- Novel genetic associations for blood pressure identified via gene-alcohol interaction in up to 570K individuals across multiple ancestries. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(6):e0198166
- Heavy alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for hypertension; the mechanism by which alcohol consumption impact blood pressure (BP) regulation remains unknown. We hypothesized that a geno...
Heavy alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for hypertension; the mechanism by which alcohol consumption impact blood pressure (BP) regulation remains unknown. We hypothesized that a genome-wide association study accounting for gene-alcohol consumption interaction for BP might identify additional BP loci and contribute to the understanding of alcohol-related BP regulation. We conducted a large two-stage investigation incorporating joint testing of main genetic effects and single nucleotide variant (SNV)-alcohol consumption interactions. In Stage 1, genome-wide discovery meta-analyses in ≈131K individuals across several ancestry groups yielded 3,514 SNVs (245 loci) with suggestive evidence of association (P < 1.0 x 10-5). In Stage 2, these SNVs were tested for independent external replication in ≈440K individuals across multiple ancestries. We identified and replicated (at Bonferroni correction threshold) five novel BP loci (380 SNVs in 21 genes) and 49 previously reported BP loci (2,159 SNVs in 109 genes) in European ancestry, and in multi-ancestry meta-analyses (P < 5.0 x 10-8). For African ancestry samples, we detected 18 potentially novel BP loci (P < 5.0 x 10-8) in Stage 1 that warrant further replication. Additionally, correlated meta-analysis identified eight novel BP loci (11 genes). Several genes in these loci (e.g., PINX1, GATA4, BLK, FTO and GABBR2) have been previously reported to be associated with alcohol consumption. These findings provide insights into the role of alcohol consumption in the genetic architecture of hypertension.
- Multigene phylogeny supports diversification of four-eyed fishes and one-sided livebearers (Cyprinodontiformes: Anablepidae) related to major South American geological events. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(6):e0199201
- The high diversity of Neotropical fishes has been attributed to major South American palaeogeographic events, such as Andean uplift, rise of the Isthmus of Panama and marine transgressions. However, ...
The high diversity of Neotropical fishes has been attributed to major South American palaeogeographic events, such as Andean uplift, rise of the Isthmus of Panama and marine transgressions. However, the unavailability of temporal information about evolution and diversification of some fish groups prevents the establishment of robust hypotheses about correlations between species diversification and proposed palaeogeographical events. One example is the Anablepidae, a family of teleost fishes found mostly in coastal habitats of Central and South America, but also in some inner river basins of South America. Historical aspects of the distribution patterns of the Anablepidae were never analysed and no accurate estimation of time of its origin and diversification is presently available. A multi-gene analysis was performed to estimate Anablepidae phylogenetic position, age and biogeography, comprising seven nuclear genes. The suborder Cyprinodontoidei was recovered in three major clades, one comprising all the Old World Cyprinodontoidei and two comprising New World lineages. Anablepidae was recovered as the sister group of the New World Poeciliidae, with the Amazonian genus Fluviphylax as their sister group. The ages found for the origin and diversification of Cyprinodontiformes were congruent with the pattern recorded for other vertebrate groups, with an origin anterior to the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) transition and diversification during the Paleogene. The age estimated for the split between the Atlantic and Pacific lineages of Anableps was congruent with the rise of Panamanian Isthmus. The results suggest Miocene marine transgressions as determinant to the current distribution of Jenynsia.
- Movements with greater trunk accelerations and their properties during badminton games. [Journal Article]
- SBSports Biomech 2018 Jun 18; :1-11
- This study aimed to elucidate the movements requiring greater trunk accelerations and its frequencies during badminton games, and compare the acceleration components among such movements. Trunk accel...
This study aimed to elucidate the movements requiring greater trunk accelerations and its frequencies during badminton games, and compare the acceleration components among such movements. Trunk acceleration was measured using a triaxial accelerometer during badminton games. The moments that generated >4 G resultant acceleration were extracted, and movements consistent with the extracted moments were identified. We calculated the extracted movement ratio and frequency and compared the resultant, mediolateral, vertical and anteroposterior accelerations between the top five extracted movements. There were 1,342 movements that generated >4 G [mean, 7.72 (95% confidence interval, 7.31-8.14) cases/min]. The top five movements were lunging during underhand strokes with the dominant hand side leg, landing after overhand strokes on the dominant and non-dominant hand side leg, and cutting from a split step using the dominant and non-dominant hand side leg. Landing on the dominant hand side leg had a greater resultant acceleration than the other movements and had the greatest impact during the badminton game. Lunging during underhand strokes on the dominant hand side leg had greater mediolateral acceleration than the other movements. These results reflected the properties of badminton.
- Improved Functional Power Over a 5-Week Period: Comparison of Combined Weight Training to Flexible Barbell Training. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Strength Cond Res 2018 Jun 14
- Caterisano, A, Hutchison, R, Parker, C, James, S, and Opskar, S. Improved functional power over a 5-week period: Comparison of combined weight training with flexible barbell training. J Strength Cond...
Caterisano, A, Hutchison, R, Parker, C, James, S, and Opskar, S. Improved functional power over a 5-week period: Comparison of combined weight training with flexible barbell training. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Previous studies demonstrated increased power development with various resistance-training modes over short training periods of 4-7 weeks through neuromuscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to compare 2 different power-training regimens over a 5-week period: combined weight training program (CT) using speed-lifts and plyometrics vs. flexible barbell (FB) training. College football players (n = 28) were randomly assigned to either FB or CT training groups. The CT group followed a combined weight training program using 45-65% of 1 repetition maximum, and the FB group used an FB with a fixed mass of 56.82 kg for all lifts. Both groups performed similar lifts 4 days per week in a split routine, alternating muscle groups. Subjects were tested before and after the training period by the vertical jump (VJ), long jump, medicine ball (MB) throw, and Margaria-Kalamen stair power test. Pre- to post-tests, both groups experienced significant increases in VJ (CT: 57.9 ± 8.9 to 64.5 ± 7.9 cm, FB: 68.1 ± 6.9 to 74.9 ± 6.6 cm) and MB (CT: 513.3 ± 69.3 to 594.9 ± 78.2 cm, FB: 510.0 ± 41.4 to 613.9 ± 52.6 cm) that were not significantly different between training modes. Long jump improved significantly only in FB (248.4 ± 23.1 to 254.3 ± 24.6 cm) and not in CT. The Margaria-Kalamen stair power test result improved in both groups but FB improved at a significantly higher level than CT (CT: 40.6 ± 2.3 to 44.3 ± 2.2 W, FB: 41.0 ± 1.7 to 48.8 ± 1.8 W). The results suggest that both FB and CT training improved power over a 5-week training period, but that FB training may be more effective than CT in lower-body power development.
- Topical brimonidine reduces IPL-induced erythema without affecting efficacy: A randomized controlled trial in patients with facial telangiectasias. [Journal Article]
- LSLasers Surg Med 2018 Jun 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Compared to air-cooling alone, adjuvant brimonidine reduces IPL-induced erythema and associated pain while maintaining a high IPL-efficacy. Lasers Surg. Med.w © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- An Observational Study of Antipsychotic Medication Use among Long-stay Nursing Home Residents without Qualifying Diagnoses. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 2018 Jun 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Matching nurse staffing mix to the national average may improve antipsychotic use in nursing homes.Knowledge of antipsychotic use risk factors use can inform care planning and staff education to minimize use of these medications in all but severe cases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Fractional carbon dioxide laser resurfacing of skin grafts: long-term results of a prospective, randomized, split-scar, evaluator-blinded study. [Journal Article]
- LSLasers Surg Med 2018 Jun 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Adaptation of the skin graft to the surrounding skin was significantly improved after ablative fractional skin resurfacing. Skin roughness and melanin variation were also improved. Patient satisfaction with the appearance of the skin graft was significantly higher after graft resurfacing. Thus, this treatment modality can be recommended for patients wishing to improve the appearance of their skin graft. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Structural modelling of the cardiovascular system. [Review]
- BMBiomech Model Mechanobiol 2018 Jun 18
- Computational modelling of the cardiovascular system offers much promise, but represents a truly interdisciplinary challenge, requiring knowledge of physiology, mechanics of materials, fluid dynamics...
Computational modelling of the cardiovascular system offers much promise, but represents a truly interdisciplinary challenge, requiring knowledge of physiology, mechanics of materials, fluid dynamics and biochemistry. This paper aims to provide a summary of the recent advances in cardiovascular structural modelling, including the numerical methods, main constitutive models and modelling procedures developed to represent cardiovascular structures and pathologies across a broad range of length and timescales; serving as an accessible point of reference to newcomers to the field. The class of so-called hyperelastic materials provides the theoretical foundation for the modelling of how these materials deform under load, and so an overview of these models is provided; comparing classical to application-specific phenomenological models. The physiology is split into components and pathologies of the cardiovascular system and linked back to constitutive modelling developments, identifying current state of the art in modelling procedures from both clinical and engineering sources. Models which have originally been derived for one application and scale are shown to be used for an increasing range and for similar applications. The trend for such approaches is discussed in the context of increasing availability of high performance computing resources, where in some cases computer hardware can impact the choice of modelling approach used.
- A relationship between species richness and evenness that depends on specific relative abundance distribution. [Journal Article]
- PPeerJ 2018; 6:e4951
- Although many ecologists focus on the relationship between species richness (S) and evenness (E), conflicts between observation and theory are difficult to reconcile. Empirical S-E relationships were...
Although many ecologists focus on the relationship between species richness (S) and evenness (E), conflicts between observation and theory are difficult to reconcile. Empirical S-E relationships were not consistent, while relationships show strong correlation between S and E. Since E essentially depended on the relative abundance distribution (RAD), the hypothesis of this paper was that the S-E relationship should be determined by RAD. Theoretical S-E relationships for various RADs have already been reported, but they were rarely assessed by the raw data. This study constructed S-E relationships for a specific RAD, which indicated that if the community had a fractal distribution of rank abundance, E would decrease with S, and the S-E relationship would be unique for a given RAD. Such theoretical expectations were supported by three datasets with 82 samples, which suggested that the S-E relationship were controlled by RAD and inconsistent S-E relationships in statistical analyses could be accounted for by the variation of underlying RAD model between communities. From the perspective of RAD, it could be too early to split the diversity into S and E only based on the S-E relationship in statistical analyses.
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- Klebsiella pneumoniae SnebYK Mediates Resistance Against Heterodera glycines and Promotes Soybean Growth. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Microbiol 2018; 9:1134
- Soybean is an important economic crop that is often adversely affected by infection in the field with the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines. Biological control is an eco-friendly method used ...
Soybean is an important economic crop that is often adversely affected by infection in the field with the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines. Biological control is an eco-friendly method used to protect the crop against disease. The bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae has been reported to protect rice from sheath blight and seedling blight, but its role in the control of nematode is unclear. In this study, the effect of K. pneumoniae SnebYK on the control of H. glycines was assessed. Potting experiment results showed that coating soybean seeds with K. pneumoniae SnebYK not only reduced the infection rate of H. glycines but also decreased the proportion of adult female nematodes. Field experiment results showed that K. pneumoniae SnebYK reduced both the number of H. glycines in soybean roots and the number of adult females. However, K. pneumoniae SnebYK caused low juvenile mortality in an in vitro assay. To further analyze the role of K. pneumoniae SnebYK in the inhibition of H. glycines infection, split root experiments were conducted. The results indicated that K. pneumoniae SnebYK controls H. glycines via induced systemic resistance, which reduces H. glycines penetration. Klebsiella pneumoniae SnebYK treatment also significantly increased the proportion of second-stage juveniles and decreased the proportions of third- and fourth-stage juveniles in the H. glycines population. Moreover, 48 h after inoculation with H. glycines, the expression levels of PR1, PR2, PR5, and PDF1.2 were significantly higher in soybeans pretreated with K. pneumoniae SnebYK than in control soybeans. Interestingly, besides providing protection against nematodes, K. pneumoniae SnebYK fixed nitrogen, produced ammonia, solubilized phosphate, and produced siderophores, leading to well-developed root system and an increase in soybean seedling fresh weight. These results demonstrate for the first time that K. pneumoniae SnebYK not only promotes soybean growth but also inhibits the invasion and development of H. glycines by inducing systemic resistance.