  • The placebo effect is a widely recognized phenomenon in clinical research, with a negative perception that it could hide the "true" drug effect. In clinical care its positive potential to increase known drug effects has been neglected for too long. The placebo and nocebo responses have been described in many neurologic disorders such as Parkinson's, Huntington's and Alzheimer's diseases, restless…
  • Shift work and sickness absence at a Norwegian hospital: a longitudinal multilevel study. [Journal Article]
    Occup Environ Med. 2020 Apr 23 [Online ahead of print]Bernstrøm VH, Houkes I
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is a clear relationship between working shifts and increased risk of short-term sickness absence. The relationship persists across gender, age group and parental status. The relationship between shift work and long-term sickness absence appears to be schedule and population specific. These findings may have implications for HR policies and the organisation of shift work in healthcare organisations.
  • Transgenerational Epigenetics: A Window into Paternal Health Influences on Offspring. [Review]
    Urol Clin North Am. 2020 May; 47(2):219-225.Grover MM, Jenkins TG
  • Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance provides a mechanism by which environmental exposures and lifestyle decisions can affect the offspring directly through the gamete. It is this pattern of inheritance that has shed light on the fact that preconception lifestyle decisions that a father makes are significant because they can significantly impact the offspring. Understanding the epigenetic alt…
  • Do patients enrolled in observational studies have better outcomes than non-participants? A retrospective analysis. [Journal Article]
    Support Care Cancer. 2020 Mar 23 [Online ahead of print]Wong G, Lam E, … Ruschin M
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated no differences other than pain between the trial group and non-trial group. Therefore, in this cohort, patients enrolled into an observational trial while undergoing adjuvant breast RT demonstrated similar experiences of skin reactions. There are challenges to assessing differences between these groups, as confounding is likely. Therefore, it is recommended for future studies to additionally assess the impact of study participation on outcomes such as quality of life, quality of care received, and/or anxiety levels.
  • The Nocebo Effect in Rheumatology: An Unexplored Issue. [Review]
    Isr Med Assoc J. 2020 Mar; 22(3):185-190.Cantini F, Niccoli L, … Benucci M
  • We describe the features of nocebo, and its impact in studies of transition from the originator to the respective biosimilar in inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Investigations in healthy volunteers as well as in the neurology and anesthesiology fields demonstrated the involved cerebral areas and the neurotransmitter pathways responsible for the nocebo response. Whether these findings are applicab…
  • Perceptions of scheduled vs. unscheduled directly observed visits in an internal medicine residency outpatient clinic. [Journal Article]
    BMC Med Educ. 2020 Mar 04; 20(1):64.Rea J, Stephenson C, … Wingo M
  • CONCLUSIONS: Unscheduled remote direct observation captures authentic clinical encounters while minimizing learner behavior modification. An unscheduled observation approach results in more frequent formative assessment and therefore in more instances of valuable feedback compared to scheduled observations. These findings can help guide the best practice approaches to direct clinical observation in order to enhance residents learning and experience.
  • Real-time feedback improves chest compression quality in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A prospective cohort study. [Controlled Clinical Trial]
    PLoS One. 2020; 15(2):e0229431.Lakomek F, Lukas RP, … Bohn A
  • CONCLUSIONS: The real-time feedback system improved chest compression quality regarding pauses in compression and compression frequency and facilitated compliance with the guideline recommendations. Compression depth did not change significantly after activation of the real-time feedback. Even the sole use of a CPR-feedback-sensor ("sensor-only CPR") improved performance regarding pauses in compression and compression frequency, a phenomenon known as the 'Hawthorne effect'. Based on this data real-time feedback systems can be expected to raise the quality level in some parts of chest compression quality.
  • A randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of a decaffeinated energy drink shows no significant acute effect on mental energy. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2020 03 01; 111(3):719-727.Garcia-Alvarez A, Cunningham CA, … Cheskin LJ
  • CONCLUSIONS: No differences were detected across a range of mood/cognitive/behavioral/s-energy-level tests after consumption of the energy drink compared with a placebo drink in this diverse sample of adults. Thus, we found strong evidence that the energy drink is not efficacious in enhancing s-energy levels, nor any related cognitive or behavioral variables measured. In light of federal regulations, these findings suggest that labeling and marketing of some products which claim to provide these benefits may be unsubstantiated. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02727920.
  • Effect of investigator observation on gait parameters in individuals with stroke. [Journal Article]
    J Biomech. 2020 Feb 13; 100:109602.Ardestani MM, Hornby TG
  • Improvements in gait speed following various training paradigms applied to patients post-stroke does not always lead to changes in walking performance, defined as gains in daily stepping activity. We hypothesized that testing conditions, specifically the presence of an observer, influences patient behaviors and resultant outcomes may overestimate their true walking capacity. This potential Hawtho…
  • Assessing tDCS Placebo Effects on EEG and Cognitive Tasks. [Journal Article]
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2019 07; 2019:4509-4512.Petersen TH, Puthusserypady S
  • Divergent thinking (DT) using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has previously been documented with promising results. This paper examines the placebo effect of tDCS. The reaction from a placebo group was tapped using electroencephalogram (EEG). Their performance was measured as a creativity score and compared to a control group. The experiments included multiplication problems and t…
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