- An unusual case of refractory wheeze. [Case Reports]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2015; 2015
- A 37-year-old man presented with a history of episodic wheeze and breathlessness of 3 years' duration refractory to treatment. Physical examination revealed diffuse expiratory polyphonic rhonchi whil...
A 37-year-old man presented with a history of episodic wheeze and breathlessness of 3 years' duration refractory to treatment. Physical examination revealed diffuse expiratory polyphonic rhonchi while the remainder of the examination including the cardiac examination was reported as normal. Pulmonary function testing revealed mild obstruction with bronchodilator reversibility. The patient was discharged on a 6-month course of antitubercular treatment (ATT) as bronchial brush cytology (obtained via bronchoscopy) was positive for acid-fast bacilli. The patient presented after completing 6 months of ATT with persistent symptoms, a loud S1 and a mid-diastolic murmur at the apex. High-resolution CT of the chest showed bilateral dependent ground glass opacities. An echocardiogram revealed a left atrial myxoma, and normal RV size and pressures. The patient underwent successful surgical removal of the same, and made a complete recovery. Refractory wheeze is a very unusual presentation of a left atrial myxoma.
- An assessment of the ability of diplomates, practitioners, and students to describe and interpret recordings of heart murmurs and arrhythmia. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vet Intern Med 2001 Nov-Dec; 15(6):507-15
- The ability of clinicians, ie, 10 veterinary students, 10 general practitioners, and 10 board certified internists, to describe and interpret common normal and abnormal heart sounds was assessed. Rec...
The ability of clinicians, ie, 10 veterinary students, 10 general practitioners, and 10 board certified internists, to describe and interpret common normal and abnormal heart sounds was assessed. Recordings of heart sounds from 7 horses with a variety of normal and abnormal rhythms, heart sounds, and murmurs were analyzed by digital sonography. The perception of the presence or absence of the heart sounds S1, S2, and S4 was similar for clinicians irrespective of their level of training and was in agreement with the sonographic interpretation on 89, 82, and 78% of occasions, respectively. However, practitioners were less likely to correctly describe the presence of S3. The heart rhythm was correctly described as being regular or irregular on 89% of occasions, and this outcome was not affected by level of training. Differentiation of the type of irregularity was less reliable. The perception of the intensity of a heart murmur was accurate and correlated with the grade assigned in the living horses, R2 = .68, and with sonographic measurements of the murmur's intensity, R2 = .69. Clinicians overestimated the duration of cardiac murmurs, particularly that of the loud systolic murmur. Only diplomates could reliably differentiate systolic from diastolic murmurs. The ability to diagnose the underlying cardiac problem was significantly affected by training; diplomates, practitioners, and undergraduates made the correct diagnosis on 53, 33, and 29% of occasions, respectively. The poor diagnostic ability of practitioners and the lack of improvement in diagnostic skill after the 2nd year of veterinary school emphasizes the need for better teaching of these skills. Digital sonograms that combine sound files with synchronous visual interpretations may be useful in this regard.
- [Myxoma of the left atrium presenting as repeated cerebrovascular disorders]. [Case Reports]
- AMActa Med Port 1994; 7(10):561-3
- Infarction of the central nervous system secondary to embolism from a left atrial myxoma is a recognized phenomenon. However, a myxoma as the source of an embolus may be overlooked, if, during the ev...
Infarction of the central nervous system secondary to embolism from a left atrial myxoma is a recognized phenomenon. However, a myxoma as the source of an embolus may be overlooked, if, during the evaluation of a patient with a stroke of unknown etiology, an index of suspicion is not present. We report a case of a 57-year old woman presenting three episodes of cerebral infarction always in the same brain territory, suggesting a carotid pathology. The physical examination of the patient only showed a loud S1 with no other sounds and neurologic alterations, namely, right hemiparesia and aphasia. Diagnosis was made by two-dimensional echocardiography and better delineation was obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The patient subsequently received a successful ressection of the myxoma. Eighteen months later the patient was well.
- Phonoechocardiography and intracardiac phonocardiography in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. [Journal Article]
- PMPostgrad Med J 1986; 62(728):537-43
- The salient phonoechocardiographic features of patients having hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) with or without left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradients are reviewed. Intracardiac sound and p...
The salient phonoechocardiographic features of patients having hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) with or without left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradients are reviewed. Intracardiac sound and pressure recordings from high fidelity catheter-tipped micromanometers have documented that the precordial murmur is the summation of both the systolic ejection murmur (SEM) arising from the LVOT, as well as the mitral regurgitant murmur recorded from the left atrium. The intensity of the precordial murmur varies directly with the LVOT gradient, which in turn is determined primarily by the contractility and loading conditions of the left ventricle. Reversed splitting of the second heart sound (S2) with paradoxical respiratory movement is a common finding in HCM, and when present, almost always denotes a significant LVOT gradient. It is due to marked lengthening of the left ventricular ejection time secondary to prolongation of the contraction and relaxation phases of left ventricular systole. The presence of a fourth heart sound (S4) is the rule in HCM when normal sinus rhythm is present, and is a reflection of a forceful left atrial contraction into a hypertrophied noncompliant left ventricle. A third heart sound (S3) is also common in HCM, and often the initial vibrations occur before the 0 point of the apexcardiogram (ACG) and continue giving the auscultatory impression of a diastolic rumble. When associated with a loud S1, which is frequently present, the clinical presentation may mimic mitral stenosis. This is particularly true when the patient has chronic atrial fibrillation. Careful attention to evidence of marked left ventricular hypertrophy as well as the typical echocardiographic findings of HCM preclude this diagnosis. In conclusion, phonoechocardiography is a simple non-invasive technique which almost always makes the definitive diagnosis of HCM.
- Loud first heart sound with long P-R intervals. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 1975; 35(3):435-8
- A case of partial atrioventricular block with Wenckebach periods and a loud first heart sound (S1) associated with the longest P-R interval of the cardiac cycles is described. Although the surface el...
A case of partial atrioventricular block with Wenckebach periods and a loud first heart sound (S1) associated with the longest P-R interval of the cardiac cycles is described. Although the surface electrocardiogram provided no clues to this paradoxical behavior, the intraatrial electrogram revealed that the long P-R interval with the loud S1 was accompanied by atrial echoes (reciprocal atrial beats). The loud S1 with a very long P-R interval was always caused by an atrial contraction synchronous with the QRS complex.